Pathol Res Pract 2021 Sep 2;226:153607. Epub 2021 Sep 2.
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 1 King's College Circle, 6th Floor, Toronto, ON M 5S 1A8, Canada; Division of Anatomic Pathology, Laboratory Medicine and Molecular Diagnostics, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, ON M4N 3M5, Canada. Electronic address:
Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) therapies have demonstrated significant benefit in the treatment of many tumors including high grade urothelial cancer (HGUC) of the bladder. However, variability in patients' clinical responses highlights the need for biomarkers to aid patient stratification. ICI relies on an intact host immune response. Read More