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Modelling the adsorption of proteins to nanoparticles at the solid-liquid interface.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 22;605:286-295. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: We developed a geometrical model to determine the theoretical maximum number of proteins that can pack as a monolayer surrounding a spherical nanoparticle. We applied our new model to study the adsorption of receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to silica nanoparticles. Due to its abundance and extensive use in manufacturing, silica represents a reservoir where the virus can accumulate. Read More

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The chest radiographic scoring system in initial diagnosis of COVID-19: Is a radiologist needed?

Adv Clin Exp Med 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of General Radiology, Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland.

Background: Lung imaging, next to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, is a key diagnostic tool in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The degree of abnormalities correlates with clinical outcome. Imaging of the lungs using chest radiography (CXR) at the peak of a pandemic is considered a basic diagnostic tool at the triage stage. Read More

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The interactions of bacteriophage Ace and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli during biocontrol.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, LIBRO - Laboratório de Investigação em Biofilmes Rosário Oliveira, University of Minho, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal.

Strictly lytic phages are considered powerful tools for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens. Safety issues needed to be addressed for the biocontrol of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) include: lysogenic conversion, Shiga toxin production through phage induction, and emergence/proliferation of bacteriophage insensitive mutants (BIMs). To address these issues, two new lytic phages, vB_EcoS_Ace (Ace) and vB_EcoM_Shy (Shy), were isolated and characterized for life cycle, genome sequence and annotation, pH stability, and efficacy at controlling STEC growth. Read More

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Prioritization and environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals mixtures from Brazilian surface waters.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 19;288:117803. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Sanitary and Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The present study provides an environmental risk assessment of the pharmaceutical mixtures detected in Brazilian surface waters, based on Toxic Units and Risk Quotients. Furthermore, the applicability of a previously proposed prioritization methodology was evaluated. The pharmaceuticals were classified according to their properties (occurrence, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity) and the contribution of the prioritized compounds to the mixture risk was determined. Read More

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Development and application of diffusive gradients in thin-films for in situ sampling of the bitterest chemical - denatonium benzoate in waters.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 12;418:126393. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Environmental Research Institute/School of Environment, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006, China. Electronic address:

Denatonium benzoate (DB), a commonly used bitter agent in numerous products, has recently been recognized as a waterborne contaminant due to concern about its potential persistence, mobility and toxicity (PMT). However, its occurrence, levels and fate in global aquatic environments are largely unknown. In this study, a new sampling method, based on diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) with mixed-mode cation exchange (MCX) as the binding agent, was developed for measuring DB in waters. Read More

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Nanosized Cu-In spinel-type sulfides as efficient sorbents for elemental mercury removal from flue gas.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 15;796:149094. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Mercury emitted from human activities has received increasing attention because of its extreme toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation. The development of highly-efficient sorbent with abundant active sites that exhibit high affinity toward Hg is the key challenge for elemental mercury capture at low temperature. Herein, Cu-In spinel-type sulfides were synthesized through a hydrothermal synthesis. Read More

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Interaction kinetics and accessibility of sulfadiazine in model clay-humic acid suspension: Electron spin resonance investigations with nitroxide spin label.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 15;796:149042. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Environmental Systems Research, University of Osnabrück, D-49069 Osnabrück, Germany. Electronic address:

The characterization of the interaction of sulfonamides with soil is of particular interest in environmental risk and persistence assessment. In the present work electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to investigate the interaction kinetics of spin labelled sulfadiazine (SL-SDZ) with model clay-humic acid suspensions. The ESR spectra showed that SL-SDZ incubated with Leonardite humic acid (LHA) and Ca-hectorite as model clay was immobilized due to covalent binding of its aniline moiety to LHA. Read More

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Physiological role of CYP17A1-like in cadmium detoxification and its transcriptional regulation in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 14;796:149039. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China; Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most harmful heavy metals due to its persistence and bioaccumulation through the food chains, posing health risks to human. Oysters can bioaccumulate and tolerate high concentrations of Cd, providing a great model for studying molecular mechanism of Cd detoxification. In a previous study, we identified two CYP genes, CYP17A1-like and CYP2C50, that were potentially involved in Cd detoxification in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Read More

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Asymmetric Loop Spectra and Unbroken Phase Protection due to Nonlinearities in PT-Symmetric Periodic Potentials.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Jul;127(3):034101

Centro de Física Teórica e Computacional and Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande 2, Edifício C8, Lisboa 1749-016, Portugal.

We demonstrate that the interplay between a nonlinearity and PT symmetry in a periodic potential results in peculiar features of nonlinear periodic solutions. These include thresholdless symmetry breaking and asymmetric (multi-)loop structures of the nonlinear Bloch spectrum, persistence of unbroken PT symmetry even after the gap is closed, nonmonotonic dependence of the PT phase transition on the defocusing nonlinearity, and enhanced stability of the nonlinear states corresponding to the loop structures. The asymmetry and the loop structure of the spectrum are explained within the framework of a two-mode approximation and an effective potential theory and are validated numerically. Read More

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Sulfamethoxazole biodegradation and impacts on soil microbial communities in a Bolivian arid high altitude catchment.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 1;284:131335. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IRD, Grenoble-INP, IGE, 38000, Grenoble, France.

The processes controlling antibiotics fate in ecosystems are poorly understood, yet their presence can inhibit bacterial growth and induce the development of bacterial resistance. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is one of the most frequently detected sulfonamides in natural environments due to its low metabolism and molecular properties. This work presents pioneering results on SMX biodegradation and impact in high altitude soils (Bolivian Altiplano), allowing a better understanding of the persistence, spread and impact of this antibiotic at the global watershed scale. Read More

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Impulsivity and Medical Care Utilization in Veterans Treated for Substance Use Disorder.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 Jul 30:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Background: Impulsivity has been defined by acting rashly during positive mood states (positive urgency; PU) or negative mood states (negative urgency; NU) and by excessive de-valuation of deferred rewards. These behaviors reflect a "live in the now" mentality that is not only characteristic of many individuals with severe substance use disorder (SUD) but also impedes medical treatment compliance and could result in repeated hospitalizations or other poor health outcomes. We sought preliminary evidence that impulsivity may relate to adverse health outcomes in the veteran population. Read More

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An Integrated Look at Well-Being: Topological Clustering of Combinations and Correlates of and .

J Happiness Stud 2021 Jun 13;22(5):2275-2297. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Sociology and Social Research, Università degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, piazza dell'Ateneo nuovo 1, 20126 Milan, Italy.

Subjective measures of well-being are increasingly seen by scholars and policy makers as valuable tools to assess quality of life. accounts focus on people's experience of life in positive ways while accounts are concerned with realization of personal potential. However, to what extent do an "enjoyable" and a "flourishing" life overlap? Using an innovative clustering-and-projection technique (), the joint distributional patterns of multiple and well-being indicators were examined in a nationally representative longitudinal study of US adults (MIDUS). Read More

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Delayed SARS-CoV-2 Clearance in Patients with Obesity.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 22;14:2823-2827. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Institute of Hepatology, The Third People's Hospital of Changzhou, Changzhou, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the correlation between obesity and virus persistence in patients with COVID-19.

Design And Methods: A total of 57 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to two clinical centers, and data were analyzed retrospectively. Among them, 18 patients with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m were diagnosed with obesity, and dynamics of viral replication were compared. Read More

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Mutations in TP53 or DNA damage repair genes define poor prognostic subgroups in primary prostate cancer.

Urol Oncol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Cancer Genome Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Im Neuenheimer Feld 460, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Mutations in DNA damage repair genes, in particular genes involved in homology-directed repair, define a subgroup of men with prostate cancer with a more unfavorable prognosis but a therapeutic vulnerability to PARP inhibition. In current practice, mutational testing of prostate cancer patients is commonly done late i.e. Read More

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Metamotivation in people diagnosed with schizophrenia: A conceptual introduction and qualitative study.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

New York State Psychiatric Institute, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York-Presbyterian, United States of America.

Negative symptoms, such as avolition, are considered to be some of the most debilitating symptoms of schizophrenia, yet the mechanisms that contribute to their formation and persistence are poorly understood. In this article, we introduce a novel concept, metamotivation, as having potential implications for avolition, a core negative symptom. Metamotivation is defined as the ability to identify, monitor, and self-regulate motivation in service of goal attainment. Read More

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Pre-exposure prophylaxis for transgender women and men who have sex with men: qualitative insights from healthcare providers, community organization-based leadership and end users in coastal Kenya.

Int Health 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Program, Kilifi, Kenya.

Transgender women (TW) and men who have sex with men (MSM) in Kenya are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and would benefit substantially from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with healthcare providers (HCPs) and TW/MSM leadership and in-depth interviews (IDIs) with PrEP-experienced MSM and TW to learn about perceived and actual barriers to PrEP programming. Eleven HCP and 10 TW/MSM leaders participated in FGDs before PrEP roll-out (January 2018) and 12 months later. Read More

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Persistence and removal of trace organic compounds in centralized and decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 21;286(Pt 1):131621. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, 92182, USA.

The persistence of trace organic chemicals in treated effluent derived from both centralized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and decentralized wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) is of concern due to their potential impacts on human and ecosystem health. Here, we utilize non-targeted analysis (NTA) with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time of flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS) to conduct an evaluation of the common persistent and removed compounds found in two centralized WWTPs in the USA and South Africa and one DEWATS in South Africa. Overall, removal efficiencies of chemicals were similar between the treatment plants when they were compared according to the number of chemical features detected in the influents and effluents of each treatment plant. Read More

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Tracking antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during earthworm conversion of cow dung in northern China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 26;222:112538. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Agro-Environmental Protection Institute, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Tianjin 300191, China. Electronic address:

Using cow dung to breed earthworms poses a risk of environmental transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The purpose of this study was to address the occurrence, persistence and environmental fate of ARGs during earthworm conversion of cow dung. The results showed that ARGs persisted through the whole process. Read More

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An attentional perspective on differential fear conditioning in chronic pain: The informational value of safety cues.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Jun 29;144:103917. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Psychology, Universität Koblenz-Landau, Germany.

Differences in fear conditioning between individuals suffering from chronic pain and healthy controls may indicate a learning bias that contributes to the acquisition and persistence of chronic pain. However, evidence from lab-controlled conditioning studies is sparse and previous experiments have produced inconsistent findings. Twenty-five participants suffering from chronic back pain and twenty-five controls not reporting chronic pain took part in a differential fear conditioning experiment measuring attention (eye tracking) and autonomic arousal (pupil dilation and skin conductance) elicited by visual cues predicting the presence or absence of electric shock. Read More

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Aquatic occurrence of phytotoxins in small streams triggered by biogeography, vegetation growth stage, and precipitation.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;798:149128. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Environmental Analytics, Agroscope, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zürich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Toxic plant secondary metabolites (PSMs), so-called phytotoxins, occur widely in plant species. Many of these phytotoxins have similar mobility, persistence, and toxicity properties in the environment as anthropogenic micropollutants, which increasingly contaminate surface waters. Although recent case studies have shown the aquatic relevance of phytotoxins, the overall exposure remains unknown. Read More

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Analysis of Google Trends to monitor new psychoactive substance. Is there an added value?

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Jul 21;326:110918. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Centre for Forensic Science, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:

The past decade has seen an increase in the development and availability of a broad category of drugs, known as new psychoactive substances (NPS). NPS are challenging for public health authorities, therefore the two major drug monitoring bodies - the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) - have implemented the EU Early Warning System (EWS) and Early Warning Advisory (EWA), respectively. While these monitoring systems are informative, it is difficult to keep up with the constant and rapid developmental rate of NPS. Read More

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Sources and Fate of the Anti-Androgenic Fluorescent Dye 4-Methyl-7-Diethylaminocoumarin in Small River Systems.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Recently, the potent antiandrogen 4-methyl-7-diethylaminocoumarin (C47), and its potential transformation products 4-methyl-7-ethylaminocoumarin (C47T1) and 4-methyl-7-aminocoumarin (C47T2) were identified as novel environmental contaminants. We assessed for the first time the sources, distribution and fate of these compounds in aquatic systems using the Holtemme river (Saxony-Anhalt, Germany), which is a hotspot for these contaminants. To this end, wastewater treatment plant influent and effluent samples, surface water samples over three years and the longitudinal profiles in water, sediment and gammarids were analyzed. Read More

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Multidrug resistant and ESBL producing Salmonella enterica serotype Heidelberg is widespread in a poultry processing facility from Southern Brazil.

J Food Prot 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Universidade Federal de Viçosa Professor Veterinary Department Campus UFV, Centro BRAZIL Vicosa MG 36570900.

This study aimed to characterize the Salmonella spp. distribution in a poultry processing facility, and to identify their antibiotic resistance profiles. S. Read More

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Increase of CD4+CD25highFoxP3+ cells impairs in vitro human microbicidal activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis during latent and acute pulmonary tuberculosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jul 29;15(7):e0009605. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Núcleo de Doenças Infecciosas, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Brazil.

Background: Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a critical role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, modulating host responses while neutralizing excessive inflammation. However, their impact on regulating host protective immunity is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that Treg cells abrogate the in vitro microbicidal activity against Mtb. Read More

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Immunogenicity of varicella zoster vaccine in pediatric liver transplantation.

Pediatr Int 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Pediatric liver transplant (LT) candidates often miss complete VZV vaccination before LT. We aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of two doses of VZV vaccines in pediatric LT candidates younger than 2 years and its persistence of immunogenicity after LT.

Methods: Patients aged 9-24 months were enrolled before LT. Read More

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Bisphenol A and its analogues in outdoor and indoor air: Properties, sources and global levels.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 25;789:148013. Epub 2021 May 25.

Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada. Electronic address:

Bisphenol A (BPA) and its analogues are high-volume production organic synthetic compounds used in the synthesis of plastics. BPA has been categorized as an endocrine disrupting compound due to its ability to disrupt the hormonal makeup of living organisms. Air and dust are common sources of exposure of BPA for living organisms and most sources are anthropogenic and a result of thermal destruction of BPA containing materials, import and export of recyclable materials (especially e-waste) and fugitive emissions near BPA handling facilities. Read More

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Persistence of aerially-sprayed naled in coastal sediments.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 26;794:148701. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Department of Chemistry, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, 47306, United States of America. Electronic address:

Aerial sprays of the organophosphate pesticide, naled, were intensified over beach areas during the summer of 2016 to control the locally-acquired Zika outbreak in the continental U.S. Concerns were raised in beach frequented areas about contaminated sediments. Read More

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Mobile Colistin Resistance Enzyme MCR-3 Facilitates Bacterial Evasion of Host Phagocytosis.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 Jul 29:e2101336. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Detection Technology for Animal-Derived Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Mobile colistin resistance enzyme MCR-3 is a phosphoethanolamine transferase modifying lipid A in Gram-negative bacteria. MCR-3 generally mediates low-level (≤8 mg L ) colistin resistance among Enterobacteriaceae, but occasionally confers high-level (>128 mg L ) resistance in aeromonads. Herein, it is determined that MCR-3, together with another lipid A modification mediated by the arnBCADTEF operon, may be responsible for high-level colistin resistance in aeromonads. Read More

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Quality Assessment of Pre-Clinical Studies of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Products: A Point of Focus On Safety.

Curr Drug Saf 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Background: Serious adverse reactions have been reported with the use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy in clinical setting despite the success of these products in pre-clinical stages of development.

Objective: We evaluated the quality of available pre-clinical safety data of CAR T-cell therapy products.

Methods: A 21 items safety-checklist was designed specifically for CAR T-cell. Read More

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A critical evaluation of the factors affecting the survival and persistence of beneficial bacteria in healthy adults.

Benef Microbes 2021 Jul 29:1-12. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Sanofi Consumer Health Care, Milan, 20158, Italy.

The efficacy of a probiotic depends on its ability to survive and persist in the digestive tract. Regulatory agencies around the world recommend minimum dosages in order for a product to be termed a probiotic. However, the effect of dosage on the survival of the bacteria in the gut - the primary objective of probiotic administration - has not been critically evaluated. Read More

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