1,721 results match your criteria pcg proteins


A Potent, Selective CBX2 Chromodomain Ligand and its Cellular Activity during Prostate Cancer Neuroendocrine Differentiation.

Chembiochem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Purdue University, UNITED STATES.

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic regulators that facilitate both embryonic development and cancer progression. PcG proteins form Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). PRC2 trimethylates histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a histone mark recognized by the N-terminal chromodomain (ChD) of the CBX subunit of canonical PRC1. Read More

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ChIP-qPCR for Polycomb Group Proteins During Neuronal Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Symbiosis Centre for Stem Cell Research (SCSCR), Symbiosis International University (SIU), Pune, Maharashtra, India.

Neuronal differentiation is an intricate and a complex process which involves crosstalk among various signaling pathways, growth factors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers. During different stages of neuronal development, there are various histone modifiers which drive the expression of lineage-specific genes. Polycomb group proteins are one of the histone modifiers that control transcriptional repression of specific genes in development, differentiation, and functionality of various tissues. Read More

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The Role of Polycomb Group Protein BMI1 in DNA Repair and Genomic Stability.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Mar 15;22(6). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Biophysics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt.

The polycomb group (PcG) proteins are a class of transcriptional repressors that mediate gene silencing through histone post-translational modifications. They are involved in the maintenance of stem cell self-renewal and proliferation, processes that are often dysregulated in cancer. Apart from their canonical functions in epigenetic gene silencing, several studies have uncovered a function for PcG proteins in DNA damage signaling and repair. Read More

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A lineage-specific requirement for YY1 Polycomb Group protein function in early T cell development.

Development 2021 Apr 15;148(7). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, 2015 Linden Dr., Madison, WI 57306, USA.

Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a ubiquitous transcription factor and mammalian Polycomb Group protein (PcG) with important functions for regulating lymphocyte development and stem cell self-renewal. YY1 mediates stable PcG-dependent transcriptional repression via recruitment of PcG proteins that result in histone modifications. Many questions remain unanswered regarding how cell- and tissue-specificity is achieved by PcG proteins. Read More

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Kinome-Wide RNAi Screen Uncovers Role of Ballchen in Maintenance of Gene Activation by Trithorax Group in .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 5;9:637873. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Biology, Syed Babar Ali School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are evolutionary conserved factors that contribute to cell fate determination and maintenance of cellular identities during development of multicellular organisms. The PcG maintains heritable patterns of gene silencing while trxG acts as anti-silencing factors by conserving activation of cell type specific genes. Genetic and molecular analysis has revealed extensive details about how different PcG and trxG complexes antagonize each other to maintain cell fates, however, the cellular signaling components that contribute to the preservation of gene expression by PcG/trxG remain elusive. Read More

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The roles of Polycomb repressive complexes in mammalian development and cancer.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 05 15;22(5):326-345. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Simpson Querrey Institute for Epigenetics, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.

More than 80 years ago, the first Polycomb-related phenotype was identified in Drosophila melanogaster. Later, a group of diverse genes collectively called Polycomb group (PcG) genes were identified based on common mutant phenotypes. PcG proteins, which are well-conserved in animals, were originally characterized as negative regulators of gene transcription during development and subsequently shown to function in various biological processes; their deregulation is associated with diverse phenotypes in development and in disease, especially cancer. Read More

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The Epigenetic Faces of ULTRAPETALA1.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:637244. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Laboratorio de Genética Molecular, Epigenética, Desarrollo y Evolución de Plantas, Instituto de Ecología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 3er Circuito Ext. Junto a J. Botánico, Ciudad Universitaria, UNAM, Mexico City, Mexico.

ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) is a versatile plant-exclusive protein, initially described as a trithorax group (TrxG) factor that regulates transcriptional activation and counteracts polycomb group (PcG) repressor function. As part of TrxG, ULT1 interacts with ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX1 (ATX1) to regulate H3K4me3 activation mark deposition. However, our recent studies indicate that ULT1 can also act independently of ATX1. Read More

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February 2021

Rbbp4 Suppresses Premature Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Mar 18;16(3):566-581. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, 12 Xuefu Road, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210061, China. Electronic address:

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins exist in distinct multi-protein complexes and play a central role in silencing developmental genes, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we show that deficiency of retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4), a component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) leads to spontaneous differentiation into mesendodermal lineages. We further show that Rbbp4 and core PRC2 share an important number of common genomic targets, encoding regulators involved in early germ layer specification. Read More

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Mga safeguards embryonic stem cells from acquiring extraembryonic endoderm fates.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 20;7(4). Epub 2021 Jan 20.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animals for Disease Study, Model Animal Research Center, School of Medicine, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form multiprotein complexes that affect stem cell identity and fate decisions by still largely unexplored mechanisms. Here, by performing a CRISPR-based loss-of-function screen in embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we identify PcG gene involved in the repression of endodermal transcription factor We report that deletion of results in peri-implantation embryonic lethality in mice. We further demonstrate that -null ESCs exhibit impaired self-renewal and spontaneous differentiation to primitive endoderm (PE). Read More

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January 2021

IMITATION SWITCH is required for normal chromatin structure and gene repression in PRC2 target domains.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jan;118(4)

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602;

Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins are part of an epigenetic cell memory system that plays essential roles in multicellular development, stem cell biology, X chromosome inactivation, and cancer. In animals, plants, and many fungi, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) catalyzes trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) to assemble transcriptionally repressed facultative heterochromatin. PRC2 is structurally and functionally conserved in the model fungus , and recent work in this organism has generated insights into PRC2 control and function. Read More

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January 2021

Hypericin-Loaded Transferrin Nanoparticles Induce PP2A-Regulated BMI1 Degradation in Colorectal Cancer-Specific Chemo-Photodynamic Therapy.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 05 24;6(5):3139-3153. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute of Nano Science and Technology, Habitat Centre, Phase 10, Mohali, Punjab 160062, India.

Epigenetically regulated therapeutic intervention of cancer is an emerging era of research in the development of a promising therapy. Epigenetic changes are intrinsically reversible and providing the driving force to drug resistance in colorectal cancer (CRC). The regulation of polycomb group (PcG) proteins, BMI1 and EZH2, and the associated CRC progression hold promises for a novel treatment regime. Read More

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Polycomb and Trithorax Group Proteins: The Long Road from Mutations in Drosophila to Use in Medicine.

Acta Naturae 2020 Oct-Dec;12(4):66-85

Institute of Gene Biology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119334 Russia.

Polycomb group (PcG) and Trithorax group (TrxG) proteins are evolutionarily conserved factors responsible for the repression and activation of the transcription of multiple genes in and mammals. Disruption of the PcG/TrxG expression is associated with many pathological conditions, including cancer, which makes them suitable targets for diagnosis and therapy in medicine. In this review, we focus on the major PcG and TrxG complexes, the mechanisms of PcG/TrxG action, and their recruitment to chromatin. Read More

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January 2021

H2AK121ub in Arabidopsis associates with a less accessible chromatin state at transcriptional regulation hotspots.

Nat Commun 2021 01 12;12(1):315. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Advanced Agricultural Sciences, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences, Peking University, 100871, Beijing, China.

Although it is well established that the Polycomb Group (PcG) complexes maintain gene repression through the incorporation of H2AK121ub and H3K27me3, little is known about the effect of these modifications on chromatin accessibility, which is fundamental to understand PcG function. Here, by integrating chromatin accessibility, histone marks and expression analyses in different Arabidopsis PcG mutants, we show that PcG function regulates chromatin accessibility. We find that H2AK121ub is associated with a less accessible but still permissive chromatin at transcriptional regulation hotspots. Read More

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January 2021

Lauric Triglyceride Ameliorates High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity in Rats by Reducing Lipogenesis and Increasing Lipolysis and β-Oxidation.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Edible and Medicinal Resources Exploitation, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330031, People's Republic of China.

Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are found in limited foods. In these medium-chain oil resources, the abundance of lauric acid (LA) is the highest among medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), and its effects on lipid metabolism in obese rats have not been well-studied. This study aimed to determine the anti-obesity effects and mechanisms of lauric triglyceride (LT) in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Read More

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January 2021

Genome-wide occupancy of Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler SPLAYED provides insights into its interplay with its close homolog BRAHMA and Polycomb proteins.

Plant J 2021 Apr 17;106(1):200-213. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London Research and Development Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.

SPLAYED (SYD) is a SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF)-type chromatin remodeler identified in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). It is believed to play both redundant and differential roles with its closest homolog BRAHMA (BRM) in diverse plant growth and development processes. To better understand how SYD functions, we profiled the genome-wide occupancy of SYD and its impact on the global transcriptome and trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Read More

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: a fruitful model for oncohistones.

Fly (Austin) 2021 Dec;15(1):28-37

Department of Biology, McGill University , Montréal, Québec, Canada.

has proven to be a powerful genetic model to study human disease. Approximately 75% of human disease-associated genes have homologs in the fruit fly and regulatory pathways are highly conserved in compared to humans. is an established model organism for the study of genetics and developmental biology related to human disease and has also made a great contribution to epigenetic research. Read More

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December 2021

A Polycomb repressive complex is required for RNAi-mediated heterochromatin formation and dynamic distribution of nuclear bodies.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are widely utilized for transcriptional repression in eukaryotes. Here, we characterize, in the protist Tetrahymena thermophila, the EZL1 (E(z)-like 1) complex, with components conserved in metazoan Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). The EZL1 complex is required for histone H3 K27 and K9 methylation, heterochromatin formation, transposable element control, and programmed genome rearrangement. Read More

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January 2021

Androgen Reduces Mitochondrial Respiration in Mouse Brown Adipocytes: A Model for Disordered Energy Balance in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 29;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinopathy that is associated with an adverse metabolic profile including reduced postprandial thermogenesis. Although abnormalities in adipose tissue function have been widely reported in women with PCOS, less is known about direct effects of androgen on white and, particularly, brown adipocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on (1) lipid accumulation and expression of adipogenic markers in immortalized mouse brown adipose cell lines (IMBATs), (2) mitochondrial respiration in IMBATs, (3) mitochondrial DNA content and gene expression, (4) expression of brown adipose tissue (BAT) markers and thermogenic activation. Read More

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December 2020

A Structural Perspective on Gene Repression by Polycomb Repressive Complex 2.

Authors:
Xin Liu

Subcell Biochem 2021 ;96:519-562

Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA.

Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is a major repressive chromatin complex formed by the Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins. PRC2 mediates trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3), a hallmark of gene silencing. PRC2 is a key regulator of development, impacting many fundamental biological processes, like stem cell differentiation in mammals and vernalization in plants. Read More

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February 2021

Nuclear Factor [Erythroid-derived 2]-like 2 and Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A Contribute to Moderate-intensity Swimming Effectiveness against Memory Impairment in Young Mice Induced by Concomitant Exposure to a High-calorie Diet during the Early Life Period.

Neuroscience 2021 01 24;452:311-325. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Laboratório de Síntese, Reatividade e Avaliação Farmacológica e Toxicológica de Organocalcogênios, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, CEP 97105-900 RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Increased energy food consumption during early-life has been associated with memory impairment. Swimming training has been reported to improve memory processes in rodent models. This study aimed to evaluate whether moderate-intensity swimming training counteracts learning and memory impairment in young mice fed a high-calorie diet during the early-life period. Read More

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January 2021

An integrative atlas of chicken long non-coding genes and their annotations across 25 tissues.

Sci Rep 2020 11 24;10(1):20457. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

PEGASE UMR 1348, INRA, AGROCAMPUS OUEST, 35590, Saint-Gilles, France.

Long non-coding RNAs (LNC) regulate numerous biological processes. In contrast to human, the identification of LNC in farm species, like chicken, is still lacunar. We propose a catalogue of 52,075 chicken genes enriched in LNC ( http://www. Read More

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November 2020

Polycomb group-mediated histone H2A monoubiquitination in epigenome regulation and nuclear processes.

Nat Commun 2020 11 23;11(1):5947. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital Research Center and Department of Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, H3C 3J7, QC, Canada.

Histone posttranslational modifications are key regulators of chromatin-associated processes including gene expression, DNA replication and DNA repair. Monoubiquitinated histone H2A, H2Aub (K118 in Drosophila or K119 in vertebrates) is catalyzed by the Polycomb group (PcG) repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and reversed by the PcG-repressive deubiquitinase (PR-DUB)/BAP1 complex. Here we critically assess the current knowledge regarding H2Aub deposition and removal, its crosstalk with PcG repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated histone H3K27 methylation, and the recent attempts toward discovering its readers and solving its enigmatic functions. Read More

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November 2020

Development and validation of an RNA binding protein-associated prognostic model for hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2020 Nov 23;20(1):1136. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Guangxi Medical University Cancer Hospital, Nanning, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the deadliest forms of cancer. While RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been shown to be key regulators of oncogenesis and tumor progression, their dysregulation in the context of HCC remains to be fully characterized.

Methods: Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas - liver HCC (TCGA-LIHC) database were downloaded and analyzed in order to identify RBPs that were differentially expressed in HCC tumors relative to healthy normal tissues. Read More

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November 2020

Mammalian PRC1 Complexes: Compositional Complexity and Diverse Molecular Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 14;21(22). Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA.

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins function as vital epigenetic regulators in various biological processes, including pluripotency, development, and carcinogenesis. PcG proteins form multicomponent complexes, and two major types of protein complexes have been identified in mammals to date, Polycomb Repressive Complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). The PRC1 complexes are composed in a hierarchical manner in which the catalytic core, RING1A/B, exclusively interacts with one of six Polycomb group RING finger (PCGF) proteins. Read More

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November 2020

LRH1 Promotes Tumor Cell Proliferation and Migration and Is Correlated With Poor Prognosis in Ovarian Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 20;10:583566. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Gynecology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH1) plays a vital role in several human cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer (OC) remains unclear. We aimed to explore the functions of LRH1 and its clinical relevance.

Methods: LRH1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Read More

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October 2020

Correlation of Single Nucleotide Gene Polymorphisms and Gastric Cancer Based on Magnetic Nanoparticles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Feb;21(2):928-934

Clinical Experimental Research Centre, Jinan City Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan City, 250013, Shandong Province, China.

Gastric cancer (GC) is a serious threat to the health and lives of people around the world. In China, the incidence and mortality of gastric cancer are much higher than the world average, coupled with its low early diagnosis rate, low survival rate, poor prognosis, and complex etiology, especially the serious lack of effective early warning methods, which has become the main constraint on the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer factor. Therefore, finding reliable, effective, and specific markers that can be applied to early warning and diagnosis of gastric cancer has been a hot issue in gastric cancer research. Read More

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February 2021

MBD2 and EZH2 regulate the expression of SFRP1 without affecting its methylation status in a colorectal cancer cell line.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Dec 22;20(6):242. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, P.R. China.

Secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1), which is an extracellular inhibitor involved in Wnt signalling, is downregulated by promoter hypermethylation in the early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis. Polycomb (PCG) and methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins that serve a role in epigenetic gene regulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of PCG and MBD proteins in the regulation of SFRP1 gene expression in colorectal cancer (CRC), specifically in CRC cell lines and the human embryo intestinal mucosa cell line CCC-HIE-2. Read More

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December 2020

The Polycomb group protein Ring1 regulates dorsoventral patterning of the mouse telencephalon.

Nat Commun 2020 11 11;11(1):5709. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, Japan.

Dorsal-ventral patterning of the mammalian telencephalon is fundamental to the formation of distinct functional regions including the neocortex and ganglionic eminence. While Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt, and Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling are known to determine regional identity along the dorsoventral axis, how the region-specific expression of these morphogens is established remains unclear. Here we show that the Polycomb group (PcG) protein Ring1 contributes to the ventralization of the mouse telencephalon. Read More

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November 2020

Phase separation by the polyhomeotic sterile alpha motif compartmentalizes Polycomb Group proteins and enhances their activity.

Nat Commun 2020 11 5;11(1):5609. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Institut de recherches cliniques de Montréal, 110 Avenue des Pins Ouest, Montréal, QC, H2W 1R7, Canada.

Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins organize chromatin at multiple scales to regulate gene expression. A conserved Sterile Alpha Motif (SAM) in the Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) subunit Polyhomeotic (Ph) has been shown to play an important role in chromatin compaction and large-scale chromatin organization. Ph SAM forms helical head to tail polymers, and SAM-SAM interactions between chromatin-bound Ph/PRC1 are believed to compact chromatin and mediate long-range interactions. Read More

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November 2020

Role of Polycomb Complexes in Normal and Malignant Plasma Cells.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 28;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Human Genetics, UMR 9002 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, 34396 Montpellier, France.

Plasma cells (PC) are the main effectors of adaptive immunity, responsible for producing antibodies to defend the body against pathogens. They are the result of a complex highly regulated cell differentiation process, taking place in several anatomical locations and involving unique genetic events. Pathologically, PC can undergo tumorigenesis and cause a group of diseases known as plasma cell dyscrasias, including multiple myeloma (MM). Read More

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October 2020