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Proposal of Treatment Strategy for Pedicle Fractures of the C2: An Analysis of 49 Cases.

J Clin Med 2021 Sep 3;10(17). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Spine surgeons often confuse C2 pedicle fractures (PFs) with pars interarticularis fractures. In addition, little information is available about the characteristics and treatment strategies for C2 PFs. We sought to investigate the characteristics of C2 PFs and to propose an appropriate treatment strategy. Read More

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September 2021

A Phase II Study of Osimertinib for Radiotherapy-Naive Central Nervous System Metastasis From NSCLC: Results for the T790M Cohort of the OCEAN Study (LOGIK1603/WJOG9116L).

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Aug 19. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Thoracic and Breast Surgery, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Oita, Japan; Lung Oncology Group in Kyushu (LOGiK), Fukuoka, Japan.

Objectives: Osimertinib has been reported to be effective against central nervous system (CNS) metastasis from activating EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Nevertheless, the true antitumor effects of osimertinib alone for CNS metastasis are unclear because the aforementioned studies included previously irradiated cases, in which tumor shrinkage can occur later owing to the effects of radiotherapy (RT). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of osimertinib against RT-naive CNS metastasis from sensitizing EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. Read More

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Treatment and Prognosis of Solid and Cystic Brain Metastases in Patients with Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancer Manag Res 2021 10;13:6309-6317. Epub 2021 Aug 10.

Cancer Hospital of the University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Zhejiang Cancer Hospital), Hangzhou, 310022, People's Republic of China.

Background: Brain metastasis (BM) is an important factor shortening the lives of patients with lung cancer. Patients with cystic BM have seldom been reported. Here, we compared the efficacy and prognosis of different therapeutic schedules for solid BM and cystic BM in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Read More

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Comprehensive Clinical and Molecular Characterization of -Mutant Colorectal Cancer.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 6;5. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Gastrointestinal Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Purpose: p.G12C mutations occur in approximately 3% of metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRC). Recently, two allosteric inhibitors of p. Read More

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Management and outcome of metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas: a monocentric experience.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Biomedical Sciences "Mario Serio", University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

Background: Pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and paraganglioma (PGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors releasing catecholamines. Metastatic pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PPGLs) occur in about 5-26% of cases. To date, the management of patients affected by metastatic disease is a challenge in the absence of guidelines. Read More

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Medullary Thyroid Cancer - Feature Review and Update on Systemic Treatment.

Acta Clin Croat 2020 Jun;59(Suppl 1):50-59

1Department of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital Centre, Zagreb, Croatia; 2University of Zagreb, School of Medicine; 3University of Zagreb, School of Dental Medicine.

Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is a rare malignancy that originates from parafollicular (C cells) of the thyroid and accounts for 2-4% of all thyroid malignancies. MTC may be sporadic or inherited, the latter as part of the MEN 2 syndromes. Germline mutations in the proto-oncogene (REarranged during Transfection) are driver mutations in hereditary MTC, whereas somatic mutations and, less frequently, mutations, have been described in tumor tissues of sporadic MTC. Read More

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Deep proteogenomic investigations elucidate the NRF2 antioxidant mechanism as a major driving mechanism of lung adenocarcinoma in Asia.

J Chin Med Assoc 2021 Aug;84(8):766-771

Institute of Food Safety and Health Risk Assessment, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

Background: Lung adenocarcinoma is a global leading cause of death. Despite modern therapeutic interventions, undesirable outcomes such as drug resistances and disease recurrence still occur. Therefore, continued investigations of disease driving mechanisms and counteracting strategies are urgently needed. Read More

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Real-world safety and efficacy data of immunotherapy in patients with cancer and autoimmune disease: the experience of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 06 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

First Department of Medicine, Laiko General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, Athens, Greece.

Background: Data on the safety and efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in patients with concurrent autoimmune diseases (AID) are limited.

Methods: We performed a retrospective multicenter review of medical records of patients with cancer and underlying AID who received ICI. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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Salvage surgery following downstaging of advanced non-small cell lung cancer by targeted therapy.

Thorac Cancer 2021 08 15;12(15):2161-2169. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Background: Advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for a high proportion of lung cancer cases. Targeted therapy improve the survival in these patients, but acquired drug resistance will inevitably occur. If tumor downstaging is achieved after targeted therapy, could surgical resection before drug resistance improve clinical benefits for patients with advanced NSCLC? Here, we conducted a clinical trial showing that for patients with advanced driver gene mutant NSCLC who did not progress after targeted therapy, salvage surgery (SS) could improve progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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Persistent fontanelles in Chihuahuas. Part I. Distribution and clinical relevance.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 Jul 24;35(4):1834-1847. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The Chihuahua dog breed is known for frequent occurrence of a bregmatic fontanelle on the dorsal skull. A common conception is that this skull defect is a clinically irrelevant finding. No studies, however, describe its prevalence or whether it is accompanied by other persistent fontanelles (PFs). Read More

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DIS3 mutations in multiple myeloma impact the transcriptional signature and clinical outcome.

Haematologica 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Hematology, Fondazione Cà Granda IRCCS Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Oncology and Hemato-oncology, University of Milan.

DIS3 gene mutations (DIS3mts) occur in roughly 10% of multiple myeloma (MM) patients; furthermore, DIS3 expression could be affected by monosomy 13 or del(13q), which occur in approximately 40% of MM cases. Despite several reports on the prevalence of DIS3mts, their contribution to the pathobiology of MM remains largely unknown. We took advantage of the large public CoMMpass dataset to investigate the spectrum of DIS3mts in MM and its impact on the transcriptome and clinical outcome. Read More

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Early Reassessment of Total Metabolic Tumor Volume on FDG-PET/CT in Advanced Melanoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab Predicts Long-Term Outcome.

Curr Oncol 2021 04 27;28(3):1630-1640. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Jette, Belgium.

PD-1 Immune checkpoint inhibitors, such as Pembrolizumab, can have a durable beneficial therapeutic effect in patients with advanced melanoma. However, not all patients will benefit equally from these therapies, and (potentially life-threatening) immune-related adverse events may occur. In this study, we investigate the value of early response assessment by FDG-PET/CT as a biomarker for predicting survival. Read More

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Metabolic Parameters as Biomarkers of Response to Immunotherapy and Prognosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC): A Real World Experience.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

School of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano Bicocca, 20900 Monza, Italy.

Immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been proven to have great efficacy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as single agents or in combination therapy, being capable to induce deep and durable remission. However, severe adverse events may occur and about 40% of patients do not benefit from the treatment. Predictive factors of response to ICIs are needed in order to customize treatment. Read More

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Exploration of High-Grade Transformation and Postoperative Radiotherapy on Prognostic Analysis for Primary Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:647172. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Pathology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Background: Despite Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with cribriform or tubular components being recognized as a potentially indolent malignancy, ACC displaying solid or, more rarely, high-grade transformation (HGT) components is considered a more aggressive variant of the disease. As it is difficult to measure the proportion of the solid component objectively, and the role of HGT in the current grading system remains unclear, the prognostic influence of tumor grading remains controversial. In addition, postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) has been proven to be effective in local control of ACC of the head and neck (ACCHN) with a high rate of nerve invasion and close surgical margin. Read More

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Stochastic reaction-diffusion modeling of calcium dynamics in 3D dendritic spines of Purkinje cells.

Biophys J 2021 06 20;120(11):2112-2123. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Mathematics, Computation, and Cognition, Federal University of ABC, São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo, Brasil. Electronic address:

Calcium (Ca) is a second messenger assumed to control changes in synaptic strength in the form of both long-term depression and long-term potentiation at Purkinje cell dendritic spine synapses via inositol trisphosphate (IP)-induced Ca release. These Ca transients happen in response to stimuli from parallel fibers (PFs) from granule cells and climbing fibers (CFs) from the inferior olivary nucleus. These events occur at low numbers of free Ca, requiring stochastic single-particle methods when modeling them. Read More

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PARP (Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase) inhibitors for locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 22;4:CD011395. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Background: Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer remains a challenge to treat. With emerging study results, it is important to interpret the available clinical data and apply the evidence offering the most effective treatment to the right patient. Poly(ADP Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are a new class of drug and their role in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer is being established. Read More

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Clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer patients with leptomeningeal metastases after immune checkpoint inhibitor treatments.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jun 18;150:23-30. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Translational Medicine in Lung Cancer, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital & Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) occur in up to 5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients and often develop after previous systemic treatments. In this article, we explored whether immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) enhanced the dismal survival of patients with LM.

Materials And Methods: Data on NSCLC patients with LM prescribed ICIs were collected at the Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute. Read More

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Tumor growth rate in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients undergoing PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE.

Endocr Connect 2021 Apr 22;10(4):422-431. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Radiology and Molecular Imaging, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Monitoring of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) undergoing peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with 177Lu-DOTATATE depends on changes in tumor size, which often occur late. Tumor growth rate (TGR) allows for quantitative assessment of the tumor kinetics expressed as %/month. We explored how TGR changes before and during/after PRRT and evaluated TGR as a biomarker for progression-free survival (PFS). Read More

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Stereotactic body radiotherapy for kidney cancer: a 10-year experience from a single institute.

J Radiat Res 2021 May;62(3):533-539

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai 980-8574, Japan.

The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate survival outcomes and irradiated tumor control (local control [LC]) and locoregional control (LRC) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for T1 or recurrent T1 (rT1) kidney cancer. Twenty-nine nonconsecutive patients with 30 tumors were included. SBRT doses of 70 Gy, 60 Gy or 50 Gy in 10 fractions were prescribed with a linear accelerator using daily image guidance. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Trametinib in Non-V600 BRAF Mutant Melanoma: A Phase II Study.

Oncologist 2021 Sep 4;26(9):731-e1498. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Cutaneous Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Lessons Learned: This study suggests that trametinib has significant clinical activity in non-V600 BRAF mutation and BRAF fusion metastatic melanoma, albeit in a small cohort. All patients with metastatic melanoma should undergo sequencing of the BRAF gene to identify noncanonical BRAF mutations that may indicate benefit from treatment with trametinib.

Background: Non-V600 BRAF mutations and BRAF fusions in aggregate occur in approximately 5% of all melanomas. Read More

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September 2021

Are all ALK variants created equal? Clinicopathologic features and outcomes: a propensity-matched study.

Int J Clin Oncol 2021 Jul 12;26(7):1221-1228. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Laboratory Services, Molecular Diagnostics and Transfusion Medicine, Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi, India.

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearranged NSCLC comprises a molecularly distinct subgroup occurring in 10% cases. Various EML4-ALK and non EML4 variants are known to occur which can be detected only on NGS and show differential TKI responses. 113 ALK-IHC positive cases were subjected to a custom panel-based NGS for detection of ALK variants. Read More

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Immune-related adverse events with immune checkpoint inhibitors: Special reference to the effects on the lungs.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Apr;100(14):e25275

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have emerged as evolutionary treatments for malignant diseases. Although ICIs can cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs) in various organs, precise timing after ICI initiation has been scarcely reported. Elucidating the effects of irAEs, such as time to onset, involvement of major organs, influence on progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS), are critical issues for physicians. Read More

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[Clinical Characteristics and Survival Analysis of Patients with IgD Multiple Myeloma].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):547-552

Department of Hematology, The Second Hospital of Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi Province, China.

Objective: To explore the clinical features, prognosis and survival of patients with IgD multiple myeloma (MM).

Methods: The clinical data of 20 patients with IgD MM was analyzed retrospectively. The prognostic factors and survival analysis was carried out. Read More

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A Randomized Phase II Trial Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Pioglitazone, Clarithromycin and Metronomic Low-Dose Chemotherapy with Single-Agent Nivolumab Therapy in Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated in Second or Further Line (ModuLung).

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:599598. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Hematology and Oncology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Most non-small cell lung cancers occur in elderly and frequently comorbid patients. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of biomodulatory active therapy regimen, concertedly interfering with tumor-associated homeostatic pathways to achieve tumor control paralleled by modest toxicity profiles. The ModuLung trial is a national, multicentre, prospective, open-label, randomized phase II trial in patients with histologically confirmed stage IIIB/IV squamous ( = 11) and non-squamous non-small cell ( = 26) lung cancer who failed first-line platinum-based chemotherapy. Read More

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Palbociclib in advanced acral melanoma with genetic aberrations in the cyclin-dependent kinase 4 pathway.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 23;148:297-306. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Key laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Translational Research (Ministry of Education/Beijing), Department of Melanoma, Peking University Cancer Hospital & Institute, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Background: Genetic aberrations in the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)4 pathway occur in 82% of patients with acral melanoma (AM), which is the predominant subtype of melanoma in China. We aimed to evaluate the anti-tumour activity of palbociclib, a selective CDK4/6 inhibitor, in patients with advanced AM with CDK4 pathway gene aberrations.

Methods: In this phase II trial, patients with advanced AM with CDK4 or/and CCND1 gain or/and CDKN2A loss were treated with oral palbociclib (125 mg) on days 1-21 of a 28-day cycle. Read More

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Uterine Sarcomas: A Retrospective Analysis of a Cohort of 62 Patients.

Cureus 2021 Feb 15;13(2):e13349. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Medical Oncology, Hospital Prof. Doutor Fernando Fonseca, Lisbon, PRT.

Background and objective Uterine sarcomas are rare tumors, and they account for 4% of all uterine malignancies. These tumors are characterized by a great diversity of histological types, and current knowledge regarding their treatment is limited. The aim of our study was to analyze a cohort of patients with uterine sarcomas with respect to the histological types of their tumors, as well as their prognosis and treatment. Read More

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February 2021

Molecular and morphological changes induced by ivosidenib correlate with efficacy in mutant- cholangiocarcinoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Jun 12;17(16):2057-2074. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

 mutations occur in approximately 13% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCCs). The oral, targeted, mutant IDH1 (mIDH1) inhibitor ivosidenib (AG-120) suppresses production of the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate, promoting disease stabilization and improved progression-free survival (PFS) in m IHCC. Harnessing matched baseline and on-treatment biopsies, we investigate the potential mechanisms underlying ivosidenib's efficacy. Read More

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BRAF inhibitor treatment is feasible in the oldest-old advanced melanoma patients.

Melanoma Res 2021 06;31(3):218-223

Department of Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki.

Although new compounds have improved the treatment landscape of metastatic melanoma, very limited data exist on the efficacy and safety of treating older patients with novel agents. Here, we provide results of BRAF (BRAFi) ± MEK (MEKi) inhibitor treatment in patients over 75 years (oldest-old patients) with metastatic melanoma. Between 2011 and 2020, 34 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma over 75 years of age (range 75-89) were treated with BRAFi ± MEKi at the Comprehensive Cancer Center of Helsinki University Hospital. Read More

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Modified conditioning regimen with idarubicin followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for invasive B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 19;11(1):4273. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Department of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, 300060, China.

High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is still a consolidation treatment choice for relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients and some aggressive B-cell NHL as frontline therapy. Due to the shortage of carmustine, we switched to idarubicin-substituted BEAC (IEAC) conditioning regimen. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of 72 aggressive B-cell NHL patients treated with IEAC or BEAC regimens followed by ASCT as upfront consolidative treatment. Read More

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February 2021

BRAFV600E Mutations Arising from a Left-Side Primary in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Are They a Distinct Subset?

Target Oncol 2021 03 18;16(2):227-236. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: B-Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF)-V600E mutations (BRAFmt) in colorectal cancer (CRC) predominantly occur in right-side (RS) primaries. In metastatic CRC (mCRC), there is substantial overlap between the reported features of BRAFmt and of an RS primary.

Objectives: To explore the significance of BRAFmt in a left-side (LS) primary, we analysed data from a multi-site mCRC registry. Read More

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