233,033 results match your criteria pattern formation

Exercise of high intensity ameliorates hepatic inflammation and the progression of NASH.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 9:101270. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA; Center for Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) covers a wide spectrum of liver pathology ranging from simple fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Notably, immune cell-driven inflammation is a key mechanism in the transition from fatty liver to the more serious NASH. Although exercise training is effective at ameliorating obesity-related diseases, the underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of exercise remain unclear. Read More

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Dysfunctional mitochondria as critical players in the inflammation of autoimmune diseases: Potential role in Sjögren's syndrome.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Jun 9:102867. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Programa de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Relevant reviews highlight the association between dysfunctional mitochondria and inflammation, but few studies address the contribution of mitochondria and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCs) to cellular homeostasis and inflammatory signaling. The present review outlines the important role of mitochondria in cellular homeostasis and how dysfunctional mitochondrion can release and misplace mitochondrial components (cardiolipin, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and mitochondrial formylated peptides) through multiple mechanisms. These components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and induce an inflammatory response via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Read More

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Metformin use is associated with a reduced risk of acute appendicitis in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Chin-Hsiao Tseng

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 11;11(1):12400. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

This retrospective cohort study used the nationwide database of Taiwan's National Health Insurance to investigate whether metformin would reduce the risk of acute appendicitis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We first identified 423,949 patients newly diagnosed of diabetes from 1999 to 2005. After excluding patients having type 1 diabetes mellitus, missing data, previous history of acute appendicitis, aged < 15 years, aged > 80 years and followed up for < 6 months, 338,172 ever users and 21,861 never users of metformin were followed up from January 1, 2006 until December 31, 2011. Read More

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The functional organization of excitatory synaptic input to place cells.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3558. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA.

Hippocampal place cells contribute to mammalian spatial navigation and memory formation. Numerous models have been proposed to explain the location-specific firing of this cognitive representation, but the pattern of excitatory synaptic input leading to place firing is unknown, leaving no synaptic-scale explanation of place coding. Here we used resonant scanning two-photon microscopy to establish the pattern of synaptic glutamate input received by CA1 place cells in behaving mice. Read More

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C-type lectins and extracellular vesicles in virus-induced NETosis.

J Biomed Sci 2021 Jun 11;28(1):46. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128, Academia Road, Sec. 2, Nankang District, Taipei, 115, Taiwan.

Dysregulated formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is observed in acute viral infections. Moreover, NETs contribute to the pathogenesis of acute viral infections, including those caused by the dengue virus (DV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Furthermore, excessive NET formation (NETosis) is associated with disease severity in patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2-induced multiple organ injuries. Read More

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A model of the burglar alarm hypothesis of prey alarm calls.

Theor Popul Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD, United States of America. Electronic address:

When approached by a predator many prey species will emit an "alarm call" as a form of anti-predator behavior. One hypothesis for the function of alarm calls is the "burglar alarm" hypothesis whereby upon attack, a prey renders itself dangerous to a predator by generating an alarm call that attracts a predator at higher trophic levels in the food chain; that is, attracts a predator to the prey's own predator. This paper concerns a model incorporating a mechanism to test the burglar alarm hypothesis. Read More

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The Role of N-myc Downstream-Regulated Gene Family in Glioma Based on Bioinformatics Analysis.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Neurosurgery, Affiliated Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, P.R. China.

Glioma is the most common type of primary tumor in the central nervous system, and the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. N-myc downstream-regulated gene () family is reported to take part in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including some preliminary exploration in glioma. However, there has been no bioinformatics analysis of family in glioma yet. Read More

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Tridentate 3-Substituted Naphthoquinone Ruthenium Arene Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization, Aqueous Behavior, and Theoretical and Biological Studies.

Inorg Chem 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

A series of nine Ru arene complexes bearing tridentate naphthoquinone-based ,,-ligands was synthesized and characterized. Aqueous stability and their hydrolysis mechanism were investigated via UV/vis photometry, HPLC-MS, and density functional theory calculations. Substituents with a positive inductive effect improved their stability at physiological pH (7. Read More

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Endothelial cell regulation of systemic haemodynamics and metabolism acts through the HIF transcription factors.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2021 Jun 11;9(1):28. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK.

Background: The vascular endothelium has important endocrine and paracrine roles, particularly in the regulation of vascular tone and immune function, and it has been implicated in the pathophysiology of a range of cardiovascular and inflammatory conditions. This study uses a series of transgenic murine models to explore for the first time the role of the hypoxia-inducible factors, HIF-1α and HIF-2α in the pulmonary and systemic circulations as potential regulators of systemic vascular function in normoxic or hypoxic conditions and in response to inflammatory stress. We developed a series of transgenic mouse models, the HIF-1α Tie2Cre, deficient in HIF1-α in the systemic and pulmonary vascular endothelium and the L1Cre, a pulmonary endothelium specific knockout of HIF-1α or HIF-2α. Read More

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Microgametophyte Development in L. and First Androgenesis Induction Through Microspore Embryogenesis.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:669424. Epub 2021 May 25.

Instituto Universitario de Conservación y Mejora de la Agrodiversidad Valenciana, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.

Development of double haploids is an elusive current breeding objective in L. We have studied the whole process of anther and pollen grain formation during meiosis, microsporogenesis, and microgametogenesis and correlated the different microgametophyte developmental stages with bud length in plants from varieties USO31 and Finola. We also studied microspore and pollen amyloplast content and studied the effect of a cold pretreatment to excised buds prior to microspore culture. Read More

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Real-time conversion of tissue-scale mechanical forces into an interdigitated growth pattern.

Nat Plants 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

The leaf epidermis is a dynamic biomechanical shell that integrates growth across spatial scales to influence organ morphology. Pavement cells, the fundamental unit of this tissue, morph irreversibly into highly lobed cells that drive planar leaf expansion. Here, we define how tissue-scale cell wall tensile forces and the microtubule-cellulose synthase systems dictate the patterns of interdigitated growth in real time. Read More

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Rb[Li5Si2O7] - A Latecomer in the Family of Alkali Lithosilicates Hiding a Green-Emitting Lithosilicate.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Universitat Innsbruck, Institut für Allgemeine, Anorganische und Theoretische Chemie, Innrain 80-82, 6020, Innsbruck, AUSTRIA.

In order to expand the field of alkali lithosilicates, a new representative of the substance class with a previously unknown structure type was found based on solid-state synthesis. The novel compound with the sum formula Rb[Li 5 Si 2 O 7 ] crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbcm (no. 57) with a = 7. Read More

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Pattern Formation in a Reaction-Diffusion BAM Neural Network With Time Delay: (k₁,k₂) Mode Hopf-Zero Bifurcation Case.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jun 10;PP. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

This article investigates the joint effects of connection weight and time delay on pattern formation for a delayed reaction-diffusion BAM neural network (RDBAMNN) with Neumann boundary conditions by using the (k₁,k₂) mode Hopf-zero bifurcation. First, the conditions for k₁ mode zero bifurcation are obtained by choosing connection weight as the bifurcation parameter. It is found that the connection weight has a great impact on the properties of steady state. Read More

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Interplay of morphological configuration and language switching in numerical processing and word processing.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Institute of Psychology, RWTH Aachen University.

The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of morphological configuration switching and language switching. The morphological configuration is present in word-formation whenever a word contains more than one free morpheme. The morphological configuration is variable both within and between languages for example in two-digit number names (is the decade named first as in twenty-one or the unit named first as in seventeen) and in compound words (is the modifier or the head named first). Read More

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Spatial distribution of apoplastic antioxidative constituents in maize root.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Apoplastic antioxidative constituents (enzymes, primary and secondary metabolites, ROS) from different root zones of hydroponically grown maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated using a non-invasive isolation procedure: filter strip method. Filter strips were placed at specific positions on the root surface: apical zone (tip) and basal zone (base) to absorb apoplastic fluid. Read More

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Micronucleus Formation Induced by Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Herbicides in Human Peripheral White Blood Cells.

Front Public Health 2021 24;9:639143. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Glyphosate is the most commonly used herbicide around the world, which led to its accumulation in the environment and consequent ubiquitous human exposure. Glyphosate is marketed in numerous glyphosate-based herbicide formulations (GBHs) that include co-formulants to enhance herbicidal effect of the active ingredient, but are declared as inert substances. However, these other ingredients can have biologic activity on their own and may interact with the glyphosate in synergistic toxicity. Read More

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Dietary patterns related to zinc and polyunsaturated fatty acids intake are associated with serum linoleic/dihomo-γ-linolenic ratio in NHANES males and females.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 9;11(1):12215. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Vydiant, Folsom, CA, USA.

Identifying dietary patterns that contribute to zinc (Zn) and fatty acids intake and their biomarkers that may have an impact on health of males and females. The present study was designed to (a) extract dietary patterns with foods that explain the variation of Zn and PUFAs intake in adult men and women; and (b) evaluate the association between the extracted dietary patterns with circulating levels of serum dihomo-γ-linolenic fatty acid (DGLA) or serum linoleic/dihomo-γ-linolenic (LA/DGLA) ratio in males and females. We used reduced rank regression (RRR) to extract the dietary patterns separated by sex in the NHANES 2011-2012 data. Read More

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Inconvenient relationship of haemoglobin A1c level with endothelial function in type 2 diabetes in a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 9;11(6):e045415. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Division of Regeneration and Medicine, Medical Center for Translational and Clinical Research, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima, Japan

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level with flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-induced vasodilation (NID) in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: 22 university hospitals and affiliated clinics in Japan. Read More

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Microbiota-derived acetate activates intestinal innate immunity via the Tip60 histone acetyltransferase complex.

Immunity 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address:

Microbe-derived acetate activates the Drosophila immunodeficiency (IMD) pathway in a subset of enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the anterior midgut. In these cells, the IMD pathway co-regulates expression of antimicrobial and enteroendocrine peptides including tachykinin, a repressor of intestinal lipid synthesis. To determine whether acetate acts on a cell surface pattern recognition receptor or an intracellular target, we asked whether acetate import was essential for IMD signaling. Read More

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Competitive Coordination of Chloride and Fluoride Anions Towards Trivalent Lanthanide Cations (La3+ and Nd3+) in Molten Salts.

Chemistry 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Chemistry, No.19B Yuquan Road, Shijingshan District, 100049, Beijing, CHINA.

Molten salt electrolysis is a vital technique to produce high-purity lanthanide metals and alloys. However, the coordination environments of lanthanides in molten salts, which heavily affect the related redox potential and electrochemical properties, have not been well elucidated. Here we explore the competitive coordination of chloride and fluoride anions towards lanthanide cations (La 3+ and Nd 3+ ) in molten LiCl-KCl-LiF-LnCl 3 salts by using electrochemical, spectroscopic , and computational approaches. Read More

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Single-Cell Transcriptome Analysis Uncovers Intratumoral Heterogeneity and Underlying Mechanisms for Drug Resistance in Hepatobiliary Tumor Organoids.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 06 23;8(11):e2003897. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

National Center for Liver Cancer, Shanghai, 200441, China.

Molecular heterogeneity of hepatobiliary tumor including intertumoral and intratumoral disparity always leads to drug resistance. Here, seven hepatobiliary tumor organoids are generated to explore heterogeneity and evolution via single-cell RNA sequencing. HCC272 with high status of epithelia-mesenchymal transition proves broad-spectrum drug resistance. Read More

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The Protective Effects of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34) on Cartilage and Subchondral Bone Through Down-Regulating JAK2/STAT3 and WNT5A/ROR2 in a Collagenase-Induced Osteoarthritis Mouse Model.

Orthop Surg 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To assess the effects of PTH (1-34) on bone and cartilage metabolism in a collagenase-induced mouse model of osteoarthritis (OA) and examine whether PTH (1-34) affects the expression of JAK2/STAT3 and WNT5A/ROR2 in this process.

Methods: Eighteen 12-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: sham group (Group A), the collagenase + saline injection group (Group B), and the collagenase + PTH (1-34) treatment group (Group C). Collagenase was injected (intra-articular) into the knee joint of Group B and C. Read More

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AGE/RAGE/DIAPH1 axis is associated with immunometabolic markers and risk of insulin resistance in subcutaneous but not omental adipose tissue in human obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Diabetes Research Program, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Background/objectives: The incidence of obesity continues to increase worldwide and while the underlying pathogenesis remains largely unknown, nutrient excess, manifested by "Westernization" of the diet and reduced physical activity have been proposed as key contributing factors. Western-style diets, in addition to higher caloric load, are characterized by excess of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which have been linked to the pathophysiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. AGEs can be "trapped" in adipose tissue, even in the absence of diabetes, in part due to higher expression of the receptor for AGEs (RAGE) and/or decreased detoxification by the endogenous glyoxalase (GLO) system, where they may promote insulin resistance. Read More

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Cooperation and competition between pair and multi-player social games in spatial populations.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12101. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 611731, China.

The conflict between individual and collective interests is in the heart of every social dilemmas established by evolutionary game theory. We cannot avoid these conflicts but sometimes we may choose which interaction framework to use as a battlefield. For instance some people like to be part of a larger group while other persons prefer to interact in a more personalized, individual way. Read More

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Altered DNA methylation pattern reveals epigenetic regulation of Hox genes in thoracic aortic dissection and serves as a biomarker in disease diagnosis.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jun 8;13(1):124. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Vascular Surgery Department, Zhongshan Xiamen Hospital, Fudan University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China.

Background: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is a severe disease with limited understandings in its pathogenesis. Altered DNA methylation has been revealed to be involved in many diseases etiology. Few studies have examined the role of DNA methylation in the development of TAD. Read More

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Iminodibenzyl redirected cyclooxygenase-2 catalyzed dihomo-γ-linolenic acid peroxidation pattern in lung cancer.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA. Electronic address:

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is up-regulated by redox imbalance and is considered a target for cancer therapy. The rationale of the COX-2 inhibitor lies in suppressing COX-2 catalyzed peroxidation of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are essential and pervasive in our daily diet. However, COX-2 inhibitors fail to improve cancer patients' survival and may lead to severe side effects. Read More

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Solvent Vapor Annealing, Defect Analysis, and Optimization of Self-Assembly of Block Copolymers Using Machine Learning Approaches.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, 11227-Saskatchewan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2, Canada.

Self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) is an alternative patterning technique that promises high resolution and density multiplication with lower costs. The defectivity of the resulting nanopatterns remains too high for many applications in microelectronics and is exacerbated by small variations of processing parameters, such as film thickness, and fluctuations of solvent vapor pressure and temperature, among others. In this work, a solvent vapor annealing (SVA) flow-controlled system is combined with design of experiments (DOE) and machine learning (ML) approaches. Read More

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A Quantitative Analysis of Bone Lamellarity and Bone Collagen Linearity Induced by Distinct Dosing and Frequencies of Teriparatide Administration in Ovariectomized Rats and Monkeys.

Microscopy (Oxf) 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty and Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, N13 W7, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8586, Japan.

The lamellar structure of bone, which endows biomechanical rigidity to support the host organism is observed in mammals, including humans. It is therefore essential to develop a quantitative analysis to evaluate the lamellarity of bone, which would especially useful for the pharmacological evaluation of anti-osteoporotic drugs. This study applied a current system for the semi-automatic recognition of fluorescence signals to the analysis of un-decalcified bone sections from rat and monkey specimens treated with teriparatide (TPTD). Read More

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A comprehensive stability assessment of insulin degludec using New customized validated RP-HPLC and SEC-HPLC methods in an orthogonal testing protocol.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 May 31;203:114175. Epub 2021 May 31.

Pharmaceutical Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt.

Stress testing of biopharmaceuticals plays an important role in preparation of their stability profiles through investigation of possible degradation pathways and identification of degradation products, so in this study Insulin Degludec which is a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin is subjected to stress conditions as different temperatures, different pH, oxidation, mechanical agitation, and repeated freeze and thaw cycles to generate possible degradation products and aggregation that are investigated by two new validated RP-HPLC and SEC-HPLC methods in addition to dynamic light scattering (DLS) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Nu-PAGE). SEC-HPLC was used to investigate formation of aggregates whose results were correlated with those obtained from DLS and Nu-PAGE, while RP-HPLC was used to investigate any possible chemical modifications. The Proposed RP-method had limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0. Read More

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Atypical cytomegalovirus retinal disease in pyroptosis-deficient mice with murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Exp Eye Res 2021 Jun 5;209:108651. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Viral Immunology Center, Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, 30303, Georgia; Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, 30322, Georgia. Electronic address:

Pyroptosis is a caspase-dependent programmed cell death pathway that initiates and sustains inflammation through release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 following formation of gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated membrane pores. To determine the possible pathogenic contributions of pyroptosis toward development of full-thickness retinal necrosis during AIDS-related human cytomegalovirus retinitis, we performed a series of studies using an established model of experimental murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) retinitis in mice with retrovirus-induced immunosuppression (MAIDS). Initial investigations demonstrated significant transcription and translation of key pyroptosis-associated genes within the ocular compartments of MCMV-infected eyes of mice with MAIDS. Read More

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