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Combining weakly and strongly supervised learning improves strong supervision in Gleason pattern classification.

BMC Med Imaging 2021 May 8;21(1):77. Epub 2021 May 8.

HES-SO Valais, Technopôle 3, 3960, Sierre, Switzerland.

Background: One challenge to train deep convolutional neural network (CNNs) models with whole slide images (WSIs) is providing the required large number of costly, manually annotated image regions. Strategies to alleviate the scarcity of annotated data include: using transfer learning, data augmentation and training the models with less expensive image-level annotations (weakly-supervised learning). However, it is not clear how to combine the use of transfer learning in a CNN model when different data sources are available for training or how to leverage from the combination of large amounts of weakly annotated images with a set of local region annotations. Read More

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Evaluation of the performance and gas emissions of a tractor diesel engine using blended fuel diesel and biodiesel to determine the best loading stages.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9811. Epub 2021 May 7.

Agricultural Botany Department, Faculty of Agriculture, (Saba Basha), Alexandria University, P.O. Box 21531, Alexandria, Egypt.

Fossil fuels are the main energy sources responsible for harmful emissions and global warming. Using biodiesel made from waste deep-frying oil as an alternative fuel source in diesel engines has drawn great attention. This biodiesel is produced using the transesterification process and blends with mineral diesel at Faculty of Agriculture Saba Basha, Alexandria University, Egypt. Read More

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Changes in sleep-wake cycle after microinjection of agonist and antagonist of endocannabinoid receptors at the medial septum of rats.

Physiol Behav 2021 May 3:113448. Epub 2021 May 3.

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi-110029, India. Electronic address:

The role of medial septum in the genesis of slow-wave sleep and the inhibition of rapid eye movement sleep has been established using neurotoxic lesion and chemical stimulation of the medial septum. Intracerebroventricular injection of endocannabinoids (anandamide) decreases wake and increases slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep in rats. Central cannabinoid (CB1) receptors are localized in the rat medial septum; however, the role of cannabinoid receptors at the medial septum on the regulation of sleep-wakefulness in rats lacks evidence. Read More

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Almond consumption decreases android fat mass percentage in adults with high android subcutaneous adiposity but does not change HbA1c in a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2021 May 6:1-39. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

The purpose of this study was to determine if the mixed evidence of almond consumption on HbA1c stems from testing people with different body fat distributions (BFD) associated with different risks of glucose intolerance. A 6-month RCT in 134 adults was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the almond (A) or control (C) group based on their BFD. Read More

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Estimation of Skin doses for Retrofit Prototype Multileaf Collimators Designed for Telecobalt Therapy Machine.

J Med Phys 2020 Oct-Dec;45(4):215-220. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Physics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate skin dose based on retrofit prototype multileaf collimators (MLCs), designed for cobalt-60 teletherapy machine. Since patient's skin is sensitive to radiation, evaluation of skin dose is of utmost importance for investigating the risk of late effects.

Materials And Methods: Measurements were performed with a Phoenix cobalt-60 teletherapy machine and the detector used was EBT3 radiochromic film. Read More

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February 2021

Seemingly Uninvolved Players' Impact on Assistant Referees' Offside Decisions.

J Sport Exerc Psychol 2021 May 5:1-9. Epub 2021 May 5.

German Sport University Cologne.

Most studies on offside decision making in soccer have not addressed rather simplistic situational probabilities like the number of players involved in an offside situation. In three studies (one observational and two experimental), the authors tried to assess whether the number of players close to the offside situation can predict the quality of offside decision making. In all three studies, they found that the presence of additional players negatively affected the percentage of correct decisions. Read More

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Differential impacts of hemolysis on coagulation parameters of blood samples: A STROBE-compliant article.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 May;100(18):e25798

Department of Emergency Medicine, E-Da Hospital.

Abstract: This study aimed at investigating the impact of hemolysis on different coagulation parameters.A total of 216 venous blood samples without visible hemolysis were collected from adult patients at a tertiary referral center over six months. The plasma obtained was quantified for six coagulation parameters including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III, and protein C. Read More

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High-fat diet induces obesity in adult mice but fails to develop pre-penile and penile vascular dysfunction.

Int J Impot Res 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Physiology, Brody School of Medicine at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.

Obesity can lead to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and erectile dysfunction (ED), which decreases overall quality of life. Mechanisms responsible for obesity-induced ED are unknown. Current mouse models of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity yield conflicting results. Read More

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Association of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Reduction With Progression-free and Overall Survival Improvement in Advanced Non-small-cell Lung Cancer.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Thoracic Oncology Unit, Alexander Fleming Institute, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Background: Non-small cell lung cancer elevates serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). CEA determinations are not recommended currently. This study aims to identify the correlation between reducing serum CEA levels with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival. Read More

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Generalizing Longitudinal Age Effects on Brain Structure - A Two-Study Comparison Approach.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 16;15:635687. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

Cross-sectional studies indicate that normal aging is accompanied by decreases in brain structure. Longitudinal studies, however, are relatively rare and inconsistent regarding their outcomes. Particularly the heterogeneity of methods, sample characteristics and the high inter-individual variability in older adults prevent the deduction of general trends. Read More

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Capryloyl glycine and soy isoflavonoids in hypertrichosis: An experimental and placebo-controlled clinical study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Apr;20 Suppl 1:18-22

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: The management of acquired hypertrichosis (HT) is based on the search of the causes and subsequent specific treatment. However, simultaneous hair removal is important. No single method for hair removal is appropriate for all patients and skin areas. Read More

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Nine Seasons of a Bronchiolitis Observation Unit and Home Oxygen Therapy Protocol.

J Hosp Med 2021 May;16(5):261-266

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Inpatient Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Background: We implemented an observation unit and home oxygen therapy (OU-HOT) protocol at our children's hospital during the 2010-2011 winter season to facilitate earlier discharge of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis. An earlier study demonstrated substantial reductions in inpatient length of stay and costs in the first year after implementation.

Objective: Evaluate long-term reductions in length of stay and cost. Read More

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The effects of tobacco taxation and pricing on the prevalence of smoking in Africa.

Glob Health Res Policy 2021 Apr 29;6(1):14. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Banking Technology and Finance Department, Kumasi Technical University, Kumasi, Ghana.

Background: Tobacco use continues to kill millions of people globally, making it one of the major causes of preventable deaths. Notwithstanding, there has been a very marginal fall in the prevalence of tobacco smoking in Africa. Since taxes (hence prices) are part of the main measures suggested to decrease the demand for tobacco products, this study investigates how tobacco taxation and pricing influence the prevalence of smoking in 24 African countries. Read More

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Effects of Green cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) and its combination with cyclophosphamide on Ehrlich solid tumors.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Apr 29;21(1):133. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) is a spice and exhibits potent antioxidant and biological activities through distinct molecular mechanisms. However, the anticancer effect of cardamom was not explored yet in Ehrlich solid tumor (EST)-bearing mice.

Objectives: This investigation was aimed to evaluate the anti-cancer effects of green cardamom (GCar) alone or combined with the anti-cancer drug cyclophosphamide in an in vivo model to explore its mechanistic role in tumor cell death in EST-bearing mice. Read More

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Pilot Study: Physical Examination Evidence of Acupuncture Principal Meridian Coupling.

Med Acupunct 2021 Apr 17;33(2):144-149. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Biostatistics, Mayo Clinic in Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

This pilot study of acupuncture primary channel coupling examined the effect of anterior tibialis (AT) muscle activation (Stomach = ST channel distribution muscle) on ipsilateral anterior deltoid shoulder elevation strength (Large Intestine = LI channel distribution muscle). Pilot study: prospective before and after trial, nonblinded. Twenty healthy adults ages 20-60 years without shoulder pathology were recruited from our institution. Read More

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Comparative Economic Outcomes in Patients with Focal Seizure Initiating First-Line Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy versus Generic Antiseizure Drugs.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 19;13:251-261. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Sunovion Pharmaceuticals Inc., Marlborough, MA, USA.

Objective: To examine the association between initiating first-line (1L) monotherapy with eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) vs a generic antiseizure drug (ASD) and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and charges in adults with treated focal seizures (FS).

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse open-source claims data. Two cohorts were identified as having initiated 1L monotherapy with ESL or literature-defined generic ASDs. Read More

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Analysis of the Long-Term Impact on Cellular Immunity in COVID-19-Recovered Individuals Reveals a Profound NKT Cell Impairment.

mBio 2021 04 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 120 million people and killed over 2.7 million individuals by March 2021. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remain to be analyzed. Read More

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Leptin decreases apoptosis and promotes the activation of primordial follicles through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway in cultured ovine ovarian tissue.

Zygote 2021 Apr 28:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Nucleus of Biotechnology Applied to Ovarian Follicle Development, Federal University of São Francisco Valley, PetrolinaPE, Brazil.

This study evaluated the effects of leptin on primordial follicle survival and activation after in vitro culture of ovine ovarian tissue and if leptin acts through the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Ovarian fragments were fixed for histology (fresh control) or cultured for 7 days in control medium (α-MEM+) alone or supplemented with leptin (1, 5, 10, 25 or 50 ng/ml). Follicle morphology, activation and apoptosis were analyzed. Read More

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Effect of microaggregate filter passage on feline whole blood stored for 35 days.

J Feline Med Surg 2021 Apr 27:1098612X211009145. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, NSW, Australia.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of fresh and stored feline red blood cells (RBCs) after passage through an 18 μm microaggregate filter.

Methods: Nine cats were recruited for a single blood donation using an open collection system. A simulated transfusion using a syringe driver and microaggregate filter was performed over 2 h with half the blood on the day of donation and the other half after 35 days of storage. Read More

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Historic exposure to herbivores, not constitutive traits, explains plant tolerance to herbivory in the case of two Medicago species (Fabaceae).

Plant Sci 2021 Jun 24;307:110890. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Research Group on Plant Biology under Mediterranean Conditions, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Balearic Islands, Palma, 07122, Spain.

Mechanisms that allow plants to survive and reproduce after herbivory are considered to play a key role in plant evolution. In this study, we evaluated how tolerance varies in species with different historic exposure to herbivores considering ontogeny. We exposed the range-restricted species Medicago citrina and its closely related and widespread species M. Read More

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Utility of hospitalization for elderly individuals affected by COVID-19.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(4):e0250730. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Cliniche "L. Sacco", Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of individuals needing hospital admission has sometimes exceeded the availability of hospital beds. Since hospitalization can have detrimental effects on older individuals, preference has been given to younger patients. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of hospitalization for elderly affected by COVID-19. Read More

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Diet-induced obesity aggravates NK cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity reaction in Rag1 mice.

Contact Dermatitis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland.

Background: Previous studies showed that natural killer (NK) cells mediate contact hypersensitivity (CHS) reaction. Many reports are showing that obesity promotes several inflammatory diseases. It was shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) aggravates classical T cell-mediated CHS in mice. Read More

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Relationship Between Procedural Right Bundle Branch Block and 1-Year Outcome After Alcohol Septal Ablation for Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy - A Retrospective Study.

Circ J 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Cardiovascular Intensive Care, Nippon Medical School Hospital.

Background: Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is a treatment option in patients with drug-refractory symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). In many patients, right bundle branch block (RBBB) develops during ASA because septal branches supply the right bundle branch. However, the clinical significance of procedural RBBB is uncertain. Read More

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Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of a major locus controlling ovule abortion and seed number per silique in Brassica napus L.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Key Message: A major QTL controlling ovule abortion and SN was fine-mapped to a 80.1-kb region on A8 in rapeseed, and BnaA08g07940D and BnaA08g07950D are the most likely candidate genes. The seed number per silique (SN), an important yield determining trait of rapeseed, is the final consequence of a complex developmental process including ovule initiation and the subsequent ovule/seed development. Read More

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In vivo toxicological assessment of diquat dibromide: cytotoxic, genotoxic, and biochemical approach.

Authors:
Ali Acar

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Vocational School of Health Services, Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Giresun University, Giresun, Turkey.

Diquat dibromide is a comprehensive herbicide commonly used in the cultivation of cotton, soybeans, and other crops to combat unwanted weeds. In this study, the half-maximal effective concentration (EC) value of diquat dibromide was determined 60 mg/L in the Allium root growth inhibition test. ½ × EC (30 mg/L), EC (60 mg/L), and 2 × EC (120 mg/L) concentrations of diquat dibromide were applied to Allium cepa L. Read More

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Macrophage depletion in stellate ganglia alleviates cardiac sympathetic overactivation and ventricular arrhythmogenesis by attenuating neuroinflammation in heart failure.

Basic Res Cardiol 2021 Apr 21;116(1):28. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

Cardiac sympathetic overactivation is involved in arrhythmogenesis in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Inflammatory infiltration in the stellate ganglion (SG) is a critical factor for cardiac sympathoexcitation in patients with ventricular arrhythmias. This study aims to investigate if macrophage depletion in SGs decreases cardiac sympathetic overactivation and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF. Read More

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Assessment of neutrophil function in canine cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and correlation with neutrophil numbers.

Can J Vet Res 2021 Apr;85(2):137-144

Department of Veterinary Pathology (Ravanbakhsh, Ahmed, Fernandez, Meachem, Dickinson) and Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences (MacDonald-Dickinson), Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5B4.

Decreased neutrophil function following administration of chemotherapy has been reported in dogs with lymphoma. The first objective of our study was to determine if neutrophil oxidative burst and phagocytic activity are affected by chemotherapy 7 to 10 days following initiation of treatment in dogs with lymphoma and non-lymphoma malignancies. The second objective was to determine if there is a correlation between neutrophil numbers and neutrophil function before or after initiation of chemotherapy. Read More

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Effects of implant rotational malposition on contact surface area after implantation of the augmented glenoid baseplate in the setting of glenoid bone loss.

Int Orthop 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, 835 S. Wolcott Ave, Rm 270, IL, Chicago, USA.

Aim Of The Study: Augmented glenoid baseplates are utilized in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in the setting of glenoid bone loss. These implants permit lateralization of the joint line and correction of bony version abnormalities. To allow bone preservation in the setting of abnormal bony version or deficiency, the backside of the augmented glenoid baseplate is not perpendicular to the axis of the central post/screw. Read More

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Electronic structure of polypyrrole composited with a low percentage of graphene nanofiller.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Apr 26;23(14):8557-8570. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, COMSATS University, Abbottabad Campus, KPK, 22060, Pakistan.

The low concentration of graphene (<5%) in graphene/polypyrrole composites makes it quite challenging to devise a theoretical model for these composites. Thus, herein, we present theoretical calculations to determine the geometric electronic and optical properties of graphene/polypyrrole composites. Ribbon and sheet models of various sizes were considered for graphene. Read More

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