3,028 results match your criteria patients rrms

Involvement of cytotoxic Eomes-expressing CD4 T cells in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(11)

Department of Immunology, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, 187-8502 Japan;

Multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), commonly presents as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by recurrent episodes of peripheral disabling symptoms resulting from inflammatory CNS damage. Many RRMS patients transition to a chronic disease course with progressive neurological dysfunctions (secondary progressive MS, SPMS), with the progression rate varying between patients and over time. SPMS pathogenesis is now linked to immune-cell-mediated processes, although the mechanisms driving SPMS transition and progression remain elusive, and SPMS lacks biomarkers and effective treatments. Read More

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A novel prognostic score to assess the risk of progression in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of Verona, Department Neurological and Movement Sciences, Verona, Italy.

Background: At patient-level, the prognostic value of several features that are known to be associated with an increased risk of converting from relapsing remitting (RR) to secondary phase (SP) multiple sclerosis (MS), remain limited.

Methods: Among 262 RRMS patients followed up for ten years, we assessed the probability of developing the SP course based on clinical and conventional and non-conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters at diagnosis and after two years. We used a machine learning method, the Random Survival Forests, to identify, according to their minimal depth (MD), the most predictive factors associated with the risk of SP conversion, which were then combined to compute the Secondary Progressive Risk Score (SP-RiSc). Read More

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Olfactory Dysfunction and Cognition in Radiologically Isolated Syndrome and Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.

Eur Neurol 2021 Apr 8:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory, neurodegenerative, demyelinating disease that causes cognitive, olfactory, and other neurological dysfunctions. Radiologically Isolated Syndrome (RIS), in which only radiological findings are monitored, is accepted as the preclinical stage of demyelinating disease and is considered an important period for disease pathology. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory and cognitive functions and their clinical correlation in RIS and Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS) patients and a healthy control group. Read More

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Disability progression in multiple sclerosis is associated with plasma neuroactive steroid profile.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: Neuroactive steroids (NASs) exert multiple biological effects on development and inflammation. The effects of NASs on disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) are uncertain, prompting analyses of NAS profiles during the transition from clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to relapsing-remitting (RR) MS.

Methods: Subjects with CIS or RRMS and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited; demographic and clinical data as well as disability scores measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) were recorded. Read More

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Cortical diffusion kurtosis imaging and thalamic volume are associated with cognitive and walking performance in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Nørrebrogade 44, Building 1A, 8000, Aarhus C, Denmark.

Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), pronounced neurodegeneration manifests itself as cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy, which is associated with cognitive and physical impairments. Microstructural changes in GM estimated by diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) may reveal neurodegeneration that is undetectable by conventional structural MRI and thus serve as a more sensitive marker of disease progression.

Objective: The primary objective was to investigate the relationships between morphological and diffusional properties in cerebral GM and physical and cognitive performance in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Read More

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Modulation of Retinal Atrophy With Rituximab in Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurology 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

Objective: To investigate the effects of rituximab on retinal atrophy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), we performed serial optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans among a cohort of RRMS patients on rituximab, and compared rates of ganglion cell+inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) atrophy to those observed among age- and sex-matched glatiramer acetate (GA)- and natalizumab-treated RRMS patients, and healthy controls (HCs).

Methods: In this observational study, patients with RRMS treated with a single disease-modifying therapy, and HCs, were followed with serial OCT for a median duration of 2.8 years. Read More

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Abnormalcortical thickness in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, correlations with cognition impairment, and effect of modified Bushenyisui decoction on cognitive function of multiple sclerosis.

J Tradit Chin Med 2021 04;41(2):316-325

Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100070, China.

Objective: To investigate the changes of subcortical gray matter volume and cortical thickness, andexplorethe correlations between regional abnormalities of cortical thickness and cognitive impairment and the effect of modified Bushenyisui decoction ( BSYSD) on the cognitive function of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 92 subjects were recruited, including 46 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients and 46 healthy controls (HC). Read More

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A randomized study of natalizumab dosing regimens for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Apr 6:13524585211003020. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: REFINE was an exploratory, dose- and frequency-blinded, prospective, randomized, dose-ranging study in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients.

Objective: To examine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of natalizumab administered via various regimens in RRMS patients.

Methods: Clinically stable RRMS patients previously treated with 300 mg natalizumab intravenously for ⩾12 months were randomized to one of six natalizumab regimens over 60 weeks: 300 mg administered intravenously or subcutaneously every 4 weeks (Q4W), 300 mg intravenously or subcutaneously every 12 weeks (Q12W), or 150 mg intravenously or subcutaneously Q12W. Read More

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Brain Connect 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Nuerology Unit, via Olgettina 60, Milano, Italy, 20132.

Introduction: Dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) allows capturing recurring patterns (states) of interaction among functional networks. Here, we investigated resting state (RS) dFC abnormalities across the different clinical phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) and assessed their correlation with motor and cognitive performances.

Methods: RS fMRI and 3D T1-weighted MRI data were acquired from 128 MS patients (69 relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 34 secondary progressive [SP] MS, 25 primary progressive [PP] MS) and 40 healthy controls (HC). Read More

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The First Cure Experience of A Clinic: Approach to The Patient to Start Ocrelizumab.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2021 Mar 20;58(1):52-56. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

Sultan Abdulhamid Han Training and Research Hospital, Neurology Clinic, İstanbul, Turkey.

Introduction: Ocrelizumab is a newly introduced treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is no data in the pivotal trials about in which extent liver function tests (LFTs) and lymphocyte count are affected before second-half dose of ocrelizumab and in which extent these results will prevent us giving the second-half dose. This study was designed for better understanding of the patient management and to support the data that showed no safety issues about ocrelizumab with real-life data. Read More

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Wiad Lek 2021 ;74(2):257-262


Objective: The aim: Our study aimed at evaluating the relationships between sleep disorders (SD), cognitive impairment (CI), anxiety and depression in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Patients And Methods: Materials and methods: One hundred and five patients with RRMS (80 females and 25 males) aged from 22 to 67 years (mean age: 41,8±10,7; EDSS:3,5±1,6; disease duration (DD): 10,3±8,5 years) were enrolled into the study. All participants completed questionnaires on sleep (the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index /PSQI), cognitive functions (The Montreal Cognitive Assessment /MoCA), anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale /HAM-A), depression (Beck Depression Inventory/ BDI). Read More

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SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroprevalence in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Neurologia 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Servicio de Neurología, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Cecilio, Granada, España; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Granada, Granada, España. Electronic address:

Introduction: The effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the influence of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) for MS on COVID-19 are unknown. To date, patients with MS have not been shown to present greater risk of COVID-19 or more severe progression of the disease.

Methods: We performed a descriptive study of patients with MS presenting SARS-CoV-2 infection diagnosed with PCR. Read More

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Contribution of Gray Matter Atrophy and White Matter Damage to Cognitive Impairment in Mildly Disabled Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 23;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Neurology Service, Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, 03010 Alicante, Spain.

Cognitive impairment (CI) is frequently present in multiple sclerosis patients. Despite ongoing research, the neurological substrates have not been fully elucidated. In this study we investigated the contribution of gray and white matter in the CI observed in mildly disabled relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients. Read More

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Social Cognition in Multiple Sclerosis: A 3-Year Follow-Up MRI and Behavioral Study.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 9;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Neurology Section, Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Social cognition (SC) has become a topic of widespread interest in the last decade. SC deficits were described in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, in association with amygdala lesions, even in those without formal cognitive impairment. In this 3-year follow-up study, we aimed at longitudinally investigating the evolution of SC deficits and amygdala damage in a group of cognitive-normal MS patients, and the association between SC and psychological well-being. Read More

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Glatiramer Acetate Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Fatigue-Beneficial Effects on Self-Assessment Scales But Not on Molecular Markers.

Biomolecules 2021 Mar 7;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Neurology, Universitätsmedizin Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany.

Although fatigue is a common symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS), its pathomechanisms are incompletely understood. Glatiramer acetate (GA), an immunomodulatory agent approved for treatment of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), possesses unique mechanisms of action and has been shown to exhibit beneficial effects on MS fatigue. The objective of this study was to correlate clinical, neuropsychological, and immunological parameters in RRMS patients with fatigue before and during treatment with GA. Read More

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COVID-19 and the Risk of Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Fight with No Bystander Effect?

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 20;51:102915. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Alzahra Research Institute, Alzahra University Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Network of Immunity in Infection, Malignancy, and Autoimmunity (NIIMA), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: COVID-19 is speculated to increase the likelihood of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) exacerbation.

Objective: To investigate the association between contraction of COVID-19 and incidence of acute MS attacks in RRMS patients six months post-infection.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study compares the risk of relapse in RRMS patients with (n=56) and without COVID-19 (n=69). Read More

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Identification and diagnosis of Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis during the clinical encounter: Results from a physician survey.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Feb 23;50:102858. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA.

Background: It is difficult to characterize the transition from relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to secondary progressive MS (SPMS), due to symptomatic variability across patients. Diagnosis of SPMS is prolonged and often established retrospectively, as it is based on patient clinical history and symptoms. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify MS neurologist reported clinical indicators deemed important in diagnosing SPMS in clinical practice. Read More

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February 2021

Switching treatments in clinically stable relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients planning for pregnancy.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2021 Jan-Mar;7(1):20552173211001571. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Research Department at Primary Care and Population Health, Institution of Epidemiology, University College of London, London, UK.

Background: The decision to have children can be complex, particularly for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). A key concern is the use of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) during pregnancy, and how continuing, stopping or switching them may affect the mother and child. In people with active MS, stopping medications puts the mother at risk of relapse and disease rebound. Read More

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Safety and efficacy of rituximab as first- and second line treatment in multiple sclerosis - A cohort study.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 2021 Jan-Mar;7(1):2055217320973049. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Neuro-SysMed, Department of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Rituximab is increasingly used as off-label therapy in multiple sclerosis (MS). More data are needed on safety and efficacy of rituximab, particularly in cohorts of de novo patients and patients in early therapy escalation.

Objective: To investigate the safety and efficacy of off-label treatment with rituximab in an MS-cohort of predominantly de novo patients or as therapy escalation. Read More

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January 2021

Peginterferon beta-1a was associated with high adherence and satisfaction in patients with multiple sclerosis in a German real-world study.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 19;14:17562864211000461. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Ecumenical Hainich Hospital gGmbH, Mühlhausen/Thüringen, Germany.

Background: Peginterferon beta-1a was developed for treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) to provide an interferon with increased exposure to facilitate adherence by reducing frequency of application. This non-interventional observational study investigated the adherence to peginterferon beta-1a in real-world clinical practice settings.

Methods: This prospective study was conducted from 1/2015 to 1/2018 at 77 German MS sites. Read More

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Serum Neurofilament Light and GFAP Are Associated With Disease Severity in Inflammatory Disorders With Aquaporin-4 or Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein Antibodies.

Front Immunol 2021 16;12:647618. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

To evaluate the potential of serum neurofilament light (sNfL) and serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (sGFAP) as disease biomarkers in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) with aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-ab) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-antibody-associated disease (MOGAD). Patients with AQP4-ab-positive NMOSD ( = 51), MOGAD ( = 42), and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) ( = 31 for sNfL and = 22 for sGFAP testing), as well as healthy controls (HCs) ( = 28), were enrolled prospectively. We assessed sNfL and sGFAP levels using ultrasensitive single-molecule array assays. Read More

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Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Correlates with Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurofilament Levels and is Associated with Current Disability in Multiple Sclerosis.

Noro Psikiyatr Ars 2021 Mar 16;58(1):34-40. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physiology İzmir, Turkey.

Introduction: The main purpose of the present study is to confirm Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer (pRNFL) thickness is a biomarker of axonal degeneration in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate its relationship with Neurofilament heavy chain (NfH) and Nitrotyrosine (NT).

Method: We quantified serum (s) and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) NfH and NT levels in 30 relapsing-remitting MS patients (RRMS), 16 secondary progressive MS (SPMS) patients and in 29 control subjects matched for age and gender. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of pRNFL were performed in all subjects. Read More

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Scoring the 10-year risk of ambulatory disability in multiple sclerosis: the RoAD score.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Centre d'Esclerosi Multiple de Catalunya (Cemcat), Dept. of Neurology/ Neuroimmunology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Both baseline prognostic factors and short-term predictors of treatment response can influence the long-term risk of disability accumulation in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Objective: To develop and validate scoring system combining baseline prognostic factors and one-year variables of treatment response into a single numeric score predicting the long-term risk of disability.

Methods: We analyzed two independent datasets of patients with RRMS who started Interferon Beta or Glatiramer Acetate, had an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score <4. Read More

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Integrating patient-reported outcomes and quantitative timed tasks to identify relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patient subgroups: a latent profile analysis.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Mar 18;51:102912. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA; Center for Health Care Research and Policy, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience wide-ranging symptoms with varied severity, and approaches that integrate patient-reported outcomes and objective quantitative measures will present opportunities for advancing clinical profiling. The primary objective of the current study was to conduct exploratory data analysis using latent variable modeling to empirically identify clusters of relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients with shared impairment patterns across three patient-reported outcomes and two timed task measures.

Methods: Latent profile analyses and impairment data for 2,012 RRMS patients identified distinct patient clusters using timed task measures of upper and lower limb performance, and patient-reported outcomes measuring quality of life, depression symptom severity, and perceived global disability. Read More

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Neurofibromatosis Type 1 with Highly Active Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS).

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2021 3;8(3):002190. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

USL Umbria 2, Department of Rehabilitation, S.C.R.I.N. Trevi, Italy.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disease which confers an increased risk of malignant tumour development. Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. The coexistence of multiple sclerosis and NF1 is rare but has been reported. Read More

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February 2021

Descriptive Analysis of Real-World Data on Fingolimod Long-Term Treatment of Young Adult RRMS Patients.

Front Neurol 2021 3;12:637107. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nuremberg, Germany.

Fingolimod (Gilenya®) is approved for adult and pediatric patients with highly active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). The objective was to describe the effectiveness of fingolimod in young adults compared to older patients in clinical practice. PANGAEA is the largest prospective, multi-center, non-interventional, long-term study evaluating fingolimod in RRMS. Read More

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Epigallocatechin Gallate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 05 24;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

From the NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (J.B.-S., F.P., J.D., A.B., V.S.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin; Medical Image Analysis Center (J.W.), University Basel; Institut for Medical Immunology (C.I.-D., E.H.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin; Department of Neurology and Neuroimaging Center (B.K.), Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz; Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin (C.P.); NeuroCure Clinical Research Center (H.R., R.R.), Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurology (O.A.), Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf; Institut für Neuroimmunologie und Multiple Sklerose (C.H.), Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; Klinik für Neurologie (J.F.), Asklepios Klinik Lübben/Teupitz; Department of Neurology (F.H.), Krankenhaus Martha-Maria Halle-Dölau, Halle/Saale; Medizinische Klinik für Kardiologie und Angiologie (M.L.), Campus Mitte, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin; Institute of Nutritional and Food Sciences (B.Z.), University of Bonn; Department of Neurology and Neuroimaging Center (NIC) (S.G., F.Z.), Focus Program Translational Neuroscience (FTN), University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz; and Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin and SOSTANA GmbH (K.-D.W.), Berlin.

Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) add-on to glatiramer acetate (GA) in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS).

Methods: We enrolled patients with RRMS (aged 18-60 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score 0-6.5), receiving stable GA treatment in a multicenter, prospective, double-blind, phase II, randomized controlled trial. Read More

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Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: a systematic review of costs and health state utilities.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 Apr 6:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland.

To identify evidence in the literature presenting the economic and humanistic (based on health state utility values [HSUVs]) burden of multiple sclerosis (MS) and report the incremental burden of secondary progressive MS (SPMS) compared with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). Electronic databases (Embase, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Cochrane Library) and other relevant repositories were systematically searched from the date of inception until November 2019 for evidence on the economic burden of MS, or HSUVs in patients with MS. Data were extracted from studies investigating cost data or HSUVs for patients with SPMS compared with RRMS. Read More

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Role of Monoclonal Antibody "Alemtuzumab" in the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis.

Cureus 2021 Feb 9;13(2):e13246. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Medicine, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

This article will review current treatment options for multiple sclerosis (MS) while keeping our primary focus on alemtuzumab, as it is now approved in more than 65 countries. From a pathophysiological point of view, MS is a disabling disease impacting a patient's life both physically and mentally, leading to devastating social and economic impact. This review will elaborate on alemtuzumab's role in treating relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) by comparing its efficacy, side effects, and monitoring with other disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) available in the market. Read More

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February 2021

Evolution of Brain Volume Loss Rates in Early Stages of Multiple Sclerosis.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2021 05 16;8(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

From the CORe (T.U., C.M., T.K.), Department of Medicine, the University of Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (T.U., E.K.H., D.H.), Charles University in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital; Department of Radiology (J.K., M.V.), Charles University in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital in Prague, Czech Republic; Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center (N.B., M.G.D., R.Z.), Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, State University of New York; IRCCS (N.B.), Fondazione Don Carlo Gnocchi, Milan, Italy; Center for Biomedical Imaging at Clinical Translational Science Institute (R.Z.), University at Buffalo, State University of New York; and Melbourne MS Centre (T.K.), Department of Neurology, the Royal Melbourne Hospital, VIC, Australia.

Objective: To describe the dynamics of brain volume loss (BVL) at different stages of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), to describe the association between BVL and clinical measures, and to investigate an effect of treatment escalation on the rate of BVL.

Methods: Together, 1903 patients predominantly with RRMS from the Avonex-Steroids-Azathioprine cohort (N = 166), the study of early IFN-β1a treatment cohort (N = 180), and the quantitative MRI cohort (N = 1,557) with ≥2 MRI scans and ≥1-year of follow-up were included. Brain MRI scans (N = 7,203) were performed using a single 1. Read More

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