29,167 results match your criteria peroxisome proliferator-activated


Icariin enhance mild hypothermia-induced neuroprotection via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in experimental ischemic stroke.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Hainan Medical University, No.48, Baishuitang Road, Haikou, 460106, Hainan, China.

Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is a promising neuroprotective agent for treating stroke. However, its clinical application was limited by the impractical duration. Icariin (ICA) were reported to have therapeutic effect on cerebral ischemia. Read More

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Beneficial effects of natural compounds on experimental liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):3787-3798

Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a phenomenon inherent to hepatic surgery that severely compromises the organ functionality, whose underlying mechanisms involve cellular and molecular interrelated processes leading to the development of an excessive inflammatory response. Liver resident cells and those recruited in response to injury generate pro-inflammatory signals such as reactive oxygen species, cytokines, chemokines, proteases and lipid mediators that contribute to hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis. Besides, dying hepatocytes release damage-associated molecular patterns that actívate inflammasomes to further stimulate inflammatory responses leading to massive cell death. Read More

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Adipotropic effects of heavy metals and their potential role in obesity.

Fac Rev 2021 26;10:32. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Moscow, Russia.

Epidemiological studies demonstrated an association between heavy metal exposure and the incidence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the particular effects of metal toxicity on adipose tissue functioning are unclear. Therefore, recent findings of direct influence of heavy metals (mercury, cadmium, and lead) and metalloid (arsenic) on adipose tissue physiology are discussed while considering existing gaps and contradictions. Read More

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expression closely correlates with muscle fiber types in porcine muscle and regulates myosin heavy chains mRNA expression in C2C12 cells.

PeerJ 2021 19;9:e11065. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Science, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Irisin (a glycosylated protein) is cleaved from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), which is expressed mainly in animal muscle tissues and has multiple metabolic regulatory activities. However, their roles in controlling myofiber types in skeletal muscle remain unclear.

Methodology: Two different commercial hybridized pigs, LJH (a crossed pig containing Chinese native pig genotypes) and DLY (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were selected to analyze mRNA expression and the mRNA composition of four adult myosin heavy chain () isoforms (IIIaIIxIIb) in the (LD) muscle. Read More

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Mitochondria: A critical hub for hepatic stellate cells activation during chronic liver diseases: Mitochondria in hepatic stellate cells.

Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology, the Blue Lab, Molecular Medicine and Toxicology Division, Saveetha Dental College, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Chennai 600077, Tamil Nadu, India. Electronic address:

Background: Upon liver injury, quiescent hepatic stellate cells (qHSCs), reside in the perisinusoidal space, phenotypically transdifferentiate into myofibroblast-like cells (MFBs). The qHSCs in the normal liver are less fibrogenic, migratory, and also have less proliferative potential. However, activated HSCs (aHSCs) are more fibrogenic and have a high migratory and proliferative MFBs phenotype. Read More

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Gender differences in food allergy depend on the PPAR γ/NF-κB in the intestines of mice.

Life Sci 2021 May 8:119606. Epub 2021 May 8.

Key Laboratory of Precision Nutrition and Food Quality, Key Laboratory of Functional Dairy, Ministry of Education, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: Epidemiology shows that gender affects the incidence of food allergy. However, there is a lack of evidence of gender differences in food allergies and little is known about the mechanisms. The aim of this study was to excavate potential reasons for gender differences in food allergy based on estrogen. Read More

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Mulberry leaf activates brown adipose tissue and induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue in type 2 diabetic rats through regulating AMPK signaling pathway.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 11:1-31. Epub 2021 May 11.

Beijing Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

The current epidemic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) significantly affects human health worldwide. Activation of brown adipocytes and browning of white adipocytes are considered as a promising molecular target for T2DM treatment. Mulberry leaf, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been demonstrated to have multi-biological activities, including anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Read More

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Combined intake of blueberry juice and probiotics ameliorate mitochondrial dysfunction by activating SIRT1 in alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2021 May 10;18(1):50. Epub 2021 May 10.

Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, Guizhou, China.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated as a significant factor in the liver disease process. Blueberry juice and probiotics (BP) synergistically improve liver function in alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD), although the mechanism for this effect was unclear. This study aims to investigate the effect and specific mechanisms of BP on AFLD. Read More

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Maternal high fructose diet induced early onset retinopathy via the suppression of synaptic plasticity mediated by the mitochondrial dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Institute for Translational Research in Biomedicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, 83301, Taiwan, Republic of Chinagrid.413804.a.

Retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, and there is currently no cure. Earlier identification of the progression of retinopathy could provide a better chance for intervention. Diet has profound effects on retinal function. Read More

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Resveratrol Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis Function and Activates PGC-1α Pathway in a Preclinical Model of Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 22;8:620683. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory for Human Reproductive Medicine and Genetic Research, Department of Reproductive Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou, China.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) has been shown to play a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis in diseases. Resveratrol (RSV), a natural polyphenolic reagent, has powerful antioxidant properties and the ability to scavenge mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a variety of central nervous system diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV on mitochondrial biogenesis in early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remain poorly understood. Read More

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A bioactive fraction of inhibits adipogenesis and inflammation in 3T3-L1 cells via modulation of PPAR-γ/SREBP-1c and TNF-α/IL-6.

3 Biotech 2021 May 23;11(5):233. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Cell Culture and Molecular Biology, Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh 517502 India.

has huge demand owing to its commercial and medicinal value. However, there are limited research studies on its therapeutic activity against obesity and obesity-induced inflammation and underlying mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present study, chloroform bioactive fraction of (CFP) was isolated and evaluated for its activity against adipogenesis and adipogenesis-induced inflammation in 3T3-L1 cell culture model. Read More

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The effect of omega3 fatty acid supplementation on PPARγ and UCP2 expressions, resting energy expenditure, and appetite in athletes.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 May 8;13(1):48. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Omega3 fatty acids as a ligand of energy-related genes, have a role in metabolism, and energy expenditure. These effects are due to changes in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and uncoupling protein2 (UCP2). This study evaluated the effect of omega3 supplements on PPARγ mRNA expression and UCP2 mRNA expression and protein levels, as regulators of energy metabolism, resting energy expenditure (REE), and appetite in athletes. Read More

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Neuropeptide Y and its receptors are expressed in chicken skeletal muscle and regulate mitochondrial function.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 4:113798. Epub 2021 May 4.

University of Arkansas, Center of Excellence for Poultry Science, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701. Electronic address:

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a highly conserved 36-amino acid neurotransmitter, which is primarily expressed in the mammalian arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is a potent orexigenic neuropeptide, stimulating appetite and inducing feed intake in a variety of species. Recent research has shown that NPY and its receptors can be expressed by peripheral tissues, but their role is not yet well defined. Read More

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Functional milk fat enriched in conjugated linoleic acid prevented liver lipid accumulation induced by a high-fat diet in male rats.

Food Funct 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Cátedra de Bromatología y Nutrición, Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina. and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Santa Fe, Argentina.

The aim was to investigate the potential effect of functional milk fat (FMF), naturally enriched in conjugated linoleic acid, on the prevention of liver lipid accumulation and some biochemical mechanisms involved in the liver triacylglycerol (TAG) regulation in high-fat (HF) fed rats. Male Wistar rats were fed (60 days) with S7 (soybean oil, 7%) or HF diets: S30 (soybean oil, 30%), MF30 (soybean oil, 3% + milk fat -MF-, 27%) or FMF30 (soybean oil, 3% + FMF, 27%). Nutritional parameters, hepatic fatty acid (FA) composition, liver and serum TAG levels, hepatic TAG secretion rate (TAG-SR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in adipose tissue and muscle, activities and/or mRNA levels of lipogenic and β-oxidative enzymes, and mRNA levels of transcription factors and FA transport proteins were assessed. Read More

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In-vitro effect of pine bark extract on melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, production of endothelin-1 and PPAR in cultured melanocytes exposed to Ultraviolet, Infrared, and Visible light radiation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Instituto de Assistência Médica ao Servidor Público Estadual, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Background: French maritime pine bark (Pinus pinaster) extract (PBE), the registered trade name of which is Pycnogenol , has been studied for its depigmenting action due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-melanogenic activity. However, the mechanisms through which PBE are still not fully clear.

Objective: Evaluate the impact of PBE on four in-vitro parameters closely associated with cutaneous pigmentation, including melanin synthesis, tyrosinase activity, endothelin-1 (ED1) and production of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, δ, and γ (PPAR α, δ, and γ), by studying the modulation of action of ultraviolet radiation A (UVA)/ultraviolet radiation B (UVB), infrared-A (IR-A), visible light (VL), and association of UVA/UVB, IR-A, and VL (ASS). Read More

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Curcumin improves adipocytes browning and mitochondrial function in 3T3-L1 cells and obese rodent model.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 17;8(3):200974. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Traditional Chinese Medicine School, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China.

Accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and adipocyte differentiation promote lipid accumulation in the development of obesity and diabetes. Curcumin is an active ingredient extracted from that has been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potency in metabolic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of curcumin in adipocytes remain largely unexplored. Read More

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Biochanin A Mitigates Atherosclerosis by Inhibiting Lipid Accumulation and Inflammatory Response.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 11;2020:8965047. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 Anhui, China.

Biochanin A (BCA), a dietary isoflavone extracted from red clover and cabbage, has been shown to antagonize hypertension and myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, very little is known about its role in atherogenesis. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of BCA on atherosclerosis and explore the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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November 2020

Fenofibrate Exerts Antitumor Effects in Colon Cancer via Regulation of DNMT1 and CDKN2A.

PPAR Res 2021 16;2021:6663782. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital Affiliated to Tongji University, Tongji University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA) is the molecular target of fibrates commonly used to treat dyslipidemia and diabetes. Recently, the potential role of PPARA in other pathological conditions, such as cancers, has been recognized. Here, using bioinformatics analysis, we found that PPARA was expressed at relatively low levels in pancancers, and Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that high PPARA protein expression was correlated with better survival of patients with colon cancer. Read More

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Hydroxychloroquine Potentiates Apoptosis Induced by PPAR Antagonist in 786-O Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Cells Associated with Inhibiting Autophagy.

PPAR Res 2021 19;2021:6631605. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Urology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Changzhou 213003, China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the major pathological pattern of renal cell carcinoma. The ccRCC cells exhibit a certain degree of inherent drug resistance due to some genetic mutations. In recent years, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR) antagonists have been reported as a targeted therapeutic drug capable of inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the ccRCC cell line. Read More

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Fenofibrate (a PPAR-α Agonist) Administered During Ethanol Withdrawal Reverts Ethanol-Induced Astrogliosis and Restores the Levels of Glutamate Transporter in Ethanol-Administered Adolescent Rats.

Front Pharmacol 2021 20;12:653175. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

High-ethanol intake induces a neuroinflammatory response, which has been proposed as responsible for the maintenance of chronic ethanol consumption. Neuroinflammation decreases glutamate transporter (GLT-1) expression, increasing levels of glutamate that trigger dopamine release at the corticolimbic reward areas, driving long-term drinking behavior. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) by fibrates inhibits neuroinflammation, in models other than ethanol consumption. Read More

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Is the Mitochondrial Function of Keloid Fibroblasts Affected by Cytoglobin?

Malays J Med Sci 2021 Apr 21;28(2):39-47. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: A keloid is a benign skin tumour characterised by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts, a process that requires a sufficient amount of energy. The energy needs are associated with adequate oxygen (O) flow and well-functioning mitochondria. It is known that cytoglobin (CYGB) has a function in O distribution. Read More

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Long Non-Coding RNA CASC2 Overexpression Ameliorates Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury by Regulating MiR-545-3p/PPARA axis.

J Surg Res 2021 May 3;265:223-232. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of orthopedics, Chengdu Second People's Hospital; Sichuau, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in sepsis-induced AKI.

Methods: The sepsis cell models were established by exposing HK2 and HEK293 cells into lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

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Mefepronic acid is associated with a decrease in serum liver enzyme activities in dogs with suspected hepatopathy.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, Italy.

Although suspected hepatopathy in dogs can be assessed by the blood levels of both liver enzyme activities and functional liver parameters, very often the precise diagnosis of primary or secondary hepatobiliary diseases can remain uncertain. Therefore, in a number of patients, the therapeutic intervention has the purpose of slowing the progression of fibrosis and provide for optimal hepatic support. Recently the PPARs (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors) have been identified as a family of hepatic nuclear hormonal receptors, involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Read More

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Gestational high-fat diet impaired demethylation of Pparα and induced obesity of offspring.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

The Key Laboratory of Reproductive Genetics (Zhejiang University School of Medicine), Ministry of Education, Hangzhou, China.

Gestational and postpartum high-fat diets (HFDs) have been implicated as causes of obesity in offspring in later life. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of gestational and/or postpartum HFD on obesity in offspring. We established a mouse model of HFD exposure that included gestation, lactation and post-weaning periods. Read More

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SIRT7 regulates lipogenesis in adipocytes through deacetylation of PPARγ2.

J Diabetes Investig 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, 860-8556, Japan.

Aims /introduction: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 is a transcription factor crucial for regulating adipogenesis and glucose/lipid metabolism, and synthetic PPARγ ligands, such as thiazolidinediones, are effective oral medication for type 2 diabetes. Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7), a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase, also controls metabolism. However, it is not known whether SIRT7 regulates the function of PPARγ2 by its deacetylation. Read More

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No Relevant Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interaction Between the Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter-2 Inhibitor Empagliflozin and Lobeglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Agonist, in Healthy Subjects.

Drug Des Devel Ther 2021 28;15:1725-1734. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Cheongju, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: Combination therapy with insulin-independent sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors and thiazolidinedione drugs, such as lobeglitazone, has been reported to elicit potential additive efficacy in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic (PK) drug-drug interactions between empagliflozin and lobeglitazone in healthy subjects.

Subjects And Methods: A randomized, open-label, multiple-dose study was conducted in 30 healthy subjects using a three-treatment, six-sequence, three-way crossover design. Read More

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PPARɣ drives IL-33-dependent ILC2 pro-tumoral functions.

Nat Commun 2021 05 5;12(1):2538. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Pathology and Immunology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) play a critical role in protection against helminths and in diverse inflammatory diseases by responding to soluble factors such as the alarmin IL-33, that is often overexpressed in cancer. Nonetheless, regulatory factors that dictate ILC2 functions remain poorly studied. Here, we show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is selectively expressed in ILC2s in humans and in mice, acting as a central functional regulator. Read More

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[Doxorubicin directly induced fibrotic change of cardiac fibroblasts].

Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi 2021 ;156(3):146-151

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine.

Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cardiomyopathy has a poor prognosis. No early detection or effective treatment methods are available in clinical. The mechanisms of cardiotoxicity were considered as oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Read More

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Effects of KY-903, a Novel Tetrazole-Based Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Modulator, in Male Diabetic Mice and Female Ovariectomized Rats.

Biol Pharm Bull 2021 ;44(5):659-668

R&D Division, Kyoto Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) modulators are expected to exert anti-diabetic effects without PPARγ-related adverse effects, such as fluid retention, weight gain, and bone loss. The present study showed that the novel tetrazole derivative KY-903 exerted similar selective PPARγ partial agonist properties to INT-131, a known PPARγ modulator, in transactivation assays, and decreased plasma glucose and triglyceride levels with increases in adiponectin levels in diabetic KK-Ay mice. These effects were similar to those of pioglitazone. Read More

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January 2021

Effects of pemafibrate on glucose metabolism markers and liver function tests in patients with hypertriglyceridemia: a pooled analysis of six phase 2 and phase 3 randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 May 4;20(1):96. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, 3311-1 Yakushiji, Shimotsuke-shi, Tochigi, 329-0498, Japan.

Background: Increased risk of cardiovascular events is associated not only with dyslipidemias, but also with abnormalities in glucose metabolism and liver function. This study uses pooled analysis to explore the in-depth effects of pemafibrate, a selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα) already known to decrease elevated triglycerides, on glucose metabolism and liver function in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

Methods: We performed a post-hoc analysis of six phase 2 and phase 3 Japanese randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials that examined the effects of daily pemafibrate 0. Read More

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