96,360 results match your criteria pattern response

Immune response and susceptibility of Nile tilapia fish to Aeromonas hydrophila infection following the exposure to Bifenthrin and/or supplementation with Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 10;216:112205. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Forensic Medicine and Toxicology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, 32897, Egypt.

Bifenthrin (BF) is a widely used 3rd generation type I pyrethroid with a potential toxic effect in fish. Nevertheless, its effect on the immune system remains unclear. In the present study, Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to BF at 0. Read More

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Mettl14-mediated mA Modification Facilitates Liver Regeneration by Maintaining Endoplasmic Reticulum Homeostasis.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Laboratory of Pathology, Key Laboratory of Transplant Engineering and Immunology, NHC, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China; Department of Pathology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

Background & Aims: N-methyladenosine (mA), the most prevalent and dynamic posttranscriptional methylation modification of mammalian mRNA, is involved in various biological processes, but its role in liver regeneration has not been characterized.

Methods: We first conducted transcriptome-wide mA mRNA sequencing (mA-seq) and characterized the expression pattern of mA in regenerating mouse liver. Next, we generated hepatocyte-specific Mettl3- or Mettl14-deficient mice and investigated their role in liver regeneration. Read More

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Abnormal patterns of sleep and EEG power distribution during non-rapid eye movement sleep in the sheep model of Huntington's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Apr 10:105367. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3DY, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Sleep disruption is a common invisible symptom of neurological dysfunction in Huntington's disease (HD) that takes an insidious toll on well-being of patients. Here we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine sleep in 6 year old OVT73 transgenic sheep (Ovis aries) that we used as a presymptomatic model of HD. We hypothesized that despite the lack of overt symptoms of HD at this age, early alterations of the sleep-wake pattern and EEG powers may already be present. Read More

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Inflammasome Genetic Variants, Macrophage Function, and Clinical Outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

University of Washington, 7284, Biostatistics, Seattle, Washington, United States.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by chronic airway infection, inflammation, and tissue damage that lead to progressive respiratory failure. NLRP3 and NLRC4 are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors that activate the inflammasome, initiating a caspase-1 mediated response. We hypothesized that gain of function inflammasome responses are associated with worse outcomes in children with CF. Read More

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Determinants of protective behaviours during a nationwide lockdown in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Br J Health Psychol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: Without pharmaceutical measures available, endorsement of protective behaviours, such as hygiene behaviours, social distancing, and adherence to recommended behaviours in case of symptoms is of key importance to curb the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Based on an extended version of the protection motivation theory, this study examined the role of perceived risks to oneself and to others, self-efficacy, response efficacy, and perceived social norms for intentions to and the endorsement of several protective behaviours and alternative behaviours known to be ineffective. Further, it was hypothesised that effects of risk perceptions depended on high levels of self-efficacy. Read More

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Binge eating attitudes in community adolescent sample and relationships with interview-assessed attachment representations in girls: a multi-center study from North Italy.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo, 1, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: To compare community girls at risk and not at risk for binge eating (BE) in attachment representations through a narrative interview and to test the predictive role of attachment pattern(s) on the risk of binge eating among community girls.

Methods: From 772 community adolescents of both sexes (33% boys) screened through the Binge Eating Scale (BES), 112 girls between 14 and 18 years, 56 placed in a group at risk for binge eating (BEG), and 56 matched peers, not at risk (NBEG), were assessed in attachment representations through the Friends and Family Interview (FFI).

Results: (1) Compared to NBEG, girls in the BEG showed more insecure-preoccupied classifications and scores, together with lower narrative coherence, mother's representation as a secure base/safe haven, reflective functioning, adaptive response, and more anger toward mother. Read More

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Time-lag of urinary and salivary cortisol response after a psychological stressor in bonobos (Pan paniscus).

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7905. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Behavioural Ecology and Ecophysiology Group, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Cortisol is often measured as a marker for stress. Therefore, a profound validation of the time-lag between the stressor and the increase and peak in cortisol levels is needed. No study measured both the urinary and salivary cortisol time-lag after a psychological stressor. Read More

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Interplay between NOD1 and TLR4 Receptors in Macrophages: Nonsynergistic Activation of Signaling Pathways Results in Synergistic Induction of Proinflammatory Gene Expression.

J Immunol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology, National Research Center Institute of Immunology of the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia;

Interactions between pattern-recognition receptors shape innate immune responses to pathogens. NOD1 and TLR4 are synergistically interacting receptors playing a pivotal role in the recognition of Gram-negative bacteria. However, mechanisms of their cooperation are poorly understood. Read More

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A phase 1 study of dalpiciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor in Chinese patients with advanced breast cancer.

Biomark Res 2021 Apr 12;9(1):24. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co. Ltd, Shanghai, China.

Background: Dalpiciclib (SHR6390) is a novel inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 which demonstrated promising anti-tumor potency in preclinical models. This first-in-human study was conducted to evaluate the tolerability, pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary antitumor activity of dalpiciclib in patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC).

Methods: In this open-label, phase 1 study, Chinese patients who had failed standard therapy were enrolled to receive oral dalpiciclib in 3 + 3 dose-escalation pattern at doses of 25-175 mg. Read More

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EXPRESS: Comparing Person and People Perception: Multiple Group Members Do Not Increase Stereotype Priming.

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Apr 12:17470218211012852. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Psychology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK 1019.

A characteristic feature of daily life is encountering people in groups. Surprisingly, however, at least during the initial stages of processing, research has focused almost exclusively on the construal of single individuals. As such, it remains unclear whether person and people (i. Read More

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Molecular characterization of a novel p38 MAPK cDNA from Cyclina sinensis and its potential immune-related function under the threat of Vibrio anguillarum.

Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol 2021 Apr 9:110599. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Life Sciences, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Conservation and Utilization of Animal Diversity, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, China. Electronic address:

The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is one important member of MAPK family and reported to serve a predominant function in regulating innate immunity after the occurrence of certain infection. In the present study, one novel p38 MAPK gene was acquired from Cyclina sinensis based on the RNA-seq analysis and designated as Csp38 MAPK. This novel gene contained a full length of 1781 bp, 1104 bp of which was deemed as open reading frames and gave rise to a peptide of 367 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 42. Read More

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Mechanical Adaptability of Patterns in Constrained Hydrogel Membranes.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634, United States.

Pattern formation and dynamic restructuring play a vital role in a plethora of natural processes. Understanding and controlling pattern formation in soft synthetic materials is important for imparting a range of biomimetic functionalities. Using a three-dimensional gel Lattice spring model, we focus on the dynamics of pattern formation and restructuring in thin thermoresponsive poly(-isopropylacrylamide) membranes under mechanical forcing via stretching and compression. Read More

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Association between shape changes and bone remodeling patterns in the middle face during ontogeny in South American populations.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

División Antropología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CONICET, La Plata, Argentina.

The morphology of facial bones is modeled by processes of bone formation and resorption induced by interactions between tissues and compensatory responses. However, the role of remodeling patterns on the morphological changes within and among populations has been scarcely explored. Here, we assess the association between facial shape and the underlying bone cell activity throughout the ontogeny in two Amerindian populations that represent the extremes of craniofacial variation in South America. Read More

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Individual reversible plasticity as a genotype-level bet-hedging strategy.

J Evol Biol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Centre for Biodiversity Dynamics, Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7044, Trondheim, Norway.

Reversible plasticity in phenotypic traits allows organisms to cope with environmental variation within lifetimes, but costs of plasticity may limit just how well the phenotype matches the environmental optimum. An additional adaptive advantage of plasticity might be to reduce fitness variance, in other words: bet-hedging to maximize geometric (rather than simply arithmetic) mean fitness. Here we model the evolution of plasticity in the form of reaction norm slopes, with increasing costs as the slope or degree of plasticity increases. Read More

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Dynamics of bacterial adaptation.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Natural and Computational Sciences, Massey University, Auckland 0634, New Zealand.

Determining pattern in the dynamics of population evolution is a long-standing focus of evolutionary biology. Complementing the study of natural populations, microbial laboratory evolution experiments have become an important tool for addressing these dynamics because they allow detailed and replicated analysis of evolution in response to controlled environmental and genetic conditions. Key findings include a tendency for smoothly declining rates of adaptation during selection in constant environments, at least in part a reflection of antagonism between accumulating beneficial mutations, and a large number of beneficial mutations available to replicate populations leading to significant, but relatively low genetic parallelism, even as phenotypic characteristics show high similarity. Read More

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Meaningful Versus Meaningless Sounds and Words.

Exp Psychol 2021 Apr 12:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, WI, USA.

The current study assessed memory performance for perceptually similar environmental sounds and speech-based material after short and long delays. In two studies, we demonstrated a similar pattern of memory performance for sounds and words in short-term memory, yet in long-term memory, the performance patterns differed. Experiment 1 examined the effects of two different types of sounds: meaningful (MFUL) and meaningless (MLESS), whereas Experiment 2 assessed memory performance for words and nonwords. Read More

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Analysis of morphological and neurochemical changes in subthalamic nucleus neurons in response to a unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the substantia nigra in adult rats.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 20;10:96-103. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons undergo changes in their pattern of activity and morphology during the clinical course of Parkinson's disease (PD). Striatal dopamine depletion and hyperactivity of neurons in the parafascicular nucleus (Pf) of the intralaminar thalamus are predicted to contribute to the STN changes.

Objective: This study investigated possible morphological and neurochemical changes in STN neurons in a rat model of unilateral, nigral dopamine neuron loss, in relation to previously documented alterations in Pf neurons. Read More

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Correlation Between APOBEC3B Expression and Clinical Characterization in Lower-Grade Gliomas.

Front Oncol 2021 26;11:625838. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: As the most aggressive tumors in the central nervous system, gliomas have poor prognosis and limited therapy methods. Immunotherapy has become promising in the treatment of gliomas. Here, we explored the expression pattern of APOBEC3B, a genomic mutation inducer, in gliomas to assess its value as an immune biomarker and immunotherapeutic target. Read More

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Assessing of growth, antioxidant enzymes, and phytohormone regulation in under cadmium stress.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 31;9(4):2021-2031. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

RME-Laboratory of Resources, Materials and Ecosystems Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte University of Carthage Bizerte Tunisia.

One of the major problems worldwide is soil pollution by trace metal elements, which limits plant productivity and threatens human health. In this work, we have studied the effect of different concentrations of cadmium on plants, evaluating different physiological and biochemical parameters: hormone signaling, metabolite concentration (malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide) and, in addition, the antioxidant enzyme activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase were evaluated. The production of biomass decreased under the Cd-stress. Read More

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Spatial patterns of leaf δC and δN of aquatic macrophytes in the arid zone of northwestern China.

Ecol Evol 2021 Apr 16;11(7):3110-3119. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Wildlife Conservation Chief Station of Hubei Province Wuhan China.

Analysis of stable isotope composition is an important tool in research on plant physiological ecology. However, large-scale patterns of leaf-stable isotopes for aquatic macrophytes have received considerably less attention. In this study, we examined the spatial pattern of stable isotopes of carbon (δC) and nitrogen (δN) of macrophytes leaves collected across the arid zone of northwestern China (approximately 2. Read More

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LASS2 mediates Nrf2-driven progestin resistance in endometrial cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1280-1289. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Jiangxi Medical College, Nanchang University Nanchang 330000, China.

Progestin administration serves as the optimal conservative treatment method for women with endometrial cancer or precancer lesions who want to preserve fertility. However, there are still at least 30% of patients in which progestin resistance occurs. LASS2 (Ceramide Synthase 2) has been reported to be involved in chemotherapy resistance, whether it also plays a role in progestin resistance is not clear. Read More

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Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Response Within Rice ( L.) Canopies Under Different Nitrogen Treatments.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:645977. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Accurate acquisition of plant phenotypic information has raised long-standing concerns in support of crop breeding programs. Different methods have been developed for high throughput plant phenotyping, while they mainly focused on the canopy level without considering the spatiotemporal heterogeneity at different canopy layers and growth stages. This study aims to phenotype spatiotemporal heterogeneity of chlorophyll (Chl) content and fluorescence response within rice leaves and canopies. Read More

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Transcriptomic Profiling of Apple Calli With a Focus on the Key Genes for ALA-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:640606. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

The red color is an attractive trait of fruit and determines its market acceptance. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), an eco-friendly plant growth regulator, has played a universal role in plant secondary metabolism regulation, particularly in flavonoid biosynthesis. It has been widely reported that ALA can up-regulate expression levels of several structural genes related to flavonoid metabolism and anthocyanin accumulation. Read More

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Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Depletion and Elevation of IFN-γ Dependent Chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 in Children With Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:654587. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 occurs in the majority of children as COVID-19, without symptoms or with a paucisymptomatic respiratory syndrome, but a small proportion of children develop the systemic Multi Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS-C), characterized by persistent fever and systemic hyperinflammation, with some clinical features resembling Kawasaki Disease (KD).

Objective: With this study we aimed to shed new light on the pathogenesis of these two SARS-CoV-2-related clinical manifestations.

Methods: We investigated lymphocyte and dendritic cells subsets, chemokine/cytokine profiles and evaluated the neutrophil activity mediators, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), in 10 children with COVID-19 and 9 with MIS-C at the time of hospital admission. Read More

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17β-Estradiol Is Involved in the Sexual Dimorphism of the Immune Response to Malaria.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:643851. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Laboratorio de Inmunología Molecular, Unidad de Investigación Química Computacional, Síntesis y Farmacología en Moléculas de Interés Biológico, División de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico.

Malaria is the leading cause of parasitic infection-related death globally. Additionally, malaria-associated mortality is higher in men than in women, and this sexual dimorphism reflects differences in innate and adaptive immune responses that are influenced by sex hormones. Normally, females develop more robust immune responses against parasites than males. Read More

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Can the Brain Build Probability Distributions?

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:596231. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

How humans efficiently operate in a world with massive amounts of data that need to be processed, stored, and recalled has long been an unsettled question. Our physical and social environment needs to be represented in a structured way, which could be achieved by reducing input to latent variables in the form of probability distributions, as proposed by influential, probabilistic accounts of cognition and perception. However, few studies have investigated the neural processes underlying the brain's potential ability to represent a probability distribution's complex, global features. Read More

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Contribution of Clinically Indicated Repeat Renal Biopsy in Indian Patients with Lupus Nephritis.

Indian J Nephrol 2020 Nov-Dec;30(6):377-381. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Histopathology, PGIMER, Chandigarh, India.

Background: Repeat renal biopsy is usually done for lupus nephritis (LN) flare or resistant disease. We analyzed the changes between first and repeat biopsy and the contribution of repeat biopsy on renal outcome in LN patients.

Methods: This was a retrospective study carried out at a tertiary care center in India. Read More

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February 2020

Dectin-2-mediated initiation of immune responses caused by influenza virus hemagglutinin.

Biomed Res 2021 ;42(2):53-66

Department of Intelligent Network for Infectious Diseases,Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine.

Antigen-presenting cells express pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns from microorganisms and lead to the induction of inflammatory responses. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), the representative PRRs, bind to microbial polysaccharides, among which Dectin-2 and Mincle recognize mannose-containing polysaccharides. Because influenza virus (IFV) hemagglutinin (HA) is rich in mannose polysaccharides, Dectin-2 or Mincle may contribute to the recognition of HA. Read More

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January 2021

Growth Hormone Modulation of Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Química y Fisicoquímica Biológicas (IQUIFIB), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling has a central role in the regenerative response of the liver upon injury and is involved in cellular transformation linked to chronic damage. Hepatic EGFR expression, trafficking, and signaling are regulated by growth hormone (GH). Chronically elevated GH levels are associated with liver cancer development and progression in mice. Read More

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High temperature stress induces expression of CYP450 genes and contributes to insecticide tolerance in Liriomyza trifolii.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 10;174:104826. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

College of Horticulture and Plant Protection & Institute of Applied Entomology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Liriomyza trifolii is an invasive leafminer fly that inflicts damage on many horticultural and vegetable crops. In this study, the effects of elevated temperatures on L. trifolii tolerance to insecticides abamectin (AB), monosultap (MO) and a mixture of abamectin and monosultap (AM) were firstly investigated, then five CYP450 genes (LtCYPs) were cloned, and expression patterns and NADPH cytochrome C reductase (NCR) activity in L. Read More

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