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SLC1A5 glutamine transporter is a target of MYC and mediates reduced mTORC1 signaling and increased fatty acid oxidation in long-lived Myc hypomorphic mice.

Aging Cell 2019 Mar 25:e12947. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Molecular Biology, Cell Biology and Biochemistry, and Center on the Biology of Aging, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Mice that express reduced levels of the c-Myc gene (Myc heterozygotes) are long-lived. Myc hypomorphic mice display reduced rates of protein translation and decreased activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). Given the prominent effect of mTOR on aging, lower mTORC1 activity could contribute to the exceptional longevity and enhanced healthspan of Myc animals. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.12947DOI Listing

Neuromodulatory Effect of NLRP3 and ASC in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy.

Neonatology 2019 Mar 25;115(4):355-362. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Research Institute of Internal Medicine, Rikshospitalet, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Following birth asphyxia there is a robust inflammatory response. NLRP3 is a receptor of the innate immune system. Upon activation, NLRP3 forms an inflammasome together with ASC and procaspase-1 to mediate release of IL-1β and IL-18. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000497200DOI Listing

Very Preterm Infants with Technological Dependence at Home: Impact on Resource Use and Family.

Neonatology 2019 Mar 25;115(4):363-370. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Objective: To examine the impact of medical complexity among very preterm infants on health care resource use, family, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 18 months' corrected age.

Methods: This observational cohort study of Canadian infants born < 29 weeks' gestational age in 2009-2011 compared infants with and those without medical complexity defined as discharged home with assistive medical technology. Health care resource use and family outcomes were collected. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000496494DOI Listing

CYR61 improves muscle force recreation in a rabbit trauma model.

Technol Health Care 2019 Mar 14. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Trauma, Hand, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Critically elevated compartment pressures after complicated tibial fractures may result in fibrosis and therefore scarring of muscles with impaired function. Several studies have shown a relationship between angiogenesis and more effective muscle regeneration. Cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61 (CYR61) is associated with angiogenesis but it is not clear whether it would restore muscle force, reduce scarring or improve angiogenesis after acute musculoskeletal trauma. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/THC-191635DOI Listing

Occipital mass in antenatal sonography.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Staten Island University Hospital Northwell Health, Staten Island, NY, USA.

Biophysical profile (BPP) with ultrasound performed for a 32-year-old G5P3013 admitted at 31 weeks gestation with preterm, premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) noted an extracalvarial mass concerning for an encephalocele. Fetal MRI demonstrated edema over the occiput with no definable lesion visualized. Preterm labor requiring Cesarean delivery resulted in a live male neonate at 33 weeks gestation. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NPM-1872DOI Listing

Microvillus inclusion disease, a diagnosis to consider when abnormal stools and neurological impairments run together due to a rare syntaxin 3 gene mutation.

J Neonatal Perinatal Med 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and University Health System, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Background: Microvillus Inclusion Disease (MVID) was first described in the literature in 1978 with presentation of severe watery diarrhea, failure to thrive, and metabolic acidosis. Mutations in the myosin Vb (MYO5B) gene have been identified as causative for MVID, but other clinical manifestations and associations with novel mutations are lacking.

Methods: We report a full-term infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) with abdominal distension and inability to sustain full enteral feeds. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/NPM-1852DOI Listing

Relationship of serum inflammatory cytokines with anemia and vascular endothelial function in children with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Hemorheol Microcirc 2019 Mar 16. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Objective: To analyze the relationship of the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines with the degree of anemia and vascular endothelial function in children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as to explore the predictive value of risk factors for SLE in children.

Methods: A total of 88 patients with SLE diagnosed in the Pediatric Department of our hospital from March 2015 to February 2017 were selected as the observation group, and 30 healthy controls with comparable age were selected as the control group. Basic characteristics of all enrolled individuals, such as age, sex, height and weight, and the related biochemical indexes, including the levels of inflammatory cytokines [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)], blood routine test including hemoglobin (Hb), platelet (PLT) and mean corpuscular volume as well as related indexes of vascular endothelial function, such as homocysteine (Hcy), carbonic oxide (NO), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/CH-180492DOI Listing

Thermal block of action potentials is primarily due to voltage-dependent potassium currents: A modeling study.

J Neural Eng 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Biology, Case Western Reserve University, DeGrace Hall, 304, Case Western Reserve University, 2080 Adelbert Road, Cleveland, OH 44106 - 7080, USA, Cleveland, Ohio, UNITED STATES.

Objective: Thermal block of action potential conduction using infrared lasers is a new modality for manipulating neural activity. It could be used for analysis of the nervous system and for therapeutic applications. We sought to understand the mechanisms of thermal block. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ab131bDOI Listing

Don't look at it as a miracle cure: Contested notions of success and failure in family narratives of pediatric cochlear implantation.

Authors:
Laura Mauldin

Soc Sci Med 2019 Mar 16;228:117-125. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Human Development & Family Studies, Women's Gender and Sexuality Studies, University of Connecticut, USA. Electronic address:

Cochlear implants (CIs) are a routine treatment for children identified with a qualifying hearing loss. The CI, however, must be accompanied by a long-term and intense auditory training regimen in order to possibly acquire spoken language with the device. This research investigates families' experiences when they opted for the CI and undertook the task of auditory training, but the child failed to achieve what might be clinically considered "success" - the ability to function solely using spoken language. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.03.021DOI Listing

Default mode network deactivation in pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy: Relationship to a working memory task and executive function tests.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 Mar 22;94:124-130. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, United States of America.

Objectives: Children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) exhibit executive dysfunction on traditional neuropsychological tests. There is limited evidence of different functional network alterations associated with this clinical executive dysfunction. This study investigates working memory deficits in children with TLE by assessing deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and the relationship of DMN deactivation with fMRI behavioral findings and neuropsychological test performance. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.02.031DOI Listing

Impact of radiotherapy administered simultaneously with systemic treatment in patients with melanoma brain metastases within MelBase, a French multicentric prospective cohort.

Eur J Cancer 2019 Mar 22;112:38-46. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

APHP Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, Paris 7 Diderot University, INSERM U976, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Background: Melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) are historically associated with poor prognosis. Radiation therapy is conventionally associated with a high local control rate. Development of targeted therapy and immunotherapy has improved overall survival (OS) and intracranial response rate, but about 50% of patients failed to respond to these novel therapies. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2019.02.009DOI Listing

Nonoperative Management Is Cost-Effective in Patients With Perforated Appendicitis With Longer Days of Symptoms.

J Surg Res 2019 Mar 22;240:70-79. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Background: Management of perforated appendicitis in children remains controversial. Nonoperative (NO) and immediate operative (IO) strategies are used with varying outcomes. We hypothesized that IO intervention for patients with perforated appendicitis would be more cost-effective than NO management. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.02.033DOI Listing

Label-free impedimetric immunosensor based on arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles for detection of DHEAS, a biomarker of pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma.

Biosens Bioelectron 2019 Mar 6;133:86-93. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

Department of Chemistry, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Av. General Carlos Cavalcanti, 4748, 84030-900 Ponta Grossa, Paraná, Brazil. Electronic address:

Pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma (pACC) is a rare and aggressive malignancy of high occurrence in Southern Brazil. pACC is characterized by the usual overproduction of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), whose detection in serum or plasma can be effective to the early diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, the present paper reports, for the first time, the construction and application of a label-free impedimetric immunosensor to detect DHEAS, which was based on the modification of an oxidized glassy carbon electrode with arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-ARG) and anti-DHEA IgM antibodies (ox-GCE/AuNPs-ARG/IgM). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2019.02.063DOI Listing

Neurodevelopment medium-term outcome after parechovirus infection.

Early Hum Dev 2019 Mar 22;132:1-5. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain; Fundación IdiPaz, Spain; Red de Investigación Traslacional en Infectología Pediátrica (RITIP), Spain; TEDDY Network, European Network of Excellence for Pediatric Clinical Research, Italy.

Aim: Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are responsible for fever without a source (FWS), sepsis-like illness and encephalitis in neonates and children under 3 months of age. Short-term outcome is generally good, but there is great concern about medium and long- term outcome of infants after HPeV infection. The aim of this study is to assess the medium-term outcome in infants following HPeV infection without encephalitis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2019.03.005DOI Listing

Aplastic Anemia & MDS International Foundation (AA&MDSIF): Bone Marrow Failure Disease Scientific Symposium 2018.

Leuk Res 2019 Mar 20;80:19-25. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Hematology Unit, IRCSS, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Via Gerolamo Gaslini, 5, 16147, Genoa, Italy. Electronic address:

The bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes are a group of rare disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting from deficiencies in the hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Although these diseases are typically acquired, some forms (e.g. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leukres.2019.03.003DOI Listing

Minimizing Opioid Prescribing in Surgery (MOPiS) Initiative: An Analysis of Implementation Barriers.

J Surg Res 2019 Mar 22;239:309-319. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center (SOQIC), Department of Surgery and Center for Healthcare Studies, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Background: The United States is in the midst of an opioid epidemic. In response, our institution developed the Minimizing Opioid Prescribing in Surgery (MOPiS) initiative. MOPiS is a multicomponent intervention including: (1) patient education on opioid safety and pain management expectations; (2) clinician education on safe opioid prescribing; (3) prescribing data feedback; (4) patient risk screening to assess for addictive behavior; and (5) optimizations to the electronic health record (EHR). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.03.006DOI Listing

Prenatal exposure to perfluorobutanesulfonic acid and childhood adiposity: A prospective birth cohort study in Shanghai, China.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 19;226:17-23. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Pediatrics, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200092, China. Electronic address:

Background: Several per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been phased out due to their adverse effects, and replaced by the short-chain perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS). However, the long-term impacts of PFBS on human health are unknown.

Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to PFAS, especially PFBS and childhood adiposity at 5 years of age. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.03.095DOI Listing

B-lymphocyte-intrinsic and -extrinsic defects in secretory immunoglobulin A production in the neural crest-conditional deletion of endothelin receptor B model of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis.

FASEB J 2019 Mar 25:fj201801913R. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a common cause of intestinal obstruction in the newborn. Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis (HAEC) is a significant and life-threatening complication of HSCR, affecting up to 60% of patients. Animal models of endothelin receptor B ( EdnrB) mutation reliably model human HSCR and HAEC. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801913RDOI Listing

Myristoylated rhinovirus VP4 protein activates TLR2-dependent pro-inflammatory gene expression.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases, Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan Medical School, United States.

Asthma exacerbations are often caused by rhinovirus (RV). We and others have shown that TLR2, a membrane surface receptor that recognizes bacterial lipopeptides and lipoteichoic acid, is required and sufficient for RV-induced pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that viral protein (VP)-4, an internal capsid protein which is myristoylated upon viral replication and externalized upon viral binding, is a ligand for TLR2. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00365.2018DOI Listing

Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: diagnosis and management in the emergency department.

Pediatr Emerg Med Pract 2019 Apr 1;16(4):1-28. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Attending Physician, Department of Emergency Medicine, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital, Oakland, CA.

Worldwide, pneumonia is the most common cause of death in children aged < 5 years. Distinguishing viral from bacterial causes of pneumonia is paramount to providing effective treatment but remains a significant challenge. For patients who can be managed with outpatient treatment, the utility of laboratory tests and radiographic studies, as well as the need for empiric antibiotics, remains questionable. Read More

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Short-term "in vivo" study on cellular DNA damage induced by acrylic Andresen activator in oral mucosa cells.

Orthod Craniofac Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery; Department of Surgical Sciences, Dentistry, Gynecology and Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objectives: To analyze through comet assay and micronucleus test the viability and DNA damage occurred in buccal mucosa epithelial cells after a short-term exposure to Andresen activator resin monomers.

Setting And Sample Population: Test group consisting of 26 subjects was treated with Andresen activator; 16 subjects who had never undergone orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the control group.

Material & Methods: Buccal mucosa samples were collected before treatment and after 7, 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12312DOI Listing

First International Conference on RASopathies and Neurofibromatoses in Asia: Identification and advances of new therapeutics.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Institute of Medical Genetics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

The neurofibromatoses, which include neurofibromatosis type I (NF1), neurofibromatosis type II (NF2), and schwannomatosis, are a group of syndromes characterized by tumor growth in the nervous system. The RASopathies are a group of syndromes caused by germline mutations in genes that encode components of the RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The RASopathies include NF1, Noonan syndrome, Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome, Legius syndrome, capillary malformation arterio-venous malformation syndrome, and SYNGAP1 autism. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61125DOI Listing

From process to progress-2017 International Conference on Neurofibromatosis 1, Neurofibromatosis 2 and Schwannomatosis.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, and Department of Cell, Developmental and Cancer Biology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon.

The neurofibromatoses are inherited, tumor suppressor disorders that are characterized by multiple, benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors and other nervous system tumors. Each disease is associated with a distinct genetic mutation and with a different pathogenesis and clinical course. Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is common and epitomized by multiple neurofibromas with widespread complications. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61112DOI Listing

Development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia following treatment for acute myeloid leukemia in children with Down syndrome: A case report and retrospective review of Children's Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2019 Mar 25:e27700. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

M. D. Anderson Children's Cancer Hospital, University of Texas, Houston, Texas.

Children with Down syndrome have a 150-fold increased risk of developing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 20-fold increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Although the risk of developing AML and ALL is significantly increased in children with Down syndrome, the development of both malignancies in the same patient is very rare. We describe a patient with Down syndrome who developed ALL 6 years after being diagnosed with AML. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.27700DOI Listing

Orofacial clefts in California: No decline in Alberta, Canada.

Am J Med Genet A 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Alberta Congenital Anomalies Surveillance System, Clinical Genetics, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61136DOI Listing

Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger - United States, 2019.

Am J Transplant 2019 Apr;19(4):1229-1231

Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15335DOI Listing

Cardiac findings and hemodynamic changes associated with severe lower urinary tract obstruction in utero.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Columbia University Medical Center, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY.

Introduction: Lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) in the fetus may result in massive bladder distention, renal dysfunction, oligohydramnios, and lung hypoplasia. The hemodynamic impact of this pathophysiology has not been well-described.

Methods: We included fetuses diagnosed with severe LUTO with giant bladder and with at least one fetal echocardiogram performed at our center from January 2005 to May 2018. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/uog.20271DOI Listing

The miR-3940-5p inhibits cell proliferation of gingival mesenchymal stem cells.

Oral Dis 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Tianjin Stomatology Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, 300041, China.

Objectives: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a well-recognized side-effect of nifedipine (NIF). However, the molecular mechanisms of DIGO are still unknown. Here, we explored the possible role of miR-3940-5p in DIGO using NIF-treated gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/odi.13092DOI Listing

Cefmetazole for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Pediatric Pyelonephritis.

Pediatr Int 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, 2-8-29, Musashidai, Fuchu-shi, Tokyo, 183-8561, Japan.

Background: Pyelonephritis caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are an urgent problem in pediatrics. Although carbapenem is the standard therapy for infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceaes, some cephamycins, including cefmetazole, are stable against hydrolysis by ESBL. However, there are few reports of the use of cefmetazole in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ped.13847DOI Listing

Shakespeare, Perioperative Respiratory Adverse Events, COLDS, and the Room Air Oxygen Saturation: "All's Well That Ends Well".

Paediatr Anaesth 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

We read with some interest the article by Lee et al. on using the COLDS assessment tool to evaluate the risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with an upper respiratory tract infection (URI). This article, like many research reports looking at URI and perioperative respiratory adverse events in children, reminds us that as typically defined, perioperative respiratory adverse events are fairly common in pediatric patients, even in those who do not have a URI. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13633DOI Listing

Use of distraction techniques for the management of anxiety and fear in pediatric dental practice: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Objective: To determine if distraction techniques (DT) reduce children's/adolescent's anxiety and fear during dental treatment.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which any type of DT were used to manage dental anxiety and dental fear in children/ adolescents were included. A systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Lilacs, and Google Scholar was conducted. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12499DOI Listing

Managing costs in primary immunodeficiency: minimal immunophenotyping and three national references.

APMIS 2019 Apr;127(4):228-235

Pediatric Allergy and Immunology/Center of Investigation in Pediatrics (CIPED), Faculty of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas - Unicamp, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Our aim was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a minimal lymphocyte subset quantification (LSQ) by flow cytometry as the first screening in children with clinically suspected primary immunodeficiency (PID). Two hundred sixty-eight Brazilian patients (0-21 years old) were studied. They were divided by clinical and phenotypical features into those fulfilling criteria for PID (PID phenotype) according to the 2017 International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification and those not fulfilling these criteria (non-PID phenotype). Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12932DOI Listing

Carotenoids, fatty acids, and disease burden in obese minority adolescents with asthma.

Clin Exp Allergy 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York, US.

Background: Pediatric obesity-related asthma causes high disease burden, is associated with metabolic abnormalities, has few therapeutic options, and disproportionately affects urban minority children. Although poor diet quality is linked to asthma, the association of nutritional status with disease burden among children with obesity-related asthma is not well understood.

Objective: To quantify nutritional status, defined as concentrations of serum carotenoids and n-3 fatty acids, and its association with pulmonary function and metabolic markers among obese asthmatic children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cea.13391DOI Listing

Utility of transesophageal echocardiography for intra-operatively assessing pulmonary artery pressure across an isolated ventricular septal defect in children.

Echocardiography 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: The magnitude of pulmonary hypertension (PH) is extremely important with respect to the intra-operative management of children and infants with an isolated ventricular septal defect (VSD). This study aimed to assess the feasibility and accuracy of transesophageal echocardiography for estimating pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) across isolated VSD.

Methods: We compared the results of transesophageal echocardiography vs invasive PASP measured simultaneously. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14316DOI Listing

Relative Contribution of Epiphyseal Tubercle and Peripheral Cupping to Capital Femoral Epiphysis Stability During Daily Activities.

J Orthop Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Epiphyseal tubercle and peripheral cupping can influence the development of slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) and Cam morphology. During normal skeletal growth, epiphyseal tubercle shrinks while the peripheral cupping grows. We hypothesized that epiphyseal tubercle act as the primary stabilizer of the head-neck junction at early stages and this role is gradually transferred to epiphyseal cupping as the tubercle shrinks and cupping grows. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jor.24278DOI Listing

Cox regression model with randomly censored covariates.

Biom J 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX, USA.

This paper deals with a Cox proportional hazards regression model, where some covariates of interest are randomly right-censored. While methods for censored outcomes have become ubiquitous in the literature, methods for censored covariates have thus far received little attention and, for the most part, dealt with the issue of limit-of-detection. For randomly censored covariates, an often-used method is the inefficient complete-case analysis (CCA) which consists in deleting censored observations in the data analysis. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bimj.201800275DOI Listing

Impact of Gastrostomy Tube Placement on Short-Term Weight Gain in Hospitalized Premature Infants.

JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Background: Gastrostomy tube (G-tube) placement is a long-term alternative to oral or nasogastric feeding for premature infants who cannot safely feed orally or need supplemental nutrition for adequate growth.

Methods: We compared daily weight changes for G-tube infants 14 and 30 days preplacement and postplacement, excluding the first 7 days post-G-tube insertion. Infants <37 weeks of gestation without major congenital anomalies and discharged from 327 United States neonatal intensive care units (2004-2013) were included. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jpen.1539DOI Listing

Relation Between Oppositional/Conduct Behaviors and Executive Function Among Youth with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Center for Behavioral Teratology and Department of Psychology, San Diego State University.

Background: Youth with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure have high rates of behavioral concerns and psychopathology, including increased oppositional and conduct behaviors. The relation between those concerns and executive function (EF) deficits is unknown. We investigated the association of oppositional and conduct behavior and EF in adolescents to inform targeted intervention. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14036DOI Listing

A Toll-like receptor 2 genetic variant modulates occurrence of bacterial infections in patients with sickle cell disease.

Br J Haematol 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

INSERM U955, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

Despite adequate immunization and penicillin prophylaxis, bacterial infections remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). Besides hyposplenism, inflammatory and genetic factors might modulate their susceptibility to bacterial infections. We performed a candidate gene association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes, encoding prominent molecules for innate immune responses, with the occurrence of bacterial infections in patients with SCD. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15875DOI Listing

Interaction among GRIK2 gene on epilepsy susceptibility in Chinese children.

Acta Neurol Scand 2019 Mar 25. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430071, China.

Aims: The association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glutamate receptor 2 (GRIK2) gene, as well as gene- gene interaction with the risk of Early-onset epilepsy susceptibility was studied in Chinese children.

Methods: Generalized multi-factor dimension reduction (GMDR) is used to identify the optimal linkage between interaction among 4 SNPs and Early-onset epilepsy susceptibility. Logistic regression was performed to assess association between 4 SNPs within GRIK2 gene and the risk of epilepsy. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13089DOI Listing

Homeostatic model assessment of adiponectin (HOMA-Adiponectin) as a surrogate measure of insulin resistance in adolescents: Comparison with the hyperglycaemic clamp and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(3):e0214081. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Laboratory of Investigation on Metabolism and Diabetes (Limed), Gastroenterological Diagnosis and Research Center (Gastrocentro), University of Campinas - Unicamp, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Studies on adults have reported inverse association between the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) of adiponectin (HOMA-Adiponectin) and the insulin resistance assessed by the glucose clamp technique. To our knowledge, in the pediatric population this association has not been previously investigated.

Objectives: To evaluate the association between the HOMA-Adiponectin and the insulin resistance assessed by the glucose clamp technique in adolescents, and to compare the accuracy of HOMA-Adiponectin and HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for identifying insulin resistance. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214081PLOS

A mixed method multi-country assessment of barriers to implementing pediatric inpatient care guidelines.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(3):e0212395. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Introduction: Accelerating progress in reducing child deaths is needed in order to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal child mortality target. This will require a focus on vulnerable children-including young children, those who are undernourished or with acute illnesses requiring hospitalization. Improving adherence to inpatient guidelines may be an important strategy to reduce child mortality, including among the most vulnerable. Read More

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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0212395PLOS

Tranexamic Acid (TXA) Administration Following Head Trauma in a Combat Setting: Does TXA Result in Improved Neurologic Outcomes?

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Mar 22. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Madigan Army Medical Center, Department of General Surgery, Defense Health Agency, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Tacoma, Washington.

Background: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease mortality and blood product requirements in severely injured patients. TXA has also been hypothesized to prevent secondary brain injury in patients with TBI. While prior studies have demonstrated improved neurologic outcomes associated with TXA administration in severely injured pediatric patients, no such studies have been performed in adults. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002269DOI Listing

Measurements and Clinical Application of Anatomical Space for Transfrontal Pituitary Surgery Through Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reconstruction.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Anatomy, College of Basic Medicine, Bethune Medicine Institute, Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Objective: This study aims to clarify the relative position of the normal important structures and anatomical spaces formed by the structures passed through during the transfrontal pituitary surgery, and discuss how to avoid some eloquent structures.

Methods: A total of 120 cases of magnetic resonance imaging images from normal adult brains were selected as the object of study and divided into male and female groups. The important adjacent structures of the pituitary passed through during the transfrontal pituitary surgery were marked on the reconstructed images. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005510DOI Listing

An Interdisciplinary Approach to Treatment of Adult Facial Arteriovenous Malformations: A Review of the Literature and A Single Institution's Experience With "Late" Surgical Resection and Aesthetic Reconstruction.

J Craniofac Surg 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Background: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are high flow vascular anomalies that are difficult to manage given their high recurrence rate. At this time, the optimal treatment of AVMs involves embolization and surgical resection. However, few studies have examined patient outcomes after a delayed surgical resection approach. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000005423DOI Listing

Ocular Point-of-Care Ultrasound in the Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Feb 14. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objective: Point-of-care ultrasound has become an important adjunct for diagnostic assessment in pediatric emergency medicine. In this case series, we demonstrate how ocular point-of-care ultrasound is used to correctly diagnose ocular pathologies and to expedite care.

Methods/results: We present a series of cases in which the point-of-care ultrasound ocular examination proved valuable in the timely diagnosis of pathologies involving the lens, vitreous, retina, and retrobulbar segment of the eye. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001762DOI Listing
February 2019

Varied Clinical Presentations of Acute Dystonic Reaction Due to Metoclopramide.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mustafa Kemal University, Hatay, Turkey.

Objectives: In this article, in light of the literature, we aimed at discussing data obtained from patients in which extrapyramidal adverse effects that are misdiagnosed as varied clinical presentations developed due to metoclopramide, which is frequently prescribed in pediatric emergency services and in family practice centers for its powerful and rapid antiemetic action.

Methods: The files of patients who presented to a pediatric clinic at the research hospital of Mustafa Kemal University between January 2017 and January 2018 and who were diagnosed as having acute dystonic reaction were reviewed retrospectively.

Results: Generalized hypertonicity in 4 patients, abnormal involuntary movements in 2 patients, oculogyric crisis in 2 patients, local hypertonia in the wrist and fingers in 2 patients, spasmodic cervical hypertonicity in 2 patients, and trismus in 1 patient were found. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001800DOI Listing

Clinical Characteristics of Saffold Virus Infection in Children.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2019 Mar 21. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.

Background: Saffold virus (SAFV) is a novel human cardiovirus that was identified in 2007. Recently, SAFV has been isolated from nasal and stool specimens of infants presenting with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens of children with central nervous system infection. However, little is known regarding clinical characteristics of SAFV in children. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002298DOI Listing

Children's Inattention and Hyperactivity, Mother's Parenting, and Risk Behaviors in Adolescence: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Chilean Children.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Division of Academic General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

Objective: To examine how mothers' nurturant and, separately, hostile parenting mediate the effects of young children's inattentiveness and hyperactivity on risk behaviors in adolescence.

Method: Data were analyzed from 920 healthy Chilean children, studied at 5.5, 10 years, and adolescence. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000661DOI Listing

Promoting Earlier Access to Pediatric Behavioral Health Services with Colocated Care.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2019 Mar 20. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE.

Objective: This study aimed to determine whether youth access behavioral health (BH) care earlier (i.e., when problems are less severe) when receiving services in colocated pediatric primary care clinics. Read More

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000662DOI Listing
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