1,246 results match your criteria peers autism

The profile of pragmatic language impairments in children with ADHD: A systematic review.

Dev Psychopathol 2021 May 11:1-23. Epub 2021 May 11.

Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

This systematic review synthesizes the empirical literature examining pragmatic language in children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Using a taxonomy of pragmatic language, we compared the pragmatic language profiles of children with ADHD to those of typically developing (TD) children and children with autism. Three databases were searched up to October 2019: PsychInfo; PubMed; and CSA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts. Read More

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How set switching affects the use of context-appropriate language by autistic and neuro-typical children.

Autism 2021 May 9:13623613211012860. Epub 2021 May 9.

University of Kent, UK.

Lay Abstract: The way autistic individuals use language often gives the impression that they are not considering how much information listeners need in a given context. The same child can give too much information in one context (e.g. Read More

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Brief Report: Examining the Links Between Language Processes and Working Memory Impairments in Toddlers and Preschoolers with ASD.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Developmental Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, 1 Autumn Street, AU459, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Deficits in working memory have not been fully explored in toddlers and preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated the relationship between language (verbal ability, verbal self-talk) and visuospatial working memory in 2- and 4-year-olds with ASD (n = 65) and typical development (TD) (n = 54). Children with ASD displayed impairments in working memory and verbal ability, but not verbal self-talk, compared to TD peers. Read More

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Extremely preterm birth and autistic traits in young adulthood: the EPICure study.

Mol Autism 2021 May 6;12(1):30. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute for Women's Health, University College London, Medical School Building, 74 Huntley Street, London, WC1E 6AU, UK.

Background: A high prevalence of autism spectrum disorder is reported in children born extremely preterm (EP), but an even larger proportion of survivors are affected by subclinical difficulties than meet diagnostic criteria. The aims of this study were to investigate autistic traits associated with the broader autism phenotype in a cohort of young adults born EP, and explore how these traits relate to emotion recognition, empathy and autism symptom presentation in childhood. The prevalence of autism diagnoses was also investigated. Read More

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A granular perspective on inclusion: Objectively measured interactions of preschoolers with and without autism.

Autism Res 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Children's preschool experiences have consequences for development. However, it is not clear how children's real-time interactions with peers affect their language development; nor is it clear whether these processes differ between children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and two other groups of children, those with general developmental delays (DD) and typically developing (TD) children. We used objective measures of movement and vocalizations to quantify children's real-time dyadic vocal interactions and quantify classroom social networks. Read More

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Health-Related Quality of Life in Pediatric Patients with Syndromic Autism and their Caregivers.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute, Texas Children's Hospital, 1250 Moursund St. Suite 925, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Children with autism have a significantly lower quality of life compared with their neurotypical peers. While multiple studies have quantified the impact of autism on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) through standardized surveys such as the PedsQL, none have specifically investigated the impact of syndromic autism. Here we evaluate HRQoL in children diagnosed with three genetic disorders that strongly predispose to syndromic autism: Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMD), Rett syndrome (RTT), and SYNGAP1-related intellectual disability (SYNGAP1-ID). Read More

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Social Cognition in Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Epilepsy.

Front Neurol 2021 14;12:658823. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

The purpose of our study was to perform a comparative analysis of social cognition in children and adolescents with epilepsy, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific learning disorder (SLD) and in typical development (TD) controls. The secondary aim was to relate social cognition to some clinical and demographic characteristics. Our work is a transversal observational study. Read More

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The Use of Psychotropic Medication in Iranian Children with Developmental Disabilities.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Apr 13;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Nursing and Health Research, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland, UK.

The use of psychotropic medication in children is increasing worldwide. Children with developmental disabilities seem to be prescribed these medications at a higher rate compared to their non-disabled peers. Little is known about prescribing in non-Western, middle-income studies. Read More

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Improving Emotion Perception in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder with Computer-Based Training and Hearing Amplification.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 8;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Psychology, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1023, New Zealand.

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) experience challenges with social communication, often involving emotional elements of language. This may stem from underlying auditory processing difficulties, especially when incoming speech is nuanced or complex. This study explored the effects of auditory training on social perception abilities of children with ASD. Read More

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Exploring Three Core Psychological Elements When Treating Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum: Self-Awareness, Gender Identity, and Sexuality.

Ann Genovese

Cureus 2021 Mar 26;13(3):e14130. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Kansas Health System, Kansas City, USA.

For those growing up on the autism spectrum, adolescence is associated with unique challenges. This narrative review explores three core psychological elements for clinicians to consider when treating adolescents on the autism spectrum: self-awareness, gender identity, and sexuality. Developmental tasks of adolescence include adaptation to a maturing mind and body, increased expectations for independence, and the ability to establish satisfying interpersonal relationships. Read More

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Qualitative Differences in Attribution of Mental States to Other People in Autism and Schizophrenia: What are the Tools for Differential Diagnosis?

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Applied Clinical Sciences and Biotechnology, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, Località Coppito, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy.

The differential diagnosis between schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remains an important clinical question, because they have overlap in clinical diagnosis. This study explored the differences between ASD (n = 44) and SSD patients (n = 59), compared to typically developing peers (n = 63), in completing an advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) task. The outcome found several differences between groups. Read More

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Characterization of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) subtypes based on the relationship between motor skills and social communication abilities.

Hum Mov Sci 2021 Jun 21;77:102802. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Unit for Severe Disabilities in Developmental Age and Young Adults, Scientific Institute, IRCCS E. Medea, Brindisi, Italy.

Motor abnormalities are generally observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and motor difficulties are certainly evident during the early years of life and may thus precede social-communication impairments. The main aim of the present study was to examine ASD subtypes based on the relationship between motor skills and social communication abilities. Motor skills and social communication abilities were evaluated through the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition, the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Second Version and the Psychoeducational Profile-Third Edition. Read More

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Systematic Review: Nonverbal Learning Disability.

J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York.

Objective: To summarize the current state of the research literature on nonverbal learning disability (NVLD), including criteria used to define NVLD in research contexts and the quality of the extant research, and determine what research can tell us about ways in which NVLD is distinct from DSM neurodevelopmental disorders and typical development.

Method: A systematic search of seven databases was conducted to identify research on NVLD published through February 2019. Criteria used to define NVLD were extracted from identified studies and sorted by category. Read More

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Brief Report: Investigating the Motivations and Autistic Traits of Video Gamers.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Psychology, University of Glasgow, 62 Hillhead Street, Glasgow, G12 8QB, UK.

Video games are commonly of interest in autism, with autistic adolescents playing twice as much as their Typically Developing peers. The aims of this study are to investigate whether motivations to play video games measured using the Gaming Attitudes, Motivations and Experiences Scales and autistic traits using the Autism Spectrum Quotient can predict time spent playing video games. 57 participants were recruited from internet forums and completed an online questionnaire. Read More

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Promoting Sleep and Balanced Screen Time among School-Aged Children with Neurodevelopmental and Mental Health Disorders: A Parent Perspective.

Child Obes 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Boston College School of Social Work, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA.

Children with neurodevelopmental and mental health disorders (N/MHD), such as autism spectrum, mood disorders, and anxiety, are more likely to engage in excessive screen time, receive insufficient sleep, and to have obesity than neurotypical peers. However, little is known about how parents of these children approach promoting sleep and balanced screen time. We conducted semistructured interviews with 24 parents of children aged 8-15 years with a diagnosis of N/MHD to assess barriers and facilitators to promoting sleep and balanced screen time. Read More

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Atypical mediofrontal theta oscillations underlying cognitive control in kindergarteners with autism spectrum disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Weill Cornell Medicine, White Plains, NY. Electronic address:

Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often exhibit deficits in cognitive control. Neuroimaging approaches have implicated disruptions to medio-frontal cortex (MFC) structure and function. However, prior work is limited in testing whether young children with ASD exhibit disruptions to task-related theta oscillations thought to arise from the MFC. Read More

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Near-point Findings in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and in Typical Peers.

Optom Vis Sci 2021 Apr;98(4):384-393

The Ohio State University, College of Optometry, Columbus, Ohio.

Significance: Clinicians can better diagnose and manage vision problems of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children by establishing a standard of care for this population. Results also reinforce the importance of a comprehensive binocular vision evaluation in all patients with ASD.

Purpose: The purposes of this study were to compare near-point and ocular motility test findings in ASD children and typically developing (TD) peers and to compare findings among ASD children by level of verbal communication. Read More

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Decreased levels of γ-aminobutyric acid in temporal lobe of children with 47,XYY syndrome.

Neuroreport 2021 May;32(7):541-547

Department of Pediatrics, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: 47,XYY syndrome (XYY) is a male sex chromosome disorder where subjects have one X chromosome and two copies of the Y chromosome. XYY is associated with a physical phenotype and carries increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Imbalance of excitation and inhibition has been proposed as a putative biological basis of disorders such as ASD [1-3] and several studies have reported atypical brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in this population. Read More

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Assessment of medical morbidities in a rhesus monkey model of naturally occurring low sociality.

Autism Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA.

People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit a variety of medical morbidities at significantly higher rates than the general population. Using an established monkey model of naturally occurring low sociality, we investigated whether low-social monkeys show an increased burden of medical morbidities compared to their high-social counterparts. We systematically reviewed the medical records of N = 152 (n = 73 low-social; n = 79 high-social) rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) to assess the number of traumatic injury, gastrointestinal, and inflammatory events, as well as the presence of rare medical conditions. Read More

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Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Child and Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Adolescent in Chinese population: Screening autism spectrum disorder against attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and typically developing peers.

Autism 2021 Apr 12:13623613211003740. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

The Chinese University of Hong Kong, China.

Lay Abstract: The Autism-Spectrum Quotient is a 50-item questionnaire developed to assess autistic symptoms in adults, adolescents and children. Its original version and others in different countries are known to be effective tools in identifying individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined whether the Hong Kong Chinese versions of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Child and Autism-Spectrum Quotient-Adolescent were effective in identifying autism spectrum disorder children and adolescents. Read More

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Accelerometer measured physical activity among youth with autism and age, sex, and body mass index matched peers: A preliminary study.

Disabil Health J 2021 Mar 27:101102. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Old Dominion University, United States.

Background: While research has examined physical activity differences between youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and neurotypical peers, they largely do not consider demographic or anthropomorphic variables when recruiting comparison group participants.

Objective: The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between youth with ASD and age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched neurotypical peers from the same geographic region.

Method: A sample of 36 participants, including youth aged 13-17 with ASD and age, sex, and BMI-matched neurotypical youth recruited from the same geographic location. Read More

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Using a Question Bank Intervention to Improve Socially Initiated Questions in Adolescents and Adults With Autism.

J Speech Lang Hear Res 2021 04 5;64(4):1331-1339. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.

Purpose Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty asking questions during social conversation, which can negatively impact their interactions with peers. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a question bank intervention would be effective in improving question asking during social conversation. Method In the context of a multiple-baseline experimental design, we implemented an intervention using prepractice with question banks designed to increase the number and diversity of questions asked by adolescents and adults with ASD during social conversations with their peers. Read More

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Dysfunction of the Auditory Brainstem as a Neurophysiology Subtype of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Neurosci 2021 17;15:637079. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Child Psychiatry and Rehabilitation, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, China.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is very heterogeneous, particularly in language. Studies have suggested that language impairment is linked to auditory-brainstem dysfunction in ASD. However, not all ASD children have these deficits, which suggests potential subtypes of ASD. Read More

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Participation of young children with developmental disabilities: parental needs and strategies, a qualitative thematic analysis.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 1;11(4):e042732. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Department of Rehabilitation Science, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Objectives: Participation refers to a person's involvement in activities and roles that provide interaction with others as well as engagement in family and community activities. Young children with developmental disabilities (DD) such as attention deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder are limited in their participation compared with their typically developing peers. This study aimed to obtain information regarding parental needs and strategies used to enable their child's participation. Read More

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Brief Report: Sources of Sexuality and Relationship Education for Autistic and Neurotypical Adults in the U.S. and a Call to Action.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Study and Human Development, Tufts University, 105 College Ave, Medford, MA, 02155, USA.

Sexuality and relationship education (SRE) occurs in many formats. In order to inform best practices, current trends of SRE sources must be characterized. Using an online survey of autistic and neurotypical adults in the United States, we compared eleven potential sources of SRE across nine content areas. Read More

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Neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in children with and without autism spectrum disorders.

Autism Res 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Speech-Language-Hearing Sciences & Center for Neurobehavioral Development, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA.

The presence of vowel exaggeration in infant-directed speech (IDS) may adapt to the age-appropriate demands in speech and language acquisition. Previous studies have provided behavioral evidence of atypical auditory processing towards IDS in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), while the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms remain unknown. This event-related potential (ERP) study investigated the neural coding of formant-exaggerated speech and nonspeech in 24 4- to 11-year-old children with ASD and 24 typically-developing (TD) peers. Read More

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Weight Management Outcomes of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder Seeking Treatment from a Multidisciplinary Team.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Pediatrics, Developmental and Behavioral Health and Center for Children's Healthy Lifestyles & Nutrition, Children's Mercy Kansas City/University of Missouri Kansas City School of Medicine, 2401 Gillham Rd., Kansas City, MO, 64108, USA.

Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are at an increased risk for developing obesity when compared to their typically developing peers. Given higher prevalence of obesity in youth with ASD, understanding factors relating to success in obesity treatment provides insight into implementing efficacious treatments for youth. The current study examines age, sleep, and metabolic factors potentially affecting success in 74 youth (M = 11. Read More

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Another step to school inclusion: Development and validation of the Children's Attitudes Toward Autism Questionnaire.

Autism 2021 Mar 27:13623613211000163. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Université de Bordeaux, France.

Lay Abstract: Research has shown that negative attitudes toward a different child can appear very early in development. Unfortunately, these negative attitudes are one of the most important barriers to the school inclusion of children with autism. Despite the increasing amount of research, no tool reliably measures these attitudes among young students. Read More

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The influence of disclosure of an autism diagnosis on peer engagement and interactions for a child with autism in summer camps: a case study.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Mar 26:1-12. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

Purpose: Little research has evaluated how disclosure of an autism diagnosis influences peer engagement and understanding of children with autism in community recreation programs. This study describes outcomes of disclosing an autism diagnosis for a child with autism participating in mainstream, community summer camps.

Methods: This case study includes a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with autism who participated in two camps, one in which he disclosed and one in which he did not disclose. Read More

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The experience of participation: eliciting the views of children on the autism spectrum.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 Mar 26:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Autism Centre of Excellence, School of Educational and Professional Studies, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

Purpose: Children on the autism spectrum are reported to participate less in leisure activities than their peers. Little is known about what participation means for this group and the child's voice has been largely absent, partly due to methodological limitations. To address this limitation, alternative methods of eliciting children's perspectives are needed. Read More

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