39 results match your criteria periodontitis chapter


Maintaining homeostatic control of periodontal bone tissue.

Periodontol 2000 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Oral Health Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.

Alveolar bone is a unique osseous tissue due to the proximity of dental plaque biofilms. Periodontal health and homeostasis are mediated by a balanced host immune response to these polymicrobial biofilms. Dysbiotic shifts within dental plaque biofilms can drive a proinflammatory immune response state in the periodontal epithelial and gingival connective tissues, which leads to paracrine signaling to subjacent bone cells. Read More

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Oral Mouth Rinses against Supragingival Biofilm and Gingival Inflammation.

Monogr Oral Sci 2021 21;29:91-97. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Periodontology and Peri-Implant Diseases, Philipps-University of Marburg, UKGM, Marburg, Germany,

Caries and inflammatory periodontal diseases have a high prevalence worldwide. Although improvements in oral health status in our patients have been shown, there is still an increased demand for preventive measurements - especially in view of the systemic influence of the chronic disease periodontitis. The main focus of such measurements lies on an optimal biofilm management which can be divided into professional biofilm management and home care measurements. Read More

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January 2021

Evaluation of the Virulence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Through the Analysis of Leukotoxin.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:185-193

Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari-gun, Hokkaido, Japan.

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is frequently isolated from localized aggressive periodontitis and periodontitis associated with systemic diseases. A. actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin, which induces apoptosis in human leukocytes. Read More

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Characterization of the Treponema denticola Virulence Factor Dentilisin.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:173-184

Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Dental College, Tokyo, Japan.

Treponema denticola is a potent periodontal pathogen that forms a red complex with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. It has many virulence factors, yet there are only a few reports detailing these factors. Among them, dentilisin is a well-documented surface protease. Read More

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Purification of Tannerella forsythia Surface-Layer (S-Layer) Proteins.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:135-142

Department of Oral Biology, School of Dental Medicine, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, USA.

The objective of this chapter is to provide a detailed purification protocol for the surface-layer (S-layer) glycoproteins of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia. The procedure involves detergent based solubilization of the bacterial S-layer followed by cesium chloride gradient centrifugation and gel permeation chromatography. The protocol is suitable for the isolation of S-layer glycoproteins from T. Read More

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Crystallization of Recombinant Fimbrial Proteins of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:87-96

Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae play a critical role in colonization. Elucidation of the fimbrial structure in atomic detail is important for understanding the colonization mechanism and to provide means to combat periodontitis. X-ray crystallography is a technique that is used to obtain detailed information of proteins along with bound ligands and ions. Read More

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Genotyping of Porphyromonas gingivalis in Relationship to Virulence.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:53-59

Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a significant periodontal pathogen, is known to possess genetic variations in relation to its virulence. Furthermore, fimbriae encoded by the fimA gene are involved in bacterial adherence to and invasion of host cells, and a known virulence factor of the bacterium. The fimA gene is classified into six variants (types I-V and Ib) and has been shown to be related to microbial virulence. Read More

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Genetic Manipulations of Oral Spirochete Treponema denticola.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:15-23

Department of Oral and Craniofacial Molecular Biology, Philips Institute for Oral Health Research, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA.

There have been more than 60 different oral Treponema species identified in the oral cavity; however, only few species can be cultivated in vitro reliably. Among those cultivable species, due to its medical importance and genetic tractability, Treponema denticola, one of the keystone pathogens associated with human periodontitis, has emerged as a paradigm model organism to understanding the genetics, etiology, and pathophysiology of oral Treponema species. During the last two decades, several genetic tools have been developed, which have played an instrumental role in the study of T. Read More

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Site-Directed and Random Mutagenesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis: Construction of Fimbriae-Related-Gene Mutant.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2210:3-14

Division of Microbiology, Department of Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido, Japan.

Porphyromonas gingivalis, an etiological agent of chronic periodontitis, is an asaccharolytic anaerobic gram-negative coccobacillus. Genetic approaches greatly facilitate research on organisms at the molecular level. Although with some challenges, the use of genetic techniques (such as constructing knockout mutants) in P. Read More

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Mechanisms underlying the association between periodontitis and atherosclerotic disease.

Periodontol 2000 2020 06;83(1):90-106

ETEP (Etiology and Therapy of Periodontal Diseases) Research Group, University Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Atherosclerosis is central to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, a group of diseases in which arteries become occluded with atheromas that may rupture, leading to different cardiovascular events, such as myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke. There is a large body of epidemiologic and animal model evidence associating periodontitis with atherosclerotic disease, and many potential mechanisms linking these diseases have been elucidated. This chapter will update knowledge on these mechanisms, which generally fall into 2 categories: microbial invasion and infection of atheromas; and inflammatory and immunologic. Read More

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Roles of Porphyromonas gingivalis and its virulence factors in periodontitis.

Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 2020 10;120:45-84. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Department of Oral Immunology and Infectious Diseases, University of Louisville School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY, United States.

Periodontitis is an infection-driven inflammatory disease, which is characterized by gingival inflammation and bone loss. Periodontitis is associated with various systemic diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, and reproductive system related abnormalities. Recent theory attributes the pathogenesis of periodontitis to oral microbial dysbiosis, in which Porphyromonas gingivalis acts as a critical agent by disrupting host immune homeostasis. Read More

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February 2021

Chapter 4: Microelements: Part I: Zn, Sn, Cu, Fe and I.

Monogr Oral Sci 2020 7;28:32-47. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

School of Health and Social Care, Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom,

Microelements are essential components of the diet. This chapter describes the effect of several such elements: zinc, copper, iron, tin, and iodine, on oral health. As part of normal diets, these elements have limited associations with specific oral conditions. Read More

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January 2020

Chapter 6: Vitamins and Oral Health.

Monogr Oral Sci 2020 7;28:59-67. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Cariology, Operative Dentistry and Dental Public Health, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.

Vitamins are essential organic compounds that catalyze metabolic reactions. They also function as electron donors, antioxidants or transcription effectors. They can be extracted from food and supplements, or in some cases, synthesized by our body or gut microbiome. Read More

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January 2020

Chapter 12: Nutrient Deficiencies and Oral Health.

Monogr Oral Sci 2020 7;28:114-124. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Oral Surgery, Edinburgh Dental Institute, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Malnutrition can significantly affect oral health, and poor oral health in turn can result in malnutrition. This co-dependent relationship, therefore, relies on good nutritional health promoting good oral health and vice versa. A diet lacking nutrients can lead to disease progression of the oral cavity through altered tissue homeostasis, reduced resistance to microbial biofilm, and a decrease in tissue healing. Read More

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January 2020

Neutrophil Interaction with Emerging Oral Pathogens: A Novel View of the Disease Paradigm.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1197:165-178

Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Periodontitis is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory infectious disease that compromises the integrity of tooth-supporting tissues. The disease progression depends on the disruption of host-microbe homeostasis in the periodontal tissue. This disruption is marked by a shift in the composition of the polymicrobial oral community from a symbiotic to a dysbiotic, more complex community that is capable of evading killing while promoting inflammation. Read More

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November 2019

Dementia friendly dentistry for the periodontal patient. Part 2: ethical treatment planning and management.

Br Dent J 2019 Oct;227(7):570-576

Clinical Trials Unit, Bristol Dental Hospital & School, University of Bristol, 4th Floor Chapter House, Lower Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS1 2LY, UK.

This is the second of two articles, which provide a guide to aid the clinical management of people living with dementia who present with periodontitis in dental practice. Guidance is provided to encourage optimal treatment planning and periodontal care for patients with dementia. Best practice in relation to UK statutory legislation, which governs the rights of those with impaired capacity, is also covered. Read More

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October 2019

Methods for Enrichment and Sequencing of Oral Viral Assemblages: Saliva, Oral Mucosa, and Dental Plaque Viromes.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1838:143-161

Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (Universidad Autónoma de Madrid-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas), Madrid, Spain.

The oral cavity is a major portal of entry for human pathogens including viruses. However, metagenomics has revealed that highly personalized and time-persistent bacteriophage assemblages dominate this habitat. Most oral bacteriophages follow lysogenic life cycles, deploying complex strategies to manage bacterial homeostasis. Read More

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Gene Regulation, Two Component Regulatory Systems, and Adaptive Responses in Treponema Denticola.

Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2018;415:39-62

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, 1112 East Clay Street, Room 101 McGuire Hall, 980678, Richmond, VA, 23298-0678, USA.

The oral microbiome consists of a remarkably diverse group of 500-700 bacterial species. The microbial etiology of periodontal disease is similarly complex. Of the ~400 bacterial species identified in subgingival plaque, at least 50 belong to the genus Treponema. Read More

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Characterization, Quantification, and Visualization of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1537:481-497

Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, The School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, 5 Mill Pool Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B5 7EG, UK.

Following the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in 2004 by Brinkmann and colleagues, there has been extensive research into the role of NETs in a number of inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis. This chapter describes the current methods for the isolation of peripheral blood neutrophils for subsequent NET experiments, including approaches to quantify and visualize NET production, the ability of NETs to entrap and kill bacteria, and the removal of NETs by nuclease-containing plasma. Read More

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January 2018

Methods to Study Antagonistic Activities Among Oral Bacteria.

Methods Mol Biol 2017 ;1537:203-218

Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Most bacteria in nature exist in multispecies communities known as biofilms. In the natural habitat where resources (nutrient, space, etc.) are usually limited, individual species must compete or collaborate with other neighboring species in order to perpetuate in the multispecies community. Read More

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January 2018

Molecular Mechanisms of Apical Periodontitis: Emerging Role of Epigenetic Regulators.

Dent Clin North Am 2017 01;61(1):17-35

The Shapiro Family Laboratory of Viral Oncology and Aging Research, UCLA School of Dentistry, CHS 43-033, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA; Section of Endodontics, Division of Constitutive and Regenerative Sciences, UCLA School of Dentistry, CHS 43-007, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Conventional root canal therapies yield high success rates. The treatment outcomes are negatively affected by the presence of apical periodontitis (AP), which reflects active root canal infection and inflammatory responses. Also, cross-sectional studies revealed surprisingly high prevalence of AP in the general population, especially in those with prior endodontic treatments. Read More

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January 2017

The 1 Baltic Osseointegration Academy and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Consensus Conference 2016. Summary and Consensus Statements: Group III - Peri-Implantitis Treatment.

J Oral Maxillofac Res 2016 Jul-Sep;7(3):e16. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan USA.

Introduction: The task of Group 3 was to review and update the existing data concerning non-surgical, surgical non-regenerative and surgical regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis. Special interest was paid to the preventive and supporting therapy in case of peri-implantitis.

Material And Methods: The main areas of interest were as follows: effect of smoking and history of periodontitis, prosthetic treatment mistakes, excess cement, overloading, general diseases influence on peri-implantitis development. Read More

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September 2016

The 1 Baltic Osseointegration Academy and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Consensus Conference 2016. Summary and Consensus Statements: Group II - Peri-Implantitis Diagnostics and Decision Tree.

J Oral Maxillofac Res 2016 Jul-Sep;7(3):e11. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Clinic of Dental and Oral Pathology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas Lithuania.

Introduction: The task of Group 2 was to review and update the existing data concerning clinical and genetic methods of diagnostics of peri-implantitis. Special interest was paid to the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) overview including analysis of enzymes and biomarkers and microbial profiles from implants.

Material And Methods: The main areas of interest were as follows: effect of smoking and history of periodontitis, prosthetic treatment mistakes, excess cement, overloading, general diseases influence on peri-implantitis development. Read More

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September 2016

The 1 Baltic Osseointegration Academy and Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Consensus Conference 2016. Summary and Consensus Statements: Group I - Peri-Implantitis Aetiology, Risk Factors and Pathogenesis.

J Oral Maxillofac Res 2016 Jul-Sep;7(3):e7. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Prosthetic Dentistry and Stomatognathic Physiology, Research Unit of Oral Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Medical Research Center Oulu, Oulu University Hospital and University of Oulu Finland.

Introduction: The task of Group 1 was to review and update the existing data concerning aetiology, risk factors and pathogenesis of peri-implantitis. Previous history of periodontitis, poor oral hygiene, smoking and presence of general diseases have been considered among the aetiological risk factors for the onset of peri-implant pathologies, while late dental implant failures are commonly associated with peri-implantitis and/or with the application of incorrect biomechanical forces. Special interest was paid to the bone cells dynamics as part of the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis. Read More

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September 2016

The Fungal Biome of the Oral Cavity.

Methods Mol Biol 2016 ;1356:107-35

Center for Medical Mycology and Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center and Case Western Reserve University, 11100 Euclid Ave, Cleveland, OH, 44106, USA.

Organisms residing in the oral cavity (oral microbiota) contribute to health and disease, and influence diseases like gingivitis, periodontitis, and oral candidiasis (the most common oral complication of HIV-infection). These organisms are also associated with cancer and other systemic diseases including upper respiratory infections. There is limited knowledge regarding how oral microbes interact together and influence the host immune system. Read More

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Membranes for Periodontal Regeneration--A Materials Perspective.

Front Oral Biol 2015 20;17:90-100. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

Division of Dental Biomaterials, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Indiana University School of Dentistry, Indianapolis, Ind., USA.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting nearly 50% of adults in the United States. If left untreated, it can lead to the destruction of both soft and mineralized tissues that constitute the periodontium. Clinical management, including but not limited to flap debridement and/or curettage, as well as regenerative-based strategies with periodontal membranes associated or not with grafting materials, has been used with distinct levels of success. Read More

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January 2016

Saliva as the Sole Nutritional Source in the Development of Multispecies Communities in Dental Plaque.

Microbiol Spectr 2015 Jun;3(3)

School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, UK.

Dental plaque is a polymicrobial biofilm that forms on the surfaces of teeth and, if inadequately controlled, can lead to dental caries or periodontitis. Nutrient availability is the fundamental limiting factor for the formation of dental plaque, and for its ability to generate acid and erode dental enamel. Nutrient availability is also critical for bacteria to grow in subgingival biofilms and to initiate periodontitis. Read More

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High-purity neutrophil isolation from human peripheral blood and saliva for transcriptome analysis.

Methods Mol Biol 2014 ;1124:469-83

Matrix Dynamics Group, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The oral cavity is a source of readily available neutrophils and can be used as a model to better understand the role of neutrophils in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, periodontitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this chapter we describe reproducible methods to obtain highly purified neutrophil samples from blood and saliva in humans to enable cell analysis using whole-genome microarrays. Read More

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October 2014

Neutrophil extracellular traps as a new paradigm in innate immunity: friend or foe?

Periodontol 2000 2013 Oct;63(1):165-97

The discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps in 2004 opened a fascinating new chapter in immune-mediated microbial killing. Brinkman et al. demonstrated that neutrophils, when catastrophically stimulated, undergo a novel form of programmed cell death (neutrophil extracellular trap formation) whereby they decondense their entire nuclear chromatin/DNA and release the resulting structure into the cytoplasm to mix with granule-derived antimicrobial peptides before extruding these web-like structures into the extracellular environment. Read More

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October 2013