1,027 results match your criteria peers suggesting

Effects of long-term unilateral cochlear implant use on large-scale network synchronization in adolescents.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 8;409:108308. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Archie's Cochlear Implant Laboratory, Department of Otolaryngology, The Hospital for Sick Children, ON, Canada; Program in Neuroscience and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute, ON, Canada; Institute of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Unilateral cochlear implantation (CI) limits deafness-related changes in the auditory pathways but promotes abnormal cortical preference for the stimulated ear and leaves the opposite ear with little protection from auditory deprivation. In the present study, time-frequency analyses of event-related potentials elicited from stimuli presented to each ear were used to determine effects of unilateral CI use on cortical synchrony. CI-elicited activity in 34 adolescents (15. Read More

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Sleep disparities during the COVID-19 pandemic: An investigation of AIAN, Asian, Black, Latinx, and White young adults.

Sleep Health 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, New York, USA.

Objectives: This study investigates race-related disparities in sleep duration and quality among diverse young adults during the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Design & Setting: Online cross-sectional study of young adults in the United States in April 2020.

Participants: About 547 American Indian/Alaskan Native (AIAN), Asian, Black, Latinx, and White young adults ages 18-25 years. Read More

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Toddlers raised in multi-dialectal families learn words better in accented speech than those raised in monodialectal families.

J Child Lang 2021 Jul 13:1-26. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Oslo Forskningsveien 3A, Harald Schjelderups hus, 0373Oslo, Norway.

Multi-accent environments offer rich but inconsistent language input, as words are produced differently across accents. The current study examined, in two experiments, whether multi-accent variability affects infants' ability to learn words and whether toddlers' prior experience with accents modulates learning. In Experiment 1, two-and-a-half-year-old Norwegian toddlers were exposed, in their kindergarten, twice per day for one week, to a child-friendly audiovisual tablet-based e-book containing four novel pseudowords. Read More

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Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Marriage and Parenthood: A Nationwide Matched Cohort Study.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objectives: To compare trajectories of marriage and parenthood in individuals with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) vs the general population.

Methods: Patients with JIA (n = 4399) were identified in the Swedish National.

Patient: Register (2001-2016) and individually matched to up to five general population comparators on birthyear, sex, and residence county (n = 21 981). Read More

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Conversation During a Virtual Reality Task Reveals New Structural Language Profiles of Children with ASD, ADHD, and Comorbid Symptoms of Both.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Psychological Sciences, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Road., Unit 1020, Storrs, CT, 06269-1020, USA.

Many studies have utilized standardized measures and storybook narratives to characterize language profiles of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). They report that structural language of these children is on par with mental-age-matched typically developing (TD) peers. Few studies have looked at structural language profiles in conversational contexts. Read More

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Effects of interventions for social anxiety and shyness in school-aged children: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254117. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Special Needs Education, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

In school, shyness is associated with psychosocial difficulties and has negative impacts on children's academic performance and wellbeing. Even though there are different strategies and interventions to help children deal with shyness, there is currently no comprehensive systematic review of available interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to identify interventions for shy children and to evaluate the effectiveness in reducing psychosocial difficulties and other impacts. Read More

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How Do Chinese Youth in Hong Kong Evaluate Maternal Guilt and Shame Induction? Age, Form, and Domain Differences.

J Youth Adolesc 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Psychology, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg Campus, 140 7th Ave. South, St. Petersburg, FL, 33701, USA.

Although Chinese parents are seen as employing guilt and shame induction to socialize children's culturally appropriate behavior, research has focused primarily on Chinese parents' use of these inductions and their links with child adjustment rather than on children's evaluations of them. Furthermore, this research typically does not examine variations in children's appraisals based on the type of behavior being socialized. The present study addressed these gaps in the literature by examining 206 Hong Kong Chinese children's and early adolescents' (Ms = 9. Read More

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Enhancing spatial skills of preschoolers from under-resourced backgrounds: A comparison of digital app vs. concrete materials.

Dev Sci 2021 Jul 7:e13148. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Spatial skills support STEM learning and achievement. However, children from low-socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds typically lag behind their middle- and high-SES peers. We asked whether a digital educational app-designed to mirror an already successful, spatial assembly training program using concrete materials-would be as effective for facilitating spatial skills in under-resourced preschoolers as the concrete materials. Read More

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The role of gender in peer-group perceptions of climate scientists' media statements.

Public Underst Sci 2021 Jul 2:9636625211029198. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

King's College London, UK.

This research explores whether environmental scientists perceive their male and female peers differently when making statements in the media including policy advocacy. Environmental scientists in the United Kingdom were provided with a media statement by a fictitious scientist containing a mixture of scientific information and advocacy, and asked to rate the statement against various attributes. Attributes were designed to represent stereotypes associated with male and female tendencies, and with science (impartial objectivity) and the media (dramatic narrative). Read More

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The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of adults with intellectual impairment: evidence from two longitudinal UK surveys.

J Intellect Disabil Res 2021 Jul 2. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Social Care and Social Work, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

Background: People with an intellectual impairment experience high levels of social and health inequalities. We investigated the impact of COVID-19 on the physical and mental health of people with intellectual impairment, controlling for demographic risk, socio-economic circumstances and pre-pandemic health levels.

Method: Data were drawn from two UK birth cohorts that surveyed their participants on the impact of COVID-19 in May 2020: the Millennium Cohort Study (20-year-old participants) and the British Cohort Survey (50-year-old participants). Read More

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Adolescent Chronic Health Conditions and School Disconnectedness.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

School of Social Work, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ; Department of Finance and Economics, Rider University, Lawrenceville, NJ; Health Economics Program, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, NY; Department of Economics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; and The Department of Pediatrics, Rutgers University, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Child Health Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ.

Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between chronic health conditions and school disconnectedness, trouble getting along with others at school, and peer victimization at age 15.

Method: We conducted a secondary analysis of population-based data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing birth cohort to investigate associations between chronic developmental/behavioral and physical health conditions and school disconnectedness, trouble getting along with others at school, and peer victimization of adolescents using mother-reported child health conditions and youth-reported relationships/experiences at school ascertained from standardized scales. Associations were examined using linear and logistic regression models adjusting for confounding factors. Read More

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College from home during COVID-19: A mixed-methods study of heterogeneous experiences.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(6):e0251580. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Computer Science & Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

This mixed-method study examined the experiences of college students during the COVID-19 pandemic through surveys, experience sampling data collected over two academic quarters (Spring 2019 n1 = 253; Spring 2020 n2 = 147), and semi-structured interviews with 27 undergraduate students. There were no marked changes in mean levels of depressive symptoms, anxiety, stress, or loneliness between 2019 and 2020, or over the course of the Spring 2020 term. Students in both the 2019 and 2020 cohort who indicated psychosocial vulnerability at the initial assessment showed worse psychosocial functioning throughout the entire Spring term relative to other students. Read More

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Early childhood parenting and adolescent bullying behavior: Evidence from a randomized intervention at ten-year follow-up.

Soc Sci Med 2021 08 11;282:114114. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Branschweig, Braunschweig, Germany. Electronic address:

Rationale: Bullying in education is a significant public health problem with long-run life cycle consequences, but efforts to reduce bullying were met with mixed results. We ask whether improving early childhood parenting can reduce subsequent bullying behavior by the children.

Method: We analyze ten-year follow-up of a randomized intervention where the parents of preschool children received a training aimed at improving parenting techniques, such as disciplinary strategies. Read More

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Math abilities in deaf and hard of hearing children: The role of language in developing number concepts.

Psychol Rev 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Boston College.

Deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children who are not exposed to fluent sign language from birth generally fall behind their hearing peers in mathematics. These disparities are pervasive and emerge as young as 3 years old and continue throughout adulthood. While these limitations have been well-documented, there has been little attempt to empirically explain why one consequence of deafness seems to reflect difficulties with numbers and mathematics. Read More

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Maternal deprivation affects goat kids' stress coping behaviour.

Physiol Behav 2021 Jun 8;239:113494. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Institute of Animal Welfare Science, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Maternal deprivation early in life has been shown to disrupt neonates' development. Nevertheless, separating the young animals from their dams soon after birth remains a common practice in dairy farm husbandry. This study investigated the effects of different rearing conditions on goat kids' stress coping abilities. Read More

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Stimulus-induced gamma rhythms are weaker in human elderly with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

Elife 2021 Jun 8;10. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Neuroscience, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) in elderly adds substantially to socioeconomic burden necessitating early diagnosis. While recent studies in rodent models of AD have suggested diagnostic and therapeutic value for gamma rhythms in brain, the same has not been rigorously tested in humans. In this case-control study, we recruited a large population (N = 244; 106 females) of elderly (>49 years) subjects from the community, who viewed large gratings that induced strong gamma oscillations in their electroencephalogram (EEG). Read More

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Implementation of a Service-Learning Project Focused on Handwashing and Vaccinations Within an Undergraduate Microbiology Laboratory Course.

Beth A Potter

Front Microbiol 2021 19;12:587094. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Biology, School of Science, Penn State Behrend, Erie, PA, United States.

Two relevant topics in keeping populations healthy are handwashing and vaccinations. Thus, the service-learning project titled "We Are Healthy" campaign was introduced within a microbiology laboratory course with two objectives; our biologists would better understand the importance of these actions by designing activities that engage the student community and to obtain an understanding of the campus community's behaviors and beliefs concerning these topics. Students designed the campaign to include handwashing stations, pictures of bacterial cultures from swabbing common surfaces, and trivia questions testing their peers' knowledge of various vaccines, as well as handwashing and vaccination surveys. Read More

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Are Australian rural clinical school students' career choices influenced by perceived opinions of primary care? Evidence from the national Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators survey.

Aust J Rural Health 2021 Jun 3;29(3):373-381. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Adelaide Rural Clinical School, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Objective: To investigate whether perceived opinions of primary care are associated with student career preferences after graduation among a rural clinical school cohort and whether the preferred location of practice moderates these relationships.

Design: Cross-sectional study using data from the national Federation of Rural Australian Medical Educators survey.

Participants/setting: Medical students across 18 Australian universities who completed a clinical year in a rural setting in 2019. Read More

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Racial differences in overdose training, naloxone possession, and naloxone administration among clients and nonclients of a syringe services program.

J Subst Abuse Treat 2021 Apr 15;129:108412. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Bloomberg School of Public Health, John Hopkins University, 624 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

Objective: To evaluate racial (Black/White) differences in overdose response training and take-home naloxone (THN) possession and administration among clients and nonclients of the Baltimore syringe service program (SSP).

Methods: The study derived data from a cross-sectional survey of 263 (183 SSP clients, 80 nonclients) people who inject drugs (PWID). The study recruited SSP clients using targeted sampling and recruited nonclients through peer referral from April to November 2016. Read More

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Effects of a Brief Web-Based "Social Norms"-Intervention on Alcohol, Tobacco and Cannabis Use Among German University Students: Results of a Cluster-Controlled Trial Conducted at Eight Universities.

Front Public Health 2021 14;9:659875. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology - BIPS, Bremen, Germany.

"Social norms" (SN)-interventions are aimed at changing existing misperceptions regarding peer substance use by providing feedback on actual norms, thereby affecting personal substance use. It is unknown whether SN-intervention effects previously demonstrated in US students can be replicated in German students. The aim of the INSIST-study was to examine the effects of a web-based SN-intervention on substance use. Read More

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The Association between Gender Role Attitudes and Alcohol Use among Early Adolescents in Shanghai, China.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 22;56(9):1403-1410. Epub 2021 May 22.

NHC Key Lab. of Reproduction Regulation (Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Adolescent alcohol use was a major social and public health concern given its negative impacts. Previous studies indicated gender role attitudes (GRA) were associated with alcohol use; however, few studies focused on early adolescents (10 to 14years) and similar researches were not found in China. This study sought to explore the association between GRA and alcohol use among early adolescents. Read More

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Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis attenuation and obesity risk in sexually abused females.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Jul 12;129:105254. Epub 2021 May 12.

College of Health and Human Development, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, 325 Health and Human Development Building, University Park, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) confers elevated risks for obesity in females. Mechanisms that explain this link remain unclear. This study tracked serum basal cortisol levels with body mass index (BMI) from childhood into adulthood to test whether hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis attenuation accounts for elevated obesity risks for sexually abused females. Read More

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Challenges and resources in adult life with Joubert syndrome: issues from an international classification of functioning (ICF) perspective.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 19:1-8. Epub 2021 May 19.

Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit, IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Joubert Syndrome (JS) is a rare inherited neurodevelopmental disorder defined by a characteristic cerebellar and brainstem malformation (i.e. the molar tooth sign) and variable organ involvement. Read More

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The cognitive benefits of bilingualism in autism spectrum disorder: Is theory of mind boosted and by which underlying factors?

Autism Res 2021 Aug 19;14(8):1695-1709. Epub 2021 May 19.

Linguistics Department, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

This study examined whether bilingualism boosts Theory of Mind as measured by a non-verbal false belief (FB) task in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and how this potential boost may stem from improvements in a variety of other domains, namely executive functions (EFs), language, metalinguistic awareness skills, as well as autism severity. One hundred and three children with ASD (7- to 15-year-olds) (43 bilingual and 60 age- and IQ-matched monolingual children) were tested on a nonverbal task of attentional switching, working memory and updating task, and an online, low-verbal first-order FB task. Results showed a clear FB benefit for bilingual children with ASD as compared with their monolingual peers. Read More

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The Influence of Parents, Coaches, and Peers in the Long-Term Development of Highly Skilled and Less Skilled Volleyball Players.

Front Psychol 2021 30;12:667542. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Centre for Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport (CIFI2D), Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.

The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of highly skilled and less skilled volleyball players about the influences that parents, coaches, and peers had on their sport development and performance achievement. Highly skilled ( = 30) and less skilled ( = 30) volleyball players participated in semi-structured retrospective interviews to explain how parents, coaches and peers may have influenced their sport participation. Data was analyzed through a process of content analysis. Read More

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"Web-based, second-best togetherness": Psychosocial group intervention with children of Holocaust survivors during COVID-19.

Irit V Felsen

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):171-180

Department of Psychology, Columbia University.

Evidence from multiple samples of trauma-exposed populations across the globe suggests that intergenerational trauma constitutes a biopsychological risk factor which manifests itself throughout the life cycle of offspring of trauma survivors. Prior empirical studies have shown that adult children of Holocaust survivors (OHS, also referred to in select quotes as 2G for "Second Generation") are vulnerable to life-threatening situations. This study aimed to examine the reactions of OHS to the COVID-19 pandemic, which posed a serious threat to the lives of many, in particular to older adults. Read More

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Mechanisms of Cultural Evolution in the Songs of Wild Bird Populations.

Heather Williams

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:643343. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Biology Department, Williams College, Williamstown, MA, United States.

Young songbirds draw the source material for their learned songs from parents, peers, and unrelated adults, as well as from innovation. These learned songs are used for intraspecific communication, and have well-documented roles for such functions as territory maintenance and mate attraction. The songs of wild populations differ, forming local "dialects" that may shift over time, suggesting that cultural evolution is at work. Read More

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Neurocognitive basis of deductive reasoning in children varies with parental education.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Aug 12;42(11):3396-3410. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

The neurocognitive basis of elementary academic skills varies with parental socioeconomic status (SES). Little is known, however, about SES-related differences underlying higher-order cognitive skills that are critical for school success, such as reasoning. Here we used fMRI to examine how the neurocognitive basis of deductive reasoning varies as a function of parental education in school-aged children. Read More

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White matter analysis of the extremely preterm born adult brain.

Neuroimage 2021 08 1;237:118112. Epub 2021 May 1.

Dept. Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, United Kingdom; School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, Kings College London, United Kingdom.

The preterm brain has been analysed after birth by a large body of neuroimaging studies; however, few studies have focused on white matter alterations in preterm subjects beyond infancy, especially in individuals born at extremely low gestation age - before 28 completed weeks. Neuroimaging data of extremely preterm young adults are now available to investigate the long-term structural alterations of disrupted neurodevelopment. We examined white matter hierarchical organisation and microstructure in extremely preterm young adults. Read More

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Children with Cerebral Palsy Have Similar Walking and Running Quality Assessed by an Overall Kinematic Index.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 28;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Shriners Hospitals for Children®, Erie, PA 16505, USA.

Running ability is critical to maintaining activity participation with peers. Children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) are often stated to run better than they walk, but running is not often quantitatively measured. The purpose of this study was to utilize overall gait deviation indices to determine if children with diplegic CP run closer to typically developing children than they walk. Read More

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