168,291 results match your criteria pediatric adult


Ouabain worsens diastolic sarcomere length in myocytes from a cardiomyopathy mouse model.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 10:174170. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Cardiovascular Research Center, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Hamburg/Kiel/Lübeck, Germany. Electronic address:

Diastolic dysfunction is a major feature of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Data from patient tissue and animal models associate increased Ca sensitivity of myofilaments with altered Na and Ca ion homeostasis in cardiomyocytes with diastolic dysfunction. In this study, we tested the acute effects of ouabain on ventricular myocytes of an HCM mouse model. Read More

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Transparent, Compliant 3D Mesostructures for Precise Evaluation of Mechanical Characteristics of Organoids.

Adv Mater 2021 May 13:e2100026. Epub 2021 May 13.

Querrey Simpson Institute for Bioelectronics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, 60208, USA.

Recently developed methods for transforming 2D patterns of thin-film materials into 3D mesostructures create many interesting opportunities in microsystems design. A growing area of interest is in multifunctional thermal, electrical, chemical, and optical interfaces to biological tissues, particularly 3D multicellular, millimeter-scale constructs, such as spheroids, assembloids, and organoids. Herein, examples of 3D mechanical interfaces are presented, in which thin ribbons of parylene-C form the basis of transparent, highly compliant frameworks that can be reversibly opened and closed to capture, envelop, and mechanically restrain fragile 3D tissues in a gentle, nondestructive manner, for precise measurements of viscoelastic properties using techniques in nanoindentation. Read More

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Natural gene therapy by reverse mosaicism leads to improved hematology in Fanconi anemia patients.

Am J Hematol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Genomic Instability and DNA repair Syndromes group and Joint Research Unit on Genomic Medicine UAB-Sant Pau Biomedical Research Institute (IIB Sant Pau), Institut de Recerca Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau-IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by chromosome fragility, bone marrow failure (BMF) and predisposition to cancer. As reverse genetic mosaicism has been described as "natural gene therapy" in patients with FA, we sought to evaluate the clinical course of a cohort of FA mosaic patients followed at referral centers in Spain over a 30-year period. This cohort includes patients with a majority of T-cells without chromosomal aberrations in the DEB-chromosomal breakage test. Read More

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Clinical Trial Availability by Location for 1000 Simulated AYA Patients.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Individualized Cancer Management, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) oncology patients are less likely to enroll in clinical trials than pediatric patients. After two decades of effort to improve enrollments, challenges remain. We sought to explore where phase II and phase III trials are available for an AYA cohort. Read More

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Barriers to Pediatric Oncologist Enrollment of Adolescents and Young Adults on a Cross-Network National Clinical Trials Network Supportive Care Cancer Clinical Trial.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA.

Few studies have explored interventions to improve adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer care delivery. While many AYAs receive cancer care at NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites, few enroll on clinical trials. Barriers and facilitators to pediatric oncologist activation of and enrollment on an AYA cross-network National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) supportive care trial were assessed using a survey that was administered to 162 stakeholders representing all 47 children's oncology group (COG) institutions affiliated to an NCORP. Read More

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Evaluation of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures of Positive Psychosocial Constructs in Children and Adolescent/Young Adults with Cancer: A Systematic Review of Measurement Properties.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Oklahoma State University Center for Health Sciences, Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA.

Children, adolescents, and young adults with cancer are a vulnerable population in whom improvements in psycho-oncology care would be valuable. We previously published a scoping review exploring what is known about positive psychological constructs in this population. A key finding was that evidence-based patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were needed to standardize psycho-oncology research. Read More

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Robust Antibody and T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Antibody Deficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Center for Cancer and Immunology Research, Children's Research Institute, Children's National Hospital, Washington, DC, USA.

Immunocompromised patients, including those with inborn errors of immunity (IEI), may be at increased risk for severe or prolonged infections with SARS-CoV-2 (Zhu et al. N Engl J Med. 382:727-33, 2020; Guan et al. Read More

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A National Comparative Investigation of Twins With Congenital Heart Defects for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes and Quality of Life (Same Same, but Different?): Protocol for a Prospective Observational Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 13;10(5):e26404. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology, German Heart Center of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Due to the increased survival rates of patients with congenital heart defects (CHD), associated disorders are an increasing focus of research. Existing studies figured out an association between CHD and its treatment, and neurodevelopmental outcomes including motor competence impairments. All these studies, however, compared their test results with reference values or results of healthy control groups. Read More

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ACG Clinical Report and Recommendations on Transition of Care in Children and Adolescents With Hereditary Polyposis Syndromes.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Apr;116(4):638-646

1Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, MO, USA; 2University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA; 3Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 4St Mark's Hospital Polyposis Registry, Harrow, United Kingdom; 5Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Hospital for Sick Children and the Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 6Center for Behavioral Health, Neurological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland OH, USA; 7Department of Colorectal Surgery, Digestive Disease and Surgery Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA; 8Dana-Dwek Children's Hospital, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Transition of care (TOC) in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic gastrointestinal disorders has received increased attention, especially in those with inflammatory bowel disease. AYAs with hereditary polyposis syndromes are a heterogeneous group of patients with overlapping and complex medical needs. These patients are particularly vulnerable because of the risk of loss of continuity of care and subsequent poor disease outcomes. Read More

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Severe abrupt (thunderclap) non-traumatic headache at the pediatric emergency department - a retrospective study.

Cephalalgia 2021 May 13:3331024211014612. Epub 2021 May 13.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Adult abrupt severe non-traumatic headache (thunderclap) is often related to serious underlying etiologies such as subarachnoid hemorrhage. However, data are sparse regarding thunderclap headache in the pediatric population.

Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence, characteristics and causes of thunderclap headache in the pediatric and adolescent population, aged 6-18 years, presenting to a pediatric emergency department. Read More

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Patterns of Growth in Childhood in Relation to Adult Schooling Attainment and Intelligence Quotient in 6 Birth Cohorts in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from the Consortium of Health-Oriented Research in Transitioning Societies (COHORTS).

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutrition and Health Sciences, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Growth faltering has been associated with poor intellectual performance. The relative strengths of associations between growth in early and in later childhood remain underexplored.

Objectives: We examined the association between growth in childhood and adult human capital in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Read More

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Perinatal Depressive Symptoms, HIV Suppression, and the Underlying Role of ART Adherence: A Longitudinal Mediation Analysis in the IMPAACT P1025 Cohort.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Drexel University School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Women with HIV have higher risk of depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. Evidence on how perinatal depressive symptoms affect viral suppression (VS) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains limited.

Methods: Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed using 6 items from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Quality of Life questionnaire. Read More

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Telehealth and chronic pain management from rapid adaptation to long-term implementation in pain medicine: A narrative review.

Pain Rep 2021 9;6(1):e912. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

The COVID-19 pandemic called for drastic changes to expand and rapidly implement telehealth to prevent breach of care for chronic patients. Responding to the challenge of implementing remote care in chronic pain services, a specialty highly dependent on doctor-patient rapport, physical examination, and frequent follow-up visits requires extensive adaptation involving administrative processes and clinical routines. We present our experience of a successful rapid adaptation to telemedicine paradigm as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic during a time of marked restriction of access to ambulatory hospital services for pediatric and adult chronic pain patients. Read More

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Biological Therapies in Children and Adolescents with Severe Uncontrolled Asthma: A Practical Review.

Biologics 2021 5;15:133-142. Epub 2021 May 5.

Pediatric Clinic, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Severe uncontrolled asthma is a complex and heterogeneous disease. A multidisciplinary assessment is required to correctly identify and manage children and adolescents with severe asthma because they may require strict monitoring and additional treatment with advanced targeted therapies. Recent research efforts have focused on identifying epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular mechanisms that underlie severe asthma, leading to the recognition of different phenotypes and endotypes and identifying biomarkers able to predict the response to biologic therapies. Read More

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Long-Term Care of the Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipient.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Pediatric kidney transplant recipients are distinguished from adult recipients by the need for many decades of graft function, the potential effect of CKD on neurodevelopment, and the changing immune environment of a developing human. The entire life of an individual who receives a transplant as a child is colored by their status as a transplant recipient. Not only must these young recipients negotiate all of the usual challenges of emerging adulthood (transition from school to work, romantic relationships, achieving independence from parents), but they must learn to manage a life-threatening medical condition independently. Read More

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Pathogenic variants in , a chromatin remodeler, cause a range of syndromic neurodevelopmental features.

Sci Adv 2021 May 12;7(20). Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Genetics and Metabolism, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Intellectual disability encompasses a wide spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders, with many linked genetic loci. However, the underlying molecular mechanism for more than 50% of the patients remains elusive. We describe pathogenic variants in , encoding the ATPase motor of the ISWI chromatin remodeler, as a cause of a previously unidentified neurodevelopmental disorder, identifying 12 individuals with de novo or dominantly segregating rare heterozygous variants. Read More

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One cross-sectional investigation revealed that non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be identified more frequently in elderly Chinese people.

Vaccine 2021 May 9. Epub 2021 May 9.

Key Laboratory of Major Diseases in Children, Ministry of Education, National Key Discipline of Pediatrics (Capital Medical University), Beijing Pediatric Research Institute, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing 100045, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To analyze the serotype distribution and drug resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from hospitalized patients of all ages in Zhongjiang county, Sichuan province, where the young children have just begun to vaccinate the PCV13 in private sector.

Methods: Serotypes were determined for 387 isolates of S. pneumoniae by Quellung reaction. Read More

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Relative independence of upper limb position sense and reaching in children with hemiparetic perinatal stroke.

J Neuroeng Rehabil 2021 May 12;18(1):80. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Calgary, 1403 29th St. NW, Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary, AB, T2N 0P8, Canada.

Background: Studies using clinical measures have suggested that proprioceptive dysfunction is related to motor impairment of the upper extremity following adult stroke. We used robotic technology and clinical measures to assess the relationship between position sense and reaching with the hemiparetic upper limb in children with perinatal stroke.

Methods: Prospective term-born children with magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed perinatal ischemic stroke and upper extremity deficits were recruited from a population-based cohort. Read More

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Giant intracardiac thrombosis in an infant with leukaemia and prolonged COVID-19 viral RNA shedding: a case report.

Thromb J 2021 May 12;19(1):31. Epub 2021 May 12.

Pediatric Infectious Disease Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Children's Medical Center Hospital, Dr. Gharib Street, Keshavarz Boulevard, Tehran, Iran.

Background: COVID-19 can induce thrombotic disease both in the venous and arterial circulations, as a result of inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and stasis. Although several studies have described the coagulation abnormalities and thrombosis in adult patients with COVID-19, there is limited data in children. Here, we present an 18-month-old boy with a prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and chronic right atrial and superior vena cava (SVC) thrombosis. Read More

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BRAF more frequently co-occurs with IDH1/2 mutations in adult patients with gliomas than in patients harboring BRAF but without a survival advantage.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 12;21(1):195. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, No.277 Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi, China.

Background: The effects of BRAF and BRAF on the outcomes and the molecular characteristics of adult glioma patients are unknown and need to be explored, although BRAF has been extensively studied in pediatric glioma.

Methods: Co-occurring mutations and copy number alterations of associated genes in the MAPK and p53 pathways were investigated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) public database retrieved by cBioPortal. The prognosis of available adult glioma cohorts with BRAF and BRAF mutations were also investigated. Read More

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Body Mass Index in 1.9 Million Adolescents and Stroke in Young Adulthood.

Stroke 2021 May 13:STROKEAHA120033595. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Military Medicine, Hebrew University, Jerusalem and the Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, Ramat Gan (A.B., B.F., A.F., R.G., E.D., D. Tzur, C.D.B., G.T.).

Background And Purpose: There is a continuous rise in the prevalence of adolescent obesity and incidence of stroke among young adults in many Western countries, but the association between them is unclear.

Methods: A nationwide population-based study of 1 900 384 Israeli adolescents (58% men; mean age, 17.3 years) who were evaluated before mandatory military service during 1985 and 2013. Read More

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Temporary Diverting End-Colostomy in Critically Ill Children with Severe Perianal Wound Infection.

Adv Skin Wound Care 2021 Jun;34(6):322-326

At the Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey, Emrah Gün, MD, is Fellow, Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine; Tanil Kendirli, MD, is Professor, Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine; Edin Botan, MD, is Fellow, Department of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine; Halil Özdemir, MD, is Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease; Ergin Çiftçi, MD, is Professor, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease; Kübra Konca, MD, is Fellow, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease; Meltem Koloğlu, MD, is Professor, Department of Pediatric Surgery; Gülnur Göllü, MD, is Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Surgery; Özlem Selvi Can, MD, is Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Anesthesia; Ercan Tutar, MD, is Professor, Department of Pediatric Cardiology; Ahmet Rüçhan Akar, MD, is Professor, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart Center, Cebeci Hospitals; and Erdal İnce, MD, is Professor, Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank all the pediatric ICU nursing staff for all their efforts and support for our critically ill pediatric patients. The authors have disclosed no financial relationships related to this article. Submitted June 24, 2020; accepted in revised form September 25, 2020.

Abstract: Broad and deep perianal wounds are challenging in both adult and pediatric ICUs. These wounds, if contaminated with gastrointestinal flora, can cause invasive sepsis and death, and recovery can be prolonged. Controlling the source of infection without diverting stool from the perianal region is complicated. Read More

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Birthweight, Childhood Body Mass Index, Height and Growth, and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Obes Facts 2021 May 12:1-8. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Clinical Research and Prevention, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, The Capital Region, Frederiksberg, Denmark.

Introduction: Adult obesity is linked with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the importance of body size at ages before PCOS is diagnosed is unknown.

Objective: To investigate associations between a woman's own birthweight, childhood body mass index (BMI), height and growth patterns in relation to her risk of PCOS.

Methods: We included 65,665 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born in the period 1960-1996, with information on birthweight and measured weight and height at the ages of 7-13 years. Read More

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Tympanostomy Tubes or Medical Management for Recurrent Acute Otitis Media.

N Engl J Med 2021 05;384(19):1789-1799

From the Departments of Pediatrics (A.H., J.L.P., M.H., D.H.K., S.B., G.B.M.P., T.R.S., J.M.M., M.K.-L., H.L., K.Y., J.P.N., N.S.) and Otolaryngology (D.H.C., J.E.D.), University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, the Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health (J.-H.J.), and Children's Community Pediatrics (N.L.C., B.C.) - all in Pittsburgh; Children's National Medical Center, Washington, DC (D.P., D.E.F.); and Kentucky Pediatric and Adult Research, Bardstown (S.L.B.).

Background: Official recommendations differ regarding tympanostomy-tube placement for children with recurrent acute otitis media.

Methods: We randomly assigned children 6 to 35 months of age who had had at least three episodes of acute otitis media within 6 months, or at least four episodes within 12 months with at least one episode within the preceding 6 months, to either undergo tympanostomy-tube placement or receive medical management involving episodic antimicrobial treatment. The primary outcome was the mean number of episodes of acute otitis media per child-year (rate) during a 2-year period. Read More

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Pegaspargase in Practice: Minimizing Toxicity, Maximizing Benefit.

Curr Hematol Malig Rep 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of Virginia School of Medicine, 1215 Lee Street, Charlottesville, VA, 22903, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The incorporation of pegaspargase in chemotherapy regimens has significantly improved the prognosis of ALL in adults. However, pegaspargase use poses many challenges due to its unique toxicity profile. Here, we review pegaspargase's most clinically significant toxicities, and provide guidance for their prevention and management in order to avoid unnecessary drug discontinuation and achieve maximum clinical benefit. Read More

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Cystatin C: best biomarker for acute kidney injury and estimation of glomerular filtration rate in childhood cirrhosis.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatric Hepatology, Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences, New Delhi, 110070, India.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic role of serum cystatin C, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and renal resistive index (RRI) in AKI among pediatric cirrhotics. The study included cirrhotic children under 18 years of age. AKI was diagnosed as per Kidney Diseases-Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the kidneys and adrenals in children.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Pediatric applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) are growing. Evaluation of the kidneys and adrenal glands in children using intravenous administration of US contrast agents, however, is still an off-label indication. Pediatric CEUS applications for kidneys are similar to those in adults, including ischemic disorders, pseudo- versus real tumors, indeterminate lesions, complex cystic lesions, complicated pyelonephritis, and abscesses. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of pediatric lungs.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

In addition to radiography, ultrasound (US) has long proved to be a valuable imaging modality to evaluate the pediatric lung and pleural cavity. Its many inherent advantages, including real-time performance, high spatial resolution, lack of ionizing radiation and lack of need for sedation make it preferable over other imaging modalities such as CT. Since the introduction of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has become a valuable complementary US technique, with many well-established uses in adults and evolving uses in children. Read More

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of the pediatric bowel.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Radiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3401 Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has emerged as a valuable modality for bowel imaging in adults and children. CEUS enables visualization of the perfusion of the bowel wall and of the associated mesentery in healthy and disease states. In addition, CEUS images can be used to make quantitative measurements of contrast kinetics, allowing for objective assessment of bowel wall enhancement. Read More

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High variability and lack of standardization in the evaluation of return to sport after ACL reconstruction: a systematic review.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sports Medicine Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Purpose: Return to sport (RTS) after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) has been recognized as an important outcome, which is associated with success of the surgery. This study aimed to assess the methods used to determine return to sport after ACLR in the published literature, report on variability of methods and evaluate their strength in establishing accurate RTS data.

Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Embase) were searched via a defined search strategy with no limits, to identify relevant studies from January 2008 to December 2020 for inclusion in the review. Read More

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