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Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Special Statement: Maternal-fetal medicine subspecialist survey on abortion training and service provision.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Following a collaborative workshop at the 39th Annual Pregnancy Meeting, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Reproductive Health Advisory Group identified a need to assess attitudes of maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists about abortion services and available resources at the local and regional levels. The purpose of this study was to identify trends in attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of practicing maternal-fetal medicine subspecialists in the United States regarding abortion. An online survey was distributed to Associate and Regular members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine assessing their personal training experience, abortion practice patterns, factors that influence their decision to provide abortion care, and their responses to a series of scenarios about high-risk maternal or fetal medical conditions. Read More

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Development and Validation of a Clinical Diagnostic Scoring System for the Diagnosis of IPF.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Inova Fairfax Hospital, 23146, Advanced Lung Disease Program, Falls Church, Virginia, United States.

Rationale: Interpreting the radiological data in conjunction with an objective clinical score could help to harmonize IPF diagnostic and improve accuracy.

Objectives: We sought to establish and validate a multivariable objective scoring model based on clinical parameters, by stratifying the risk for patients to be diagnosed as IPF versus other forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD).

Methods: A clinical score was derived from review of patients evaluated at the Inova Fairfax ILD program and validated in three distinct cohorts. Read More

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Technical note: multi-alleles at the DYS385ab locus with high frequency in a Han Chinese population from southwestern China.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Forensic DNA, the Judicial Authentication Center, Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, 646000, Sichuan, China.

Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers have been widely used in forensic applications and usually show monoallelic or diallelic genotypic patterns at certain double-copied loci. In this study, we have found 13 samples among 703 males with multi-alleles at the DYS385ab locus, including one with five mutant alleles, nine with four, and three with three. The frequency of abnormal DYS385ab genotypes was 1. Read More

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Intracisternal administration of tanshinone IIA-loaded nanoparticles leads to reduced tissue injury and functional deficits in a porcine model of ischemic stroke.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 5;10:18-30. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States.

Background: The absolute number of new stroke patients is annually increasing and there still remains only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments with significant limitations available to patients. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a promising potential therapeutic for ischemic stroke that has shown success in pre-clinical rodent studies but lead to inconsistent efficacy results in human patients. The physical properties of Tan-IIA, including short half-life and low solubility, suggests that Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-assisted delivery may lead to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. Read More

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Optimizing Village-Level Targeting of Active Case Detection to Support Visceral Leishmaniasis Elimination in India.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:648847. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Bihar Technical Support Program, CARE-India Solutions for Sustainable Development, Patna, India.

Background: India has made major progress in improving control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in recent years, in part through shortening the time infectious patients remain untreated. Active case detection decreases the time from VL onset to diagnosis and treatment, but requires substantial human resources. Targeting approaches are therefore essential to feasibility. Read More

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Early Life Microbiota Colonization at Six Months of Age: A Transitional Time Point.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 26;11:590202. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Public Health, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition Laboratory, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Early life gut microbiota is involved in several biological processes, particularly metabolism, immunity, and cognitive neurodevelopment. Perturbation in the infant's gut microbiota increases the risk for diseases in early and later life, highlighting the importance of understanding the connections between perinatal factors with early life microbial composition. The present research paper is aimed at exploring the prenatal and postnatal factors influencing the infant gut microbiota composition at six months of age. Read More

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Spatial patterns of leaf δC and δN of aquatic macrophytes in the arid zone of northwestern China.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 16;11(7):3110-3119. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Wildlife Conservation Chief Station of Hubei Province Wuhan China.

Analysis of stable isotope composition is an important tool in research on plant physiological ecology. However, large-scale patterns of leaf-stable isotopes for aquatic macrophytes have received considerably less attention. In this study, we examined the spatial pattern of stable isotopes of carbon (δC) and nitrogen (δN) of macrophytes leaves collected across the arid zone of northwestern China (approximately 2. Read More

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Personal Growth and Well-Being in the Time of COVID: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Analysis.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:648060. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The physical distancing measures necessitated by COVID-19 have resulted in a severe withdrawal from the patterns of daily life, necessitating significantly reduced contact with other people. To many, such withdrawal can be a major cause of distress. But, to some, this sort of withdrawal is an integral part of growth, a pathway to a more enriching life. Read More

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Monitoring of Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Its Relation with Survival.

Acta Neurochir Suppl 2021 ;131:187-190

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Centro Hospitalar São João, Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: Neuromonitoring analysis for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is still rare, especially regarding vascular reactivity patterns. Our goal was to analyze neuromonitoring data and 28-day mortality for ICH patients.

Methods: Neuromonitoring records were retrospectively reviewed from a cohort of ICH patients admitted to a neurocritical care unit between 2013 and 2016. Read More

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January 2021

Socioeconomic stability is associated with lower injection frequency among people with distinct trajectories of injection drug use.

Int J Drug Policy 2021 Apr 8;94:103205. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Research Centre, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, 900 St Denis Street, Montréal, Québec H2X 3H8, Canada; Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Université de Montréal, 2900, Édouard-Montpetit Boulevard, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Little is known about how socioeconomic circumstances relate to injection frequencies among people who inject drugs (PWID) with diverse trajectories of injection. We aimed to characterize trajectories of injection drug use in a community-based sample of PWID over 7.5 years and to investigate the extent to which two modifiable factors reflecting socioeconomic stability-stable housing and stable income-relate to injection frequencies across distinct trajectories. Read More

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Internet gaming disorder impacts gray matter structural covariance organization in the default mode network.

J Affect Disord 2021 Mar 31;288:23-30. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Center for Cognition and Brain Disorders, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China; Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Research in Assessment of Cognitive Impairments, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although previous studies have revealed that dysfunctional brain organization is associated with internet gamingdisorder (IGD), the neuroanatomical basis that underlies IGD remains elusive. In this work, we aimed to investigate gray matter (GM) volume alterations and structural covariance patterns in relation to IGD severity.

Methods: Structural magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from two hundred and thirty young adults encompassing a wide range of IGD severity. Read More

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Epileptic hypothalamic hamartomas impact of topography on clinical presentation and radiosurgical outcome.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Mar 23;173:106624. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Functional and Stereotactic Neurosurgery and Gamma Knife, Timone University Hospital, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France; Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, INS, Inst Neurosci Syst, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Evidence exists for the role of the hypothalamic hamartoma's topography as a determinant for the clinical presentation. How the hamartoma relation to the hypothalamic structures can make clinical presentations, severity and surgery outcomes different from patient to patient is largely unknown. Our aim was to analyze the effect of fine anatomical topography on clinical spectrum and radiosurgery outcome. Read More

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How the COVID-19 Pandemic has changed multiple sclerosis clinical practice: Results of a nationwide provider survey.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 18;51:102913. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Cleveland Clinic, 888 W. Bonneville Avenue, Las Vegas, Nevada 89106, United States. Electronic address:

Background: The COVID-19 crisis has created unanticipated changes in health care delivery for people living with multiple sclerosis (MS). The pandemic's rapid evolution has resulted in a knowledge gap in how COVID-19 has affected MS clinical practice. Our objective was to understand how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected clinical practice patterns in a nationwide cohort of MS clinicians across the United States. Read More

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Dual-tasking impacts gait, cognitive performance, and gaze behavior during walking in a real-world environment in older adult fallers and non-fallers.

Exp Gerontol 2021 Apr 7:111342. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, MGH Institute of Health Professions, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Introduction: Everyday walking often involves simultaneous performance of a cognitive task in environments with competing auditory and visual stimuli. Previous research has not evaluated task performance in these situations, where older adults are known to fall, limiting our understanding of how older adults adjust their gait, visual scanning (gaze), and cognitive processing to avoid falls (or not). The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of dual-task walking in a high-distraction real-world environment on cognitive performance, gait performance, and gaze behavior in older adult fallers relative to non-fallers. Read More

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Registered nurses' self-rated research utilization in relation to their work climate: Using cluster analysis to search for patterns.

Int J Nurs Pract 2021 Apr 10:e12944. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Aim: To describe and study the association between registered nurses' self-rated research utilization and their perception of their work climate.

Background: Research utilization is an important part of evidence-based nursing, and registered nurses value a work climate that supports the possibility to work evidence-based.

Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted using the Creative Climate Questionnaire together with three questions measuring instrumental, conceptual and persuasive research utilization. Read More

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In utero exposure to chlordecone affects histone modifications and activates LINE-1 in cord blood.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 06 9;4(6). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Rennes, EHESP, Inserm, Institut de Recherche en Santé, Environnement et Travail (Irset)-UMR_S 1085, Rennes, France

Environmental factors can induce detrimental consequences into adulthood life. In this study, we examined the epigenetic effects induced by in utero chlordecone (CD) exposure on human male cord blood as well as in blood-derived Ke-37 cell line. Genome-wide analysis of histone H3K4me3 distribution revealed that genes related to chromosome segregation, chromatin organization, and cell cycle have altered occupancy in their promoters. Read More

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Experiences of family violence and parental unavailability in childhood in relation to parental socioeconomic position and psychological problems: a cohort study of young Swedish women 1990-2013.

BMC Womens Health 2021 Apr 9;21(1):145. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Box 453, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Despite the high prevalence and severe consequences for health and wellbeing, epidemiological research of neglected emotional needs during childhood is scarce and little is known about its relation to parental socioeconomic position (SEP). This study investigates the prevalence of family violence and parental unavailability in childhood and its association with parental SEP and parental psychological problems in four strata of young Swedish women examined 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2013.

Method: The sample comprised 976 women (mean age 22, range 20-25) living in Sweden. Read More

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Overexpression of Efflux Pumps Mediate Pan Resistance of Sequence Type 11.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, China.

A clinically isolated pan-resistant strain (ST11), KPN142 was subjected to whole-genome sequencing. Genomic sequence of KPN142 showed that limited antibiotic resistances (β-lactams [], sulfonamides [ and ], bacitracin [], tetracycline [], aminoglycosides [, , , , and ], and chloramphenicol []) were mediated by enzymes, and efflux pumps contributed most to pan resistance. Five types of multidrug resistance efflux pump families were identified, including the resistance nodulation division superfamily (AcrAB-TolC, AcrD, MdtABC, and KexD), the ATP-binding cascade superfamily (MacAB), the small multidrug resistance family (KpnEF), the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion family (KdeA), and the major facilitator superfamily (EmrAB). Read More

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NarxCare Scores Greater Than 300 Are Associated with Adverse Outcomes After Primary THA.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

A. K. Emara, D. Grits, A. K. Klika, R. M. Molloy, V. E. Krebs, W. K. Barsoum, C. Higuera-Rueda, N. S. Piuzzi, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: The association between preoperative prescription drug use (narcotics, sedatives, and stimulants) and complications and/or greater healthcare utilization (length of stay, discharge disposition, readmission, emergency department visits, and reoperation) after total joint arthroplasty has been established but not well quantified. The NarxCare score (NCS) is a weighted scalar measure of overall prescription opioid, sedative, and stimulant use. Higher scores reflect riskier drug-use patterns, which are calculated based on (1) the number of prescribing providers, (2) the number of dispensing pharmacies, (3) milligram equivalence doses, (4) coprescribed potentiating drugs, and (5) overlapping prescription days. Read More

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Association between Big Five Personality Factors and medication adherence in the elderly.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Medicine and Graduate Program in Biomedical Gerontology, Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Background: Adherence to medications can be associated with circumstances related to the patient, the pathology, cultural health beliefs, habits and quality of life. The behavioral patterns can also directly influence the pharmacological adherence of a patient, as these relate to the perception and understanding of their own health status and the drug and non-drug. therapies. Read More

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Pain Trends Among American Adults, 2002-2018: Patterns, Disparities, and Correlates.

Demography 2021 Apr;58(2):711-738

Department of Family Studies and Gerontology and Global Aging and Community Initiative, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Determining long-term trends in chronic pain prevalence is critical for evaluating and shaping U.S. health policies, but little research has examined such trends. Read More

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Comorbid Bipolar and Alcohol Use Disorder-A Therapeutic Challenge.

Front Psychiatry 2021 23;12:660432. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Vitos Klinik Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Herborn, Germany.

Comorbidity rates in Bipolar disorder rank highest among major mental disorders, especially comorbid substance use. Besides cannabis, alcohol is the most frequent substance of abuse as it is societally accepted and can be purchased and consumed legally. Estimates for lifetime comorbidity of bipolar disorder and alcohol use disorder are substantial and in the range of 40-70%, both for Bipolar I and II disorder, and with male preponderance. Read More

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Differential Spatiotemporal Expression of Type I and Type II Cadherins Associated With the Segmentation of the Central Nervous System and Formation of Brain Nuclei in the Developing Mouse.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 23;14:633719. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Natural Sciences, Mercy College, Dobbs Ferry, NY, United States.

Type I and type II classical cadherins comprise a family of cell adhesion molecules that regulate cell sorting and tissue separation by forming specific homo and heterophilic bonds. Factors that affect cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion include cadherin binding affinity and expression level. This study examines the expression pattern of type I cadherins (, , , and ), type II cadherins (, , , , , , , , , and ), and the atypical cadherin 13 () during distinct morphogenetic events in the developing mouse central nervous system from embryonic day 11. Read More

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Gene expression profiles of YAP1, TAZ, CRB3, and VDR in familial and sporadic multiple sclerosis among an Iranian population.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7713. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Isfahan Neuroscience Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Alterations in the regulatory mechanisms that control the process of myelination in the nervous system, may lead to the impaired myelination in the Multiple sclerosis. The Hippo pathway is an important mediator of myelination in the nervous system and might contribute to the pathophysiology of MS. This study examined via qPCR the RNA expression of YAP1, TAZ, and CRB3 as the key effectors of the Hippo pathway and also, VDR in the peripheral blood of 35 sporadic, 37 familial MS patients; and also 34 healthy first-degree relatives of the familial MS patients (HFR) and 40 healthy individuals without a family history of the disease (control). Read More

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"Alexa, Can You Be My Family Medicine Doctor?" The Future of Family Medicine in the Coming Techno-World.

J Am Board Fam Med 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):430-434

From the Department of Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA (AFS); and Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA (AFS); Atrium Health, Charlotte, NC (DCS); University of North Carolina Chapel Hill (DCS); Communication Department, Boston College, Department of Family Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine (APD).

Even before social distancing disrupted normative expectations and prompted an immediate shift to remote doctor/patient interactions, technology companies-Amazon, Apple, and Google-were preparing to disrupt medical care through the innovative use of technology. This article presents a possible scenario for how technology, in the near future, will completely up-end primary care practice. What does face-to-face interaction accomplish that cannot be done remotely? What do family physicians offer that cannot be accomplished by technology? More than just relationship, family medicine brings the therapeutic use of the self to engage with people, an ability to advocate for patients, and the ability to step back and reflect on the power of relationships. Read More

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Early Emergence and Long-Term Persistence of HIV-Infected T-Cell Clones in Children.

mBio 2021 04 8;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 8.

HIV Dynamics and Replication Program, CCR, National Cancer Institute, Frederick, Maryland, USA.

Little is known about the emergence and persistence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T-cell clones in perinatally infected children. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) for clonal expansion in 11 children who initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 1.8 and 17. Read More

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The perils of using predicted values in place of observed covariates: an example of predicted values of body composition and mortality risk.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Biostatistics Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA.

Background: Several studies have assessed the relation of body composition to health outcomes by using values of fat and lean mass that were not measured but instead were predicted from anthropometric variables such as weight and height. Little research has been done on how substituting predicted values for measured covariates might affect analytic results.

Objectives: We aimed to explore statistical issues causing bias in analytical studies that use predicted rather than measured values of body composition. Read More

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Incorporating a Whole-Person Perspective in Consumer-Generated Data: Social Determinants, Resilience, and Hidden Patterns.

Comput Inform Nurs 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Author Affiliations: University of Minnesota School of Nursing (Drs Monsen and Austin, Ms Mathiason); Hue-MAN Partnership (Mr Jones); and Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Minnesota Medical School (Drs Brink and Eder), Minneapolis, MN.

Given the complex health and social needs of older adults, the rapid growth of the aging population, and the increasing use of information technology in healthcare, there is a critical need for informatics solutions that advance gerontological nursing care and knowledge discovery. This article illustrates the value of standardized data for healthcare quality improvement throughout the life cycle of data capture and reuse. One such informatics solution is the MyStrengths+MyHealth app, which incorporates a whole-person perspective through the Simplified Omaha System Terms assessment, including the social and behavioral determinants of health, as well as resilience. Read More

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Examination of college student health behaviors and self-reported executive functions.

J Am Coll Health 2021 Apr 8:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychology, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA.

Objective: Emerging adulthood is characterized by maturation of executive functions (EF) and changes in health behaviors (HB). Interestingly, EF are bi-directionally related to many specific HB; yet how EF performs in relation to overall patterns of HB engagement is unclear. Groupings of HB and the relationship between these HB groupings and EF were examined. Read More

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Integrated genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals unique mechanisms for high osmotolerance and halotolerance in Hyphopichia yeast.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Molecular Systems Biology Laboratory of Life Science, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, 06974, South Korea.

The yeast species Hyphopichia is common in nature and strongly competitive under harsh environmental conditions. Here, we characterized Hyphopichia burtonii KJJ43 and H. pseudoburtonii KJS14, which exhibit strong halotolerance, using genomic and transcriptomic analyses. Read More

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