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Pediatric reference intervals for endocrine markers and fertility hormones in healthy children and adolescents on the Siemens Healthineers Atellica immunoassay system.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

CALIPER Program, Department of Pediatric Laboratory Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Rapid development in childhood and adolescence combined with lack of immunoassay standardization necessitates the establishment of age-, sex-, and assay-specific reference intervals for immunochemical markers. This study established reference intervals for 11 immunoassays on the new Siemens Healthineers Atellica® IM Analyzer in the healthy CALIPER cohort.

Methods: A total of 600 healthy participants (birth to 18 years) were recruited from the community, and serum samples were collected with informed consent. Read More

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New Developments in Microbiome in Alcohol-Associated and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 Jan 14;41(1):87-102. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are important causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The intestinal microbiota is involved in the development and progression of both ALD and NAFLD. Here we describe associated changes in the intestinal microbiota, and we detail randomized clinical trials in ALD and NAFLD which evaluate treatments modulating the intestinal microbiome including fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics. Read More

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January 2021

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization of a Pediatric Patient With Progressive Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background And Importance: Evidence suggests middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization benefits adult patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) at high risk for recurrence or hemorrhagic complications. Yet, there has not been any report discussing MMA embolization in the pediatric population. Thus, we present a case of an infant with CSDH successfully managed with MMA embolization without surgical management. Read More

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Transfer of Apixaban into Human Milk.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas.

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Probable Case of Vertical Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in a Newborn in Mexico.

Neonatology 2021 May 6:1-4. Epub 2021 May 6.

Pediatric Cardiology Department, CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Much remains unknown about the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Pregnant women are considered part of the risk population, and vertical transmission of other coronaviruses has been suggested; however, this type of transmission in SARS-CoV-2 is believed to be unlikely.

Case Report: A newborn delivered in term via cesarean section to an asymptomatic but COVID-19-positive 35-year-old woman started with respiratory distress in the first 30 min of life. Read More

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Dog Ownership in Early Life Increased the Risk of Nonatopic Asthma in Children.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021 May 6:1-9. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Humidifier Disinfectant Health Center, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: It is still debatable whether dog ownership during early childhood is a risk factor for the development of allergic diseases.

Objective: We investigated the association of dog ownership in early life with sensitization and asthma in childhood.

Methods: Data from the Cohort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and Allergic diseases were used to investigate the association between dog ownership at any time from pregnancy to 1 year of age and sensitization to aeroallergens at 3 and 7 years old, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and asthma at 7 years old. Read More

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Tracheostomy on infants born in the periviable period: Outcomes at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 27;146:110746. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology H & N Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine and University of Maryland Children's Hospital, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objectives: Advances in neonatal intensive care have allowed successful resuscitation of children born at the border of viability. However, there has been little change in the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and anatomical upper airway obstruction which may require a tracheostomy in that group. The benefits of the procedure are accompanied by sequelae that impact outcomes. Read More

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Cystic fibrosis mutation classes in pediatric otitis media - Fickle or faulty?

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 20;42(6):103067. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otolaryngology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 203 Lothrop St. Suite 500, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA; Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, 4401 Penn Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA; Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Pittsburgh School of Health & Rehabilitation, Forbes Tower, 3600 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: Recent data have challenged the historical paradigm that cystic fibrosis (CF) protects against otitis media (OM). These findings raised questions about the pathogenesis of this ostensible change. In this study our aim is to characterize acute OM (AOM) risk based on CF genotype. Read More

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Lisfranc injuries in adolescents: A case report and literature review.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Apr 18;47:101812. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Section of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, Ospedale Salvini, viale Forlanini 95, 20024 Garbagnate Milanese, Milano, Italy.

Lisfranc injuries result if bones or ligaments that support the midfoot are torn. In children and adolescents these injuries are not only rare, but are also similar to adult Lisfranc injuries, in that they are often mistaken especially if the injury is a result of a straightforward twist and fall. The goal of surgical treatment is to realign the joints. Read More

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Causes of delayed diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement in the pediatric and adolescent population.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Apr 7;47:101799. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Texas Children's Hospital, 6701 Fannin St, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize various causes of delay in the diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) in pediatric patients.

Methods: IRB approved prospective study of patients under 18 years who underwent arthroscopic surgery for the diagnosis of posterior ankle impingement after failed conservative treatment at a tertiary children's hospital. Radiographic findings were compared with an age-matched control group. Read More

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Projectile vomiting and Valsalva-like abdominal contractions as an uncommon presentation of supraventricular tachycardia in an infant.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Apr 22;66:136-138. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Maternal and Child Health, "Santa Maria Goretti" Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Latina, Italy.

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) is a prevalent pediatric arrhythmia. Neonatal and infantile-onset presentation is unspecific, thus making differential diagnosis essential in not delaying crucial intervention. We here describe the case of an undetected PSVT in an infant performing repeated abdominal contractions, thus presenting with projectile vomiting. Read More

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Microsurgery for intradural epidermoid cyst at cauda equina level in a 9-year-old child: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 29;82:105932. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Neurosurgery I, Viet Duc University Hospital, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Introduction And Importance: Epidermoid cysts are rare benign tumors. Here, we present a case of spontaneous intradural epidermoid cyst at cauda equina level in a 9-year-old patient, which we believed the first case to be reported in Vietnam.

Case Presentation: A 9-year-old boy presented with 4 months of spontaneous left lower extremity muscle weakness and paresthesia. Read More

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Seromucinous hamartoma of ethmoid sinus in pediatric patient (case report).

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105915. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Dar AlUloom University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction And Importance: Seromucinous hamartoma is a rare benign glandular proliferation arising from the respiratory epithelium, which was originally described by Baillie and Batsakis in 1974. Since this time, case reports started to be published on SH, as a middle aged and elderly disease, here we report a case of a pediatric patient who found to have SH.

Presentation Of The Case: 2-year-old girl, brought by her parent with a complain of a mass at the right medial canthal area for one year. Read More

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Vinpocetine, cognition, and epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 3;119:107988. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Vinpocetine has been shown to enhance memory in animal models, with possible cognitive benefit in humans. The present study sought to demonstrate if vinpocetine can enhance cognition in healthy volunteers or patients with epilepsy. In addition, we compare blood levels of vinpocetine and its active metabolite (apovincaminic acid; AVA) in humans and animals to further characterize factors related to possible therapeutic benefit. Read More

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Lymphoid markers predict prognosis of pediatric and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia.

Leuk Res 2021 Apr 30;107:106603. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Healthy and Life Science School Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Electronic address:

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a complex and highly aggressive disease. To characterize the prognostic factors of pediatric patients with AML relapse, a retrospective cohort study was performed to collect data from children and adolescents, at a hematological oncology reference center, over 11 years. We selected 51 cases of the disease, diagnosed and treated uniformly, divided into two groups: with complete remission (n = 33; 65 %) and with relapse (n = 18; 35 %). Read More

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Management of anticoagulation associated reproductive tract bleeding in adolescent and young adult females - Results of a multinational survey.

Thromb Res 2021 Apr 23;203:61-68. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

University of Rochester School of Medicine and the Mary M. Gooley Hemophilia Center, USA.

Introduction: Reproductive tract bleeding (RTB) is an important outcome in menstruating females on anticoagulant therapy (AC). The diagnosis and management of AC-RTB in adolescent and young adult (AYA) females is unknown.

Aims: The aim of this study was to survey the contemporary patterns of diagnosis and management of AC-RTB in AYA females. Read More

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Echocardiographic Indicators Associated with Adverse Clinical Course and Cardiac Sequelae in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children with COVID-19.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Central Michigan University College of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Michigan, 3901 Beaubien Street, Detroit, Michigan, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19 (MIS-C) causes significant cardiovascular involvement, which can be a determinant of clinical course and outcome. We aimed to investigate whether echocardiographic measures of ventricular function were independently associated with adverse clinical course and cardiac sequaele in MIS-C.

Methods: In a longitudinal observational study of 54 MIS-C patients (mean age 6. Read More

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Efficacy and Safety of Ruxolitinib Cream for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis: Results From Two Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind Studies.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Background: Ruxolitinib (RUX) cream demonstrated potent anti-inflammatory and antipruritic efficacy in a phase 2 study in adults with atopic dermatitis (AD).

Objective: To evaluate 8-week efficacy and safety in two phase 3 studies of RUX cream in patients with AD METHODS: TRuE-AD1 (NCT03745638) and TRuE-AD2 (NCT03745651) enrolled patients aged ≥12 years with AD for ≥2 years, an IGA score of 2/3, and 3% to 20% affected body surface area. Patients were randomized 2:2:1 to twice-daily 0. Read More

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Reduction of hsCRP levels following an Oral Health Education Program combined with routine dental treatment.

J Dent 2021 May 3:103686. Epub 2021 May 3.

The University of Sydney, The Charles Perkins Centre and the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Camperdown, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Electronic address:

Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the effect of a personalised oral health education program, in combination with routine dental treatment, on serum biomarkers of systemic disease compared to dental treatment alone in a population from a low-socioeconomic community with poor oral health.

Methods: This secondary analysis of a randomised clinical trial involved 295 participants (mean age, 45.4 ± 11 years) assigned to two groups. Read More

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The role of sex as a biological variable in the efficacy and toxicity of therapeutic nanomedicine.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Males and females have physiological, hormonal, and genetic differences that can cause different responses to medicinal treatments. The role of sex in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs is well established in the literature. However, researchers have yet to robustly and consistently consider the impact of sex differences on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of nanomedicine formulations when designing nanomedicine therapeutics and/or constructing clinical trials. Read More

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Epithelial exosomal contactin-1 promotes monocyte-derived dendritic cells-dominant T cell responses in asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao-tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Exosomes have emerged as a vital player in cell-cell communication; however, whether airway epithelial cells (AECs) generated exosomes participate in asthma development remains unknown.

Objective: To characterize the AECs-secreted exosomes and the potentially functional protein(s) that may contribute to the proinflammatory effects of AECs exosomes in the dendritic cells (DCs)-dominant airway allergic models, and confirming their clinical significance in asthmatic patients.

Methods: Mice were treated with exosomes derived from house dust mite (HDM)-stimulated AECs (HDM-AECs-EXO) or monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) primed by HDM and/or contactin-1 (CNTN1). Read More

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Two-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic meningomyelocele closure has fewer adverse neonatal outcomes than open hysterotomy closure.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Baylor College of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Fetal Therapy and Surgery, and Texas Children's Hospital Fetal Center, Houston, TX; Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine.

Background: In-utero closure of meningomyelocele using an open hysterotomy approach is associated with preterm delivery and its attendant adverse neonatal outcomes.

Objectives: This study compares neonatal outcomes between in-utero closure of meningomyelocele using a 2-port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic approach and the conventional open hysterotomy approach.

Study Design: This retrospective cohort study included all consecutive patients who underwent in-utero meningomyelocele closure using open hysterotomy (n=44) or a 2- port, exteriorized uterus, fetoscopic approach (n=46) at a single institution, between 2012 and 2020. Read More

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Are Newborn Outcomes Different for Term Babies Who Were Exposed to Antenatal Corticosteroids?

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Indiana University School of Medicine Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Electronic address:

Background: Antenatal corticosteroids improve newborn outcomes for preterm infants. However, predicting which women presenting for threatened preterm labor will have preterm infants is inaccurate and many women receive antenatal corticosteroids but then go on to deliver at term.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the short-term outcomes of infants born at term to women who received betamethasone (BMZ) for threatened preterm labor to infants who were not exposed to BMZ in utero. Read More

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Three-Dimensional printing for hybrid closure of complex muscular ventricular septal defects.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Pediatric Cardiac and Congenital Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiac Thoracic and Vascular Sciences and Public Health, University of Padova, Italy.

The identification and surgical closure of apical complex muscular ventricular septal defects (CMVSD) remains a difficult problem because of their location in the ventricular septum distal to the moderating band. Read More

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Babies born to mothers positive for SARS-CoV-2 - Are they in danger?

Authors:
Joon Kee Lee

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pediatrics, Chungbuk National University Hospital, Cheongju, Korea.

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Importance of neonatal screening for primary immunodeficiencies.

Authors:
Jung Woo Rhim

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Departments of Pediatrics, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

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Risk factors for very preterm delivery out of a level III maternity unit: The EPIPAGE-2 cohort study.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Obstetrical, Perinatal, and Pediatric Epidemiology Team, Center of Research in Epidemiology and Statistics (U1153), Université de Paris, INSERM, Paris, France.

Background: Regionalisation programmes aim to ensure that very preterm infants are born in level III units (inborn) through antenatal referral or transfer. Despite widespread knowledge about better survival without disability for inborn babies, 10%-30% of women deliver outside these units (outborn).

Objective: To investigate risk factors associated with outborn deliveries and to estimate the proportion that were probably or possibly avoidable. Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infections in kindergartens and associated households at the start of the second wave in Berlin, Germany - a cross sectional study.

Eur J Public Health 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health; Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Berlin, Germany.

Actual surveys in kindergartens on SARS-CoV-2 infections are rare. At the beginning of the second pandemic wave, we screened twelve randomly selected kindergartens in Berlin, Germany. A total of 720 participants (pre-school children, staff, and connected household members) were briefly examined and interviewed, and SARS-CoV-2 infections and anti-SARS-Cov-2 IgG antibodies were assessed. Read More

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Antigen-encapsulating host extracellular vesicles derived from Salmonella-infected cells stimulate pathogen-specific Th1-type responses in vivo.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 6;17(5):e1009465. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, United States of America.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a causative agent of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, for which there is a lack of a clinically approved vaccine in humans. As an intracellular pathogen, Salmonella impacts many cellular pathways. However, the intercellular communication mechanism facilitated by host-derived small extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, is an overlooked aspect of the host responses to this infection. Read More

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Pediatric high users of Canadian hospitals and emergency departments.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251330. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada.

Introduction: Few studies have examined the most frequent pediatric users of hospital services. Our objective was to determine the clinical diagnoses, demographic characteristics, and medical severity of high-use pediatric patients in Canada.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients <18 years of age who either were admitted to hospital or visited an emergency department (ED) using the Canadian Institute for Health Information's (CIHI) Dynamic Cohort of Complex, High System Users. Read More

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