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Direct vs Indirect Revascularization in a North American Cohort of Moyamoya Disease.

Neurosurgery 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: In adults with ischemic moyamoya disease (MMD), the efficacy of direct vs indirect revascularization procedures remains a matter of debate.

Objective: To investigate the outcomes of ischemic MMD in a North American cohort treated by direct and indirect revascularizations.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of adult patients with MMD with ischemic presentation from 1984 to 2018 at the Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital who underwent either direct or indirect bypasses. Read More

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Privacy Risks in Prenatal Aneuploidy and Carrier Screening: What Obstetricians and Their Patients Need to Know.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and the Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Women and Infants Hospital, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

Modern prenatal genetic screening techniques such as cell-free fetal DNA and expanded carrier screening genotype substantial amounts of maternal and fetoplacental DNA. Although DNA can be deidentified by stripping protected health information from genetic data, anonymized DNA can be reidentified using genetic databases, raising long-term genetic privacy concerns for both mother and fetus. In this commentary, we explore the evolution of prenatal genetic screening and how modern screening techniques may pose unanticipated privacy risks. Read More

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Differentiating Acute Rejection From Preeclampsia After Kidney Transplantation.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California; Transplant Pregnancy Registry International, Gift of Life Institute, and the Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Surgery, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania; and the Department of Surgery, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics in pregnancy that differentiate preeclampsia from acute renal allograft rejection and to investigate the maternal, neonatal, and graft sequelae of these diagnoses.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled registry study of data abstracted from Transplant Pregnancy Registry International deliveries between 1968 and 2019. All adult kidney transplant recipients with singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks of gestation were included. Read More

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Impact of Sleep Duration on Mortality and Quality of Life in Chronic Kidney Disease: Results from the 2007-2015 KNHANES.

Am J Nephrol 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Introduction: In the general population, short and long sleep durations have been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, this association remains unclear in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We examined the relationship of sleep duration to mortality and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in individuals with CKD. Read More

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Long Non-Coding RNA CASC2 Overexpression Ameliorates Sepsis-Associated Acute Kidney Injury by Regulating MiR-545-3p/PPARA axis.

J Surg Res 2021 May 3;265:223-232. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of orthopedics, Chengdu Second People's Hospital; Sichuau, China. Electronic address:

Background: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in the progression of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). In this study, we aimed to explore the functions of lncRNA cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in sepsis-induced AKI.

Methods: The sepsis cell models were established by exposing HK2 and HEK293 cells into lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Read More

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Primary aneurysmal bone cyst of the calcaneum: A report of three cases and review of literature.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Mar 2;47:101795. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, Rajasthan 342005, India. Electronic address:

Case Description: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are locally aggressive, cystic lesions of the skeletal system, most commonly seen in the metaphyseal region of long bones. On the other hand, an ABC of the foot (especially the calcaneum) is a rare entity, with very few cases reported in the literature. In this study, we present three such cases who presented to us with the chief complaint of chronic heel pain. Read More

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Lack of observed tolerance to diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) after long-term rescue therapy in patients with epilepsy: Interim results from a phase 3, open-label, repeat-dose safety study.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 3;120:107983. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neurelis, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA.

Objective: Tolerance is a known consideration for maintenance use of benzodiazepines and other antiseizure drugs; however, clinical experience suggests that tolerance may not be anticipated with long-term intermittent use of benzodiazepines as rescue therapy. Diazepam nasal spray (Valtoco®) is a proprietary intranasal formulation approved for the acute treatment of intermittent, stereotypic episodes of frequent seizure activity (ie, seizure clusters, acute repetitive seizures) in patients with epilepsy aged ≥6 years. Reported here are exploratory analyses investigating whether there was evidence of development of tolerance in an interim analysis of a long-term, phase 3, open-label safety study of diazepam nasal spray. Read More

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Long-term cognitive and psychiatric outcomes of acute respiratory distress syndrome managed with Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 28;183:106419. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, UK.

Background: Cognitive dysfunction is often reported in patients who have experienced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Extra Corporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is increasingly used to manage ARDS patients in ICU, transforming survival rates. However, few studies have examined cognitive outcomes. Read More

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Characteristics and evaluation of acute exacerbations in chronic interstitial lung diseases.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 26;183:106400. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Acute exacerbations of fibrosing interstitial lung disease (ILD) occur in both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as well as non-IPF ILDs. An expert consensus definition has allowed for more frequent reporting of IPF exacerbations. The same is lacking for non-IPF ILD exacerbations. Read More

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Multidisciplinary management of a traumatic posterior meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm: A case report and review of the literature.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 29;82:105933. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, Kendall Regional Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA.

Background: Meningeal arterial injuries represent <1% of all blunt traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Middle meningeal artery (MMA) lesions comprise the majority. However, there is little clinical data on posterior meningeal artery (PMA) injuries. Read More

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A simplified cluster model and a tool adapted for collaborative labeling of lung cancer CT scans.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Apr 18;206:106111. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Research and Practical Clinical Center for Diagnostics and Telemedicine Technologies of the Moscow Health Care Department, Petrovka str., 24, Moscow, 127051, Russia; Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str., 44/2, Moscow, 119333, Russia. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer with a high mortality rate. Early detection using medical imaging is critically important for the long-term survival of the patients. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools can potentially reduce the number of incorrect interpretations of medical image data by radiologists. Read More

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Endovascular Treatment of Popliteal Artery Aneurysms Has Comparable Long-Term Outcomes to Open Repair with Shorter Length of Stay.

J Vasc Surg 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Objective: Over the past two decades, the treatment of popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs) has undergone a transformation. While open surgical repair (OR) remains the gold standard for treatment, endovascular repair (ER) has become an attractive alternative in select patient populations. The objective of this study was to compare the outcomes of open versus endovascular repair of PAAs at a single institution. Read More

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To improve pain and function, platelet-rich plasma injections may be an alternative to surgery for treating lateral epicondylitis: A systematic review.

Arthroscopy 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Purpose: To determine if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection for lateral epicondylitis (LE) offers patients comparable outcomes to lateral epicondylar surgery.

Methods: Embase, Cochrane Library, and Medline databases were searched using the terms lateral epicondylitis, lateral elbow pain, tennis elbow, lateral epicondylalgia, and elbow tendinopathy individually and combined with the terms platelet-rich plasma injections and lateral epicondylar surgery. We compared pain relief, function between the two treatment options, and identified if PRP injection reduced the incidence of lateral epicondylar surgery. Read More

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Interplay between SOX9 transcription factor and microRNAs in cancer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Laser Research Centre, Faculty of Health Science, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein, 2028, South Africa. Electronic address:

SOX transcription factors are critical regulators of development, homeostasis and disease progression and their dysregulation is a common finding in various cancers. SOX9 belongs to SOXE family located on chromosome 17. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) possess the capacity of regulating different transcription factors in cancer cells by binding to 3'-UTR. Read More

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Long noncoding RNA TP53TG1 suppresses the growth and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by regulating the PRDX4/β-catenin pathway.

Cancer Lett 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, 300052, PR China. Electronic address:

Emerging evidence has shown that aberrant expression of lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays important roles in various malignancies. However, the biological functions of lncRNA-TP53TG1 in hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the underlying mechanisms, remain largely unknown. Here, we assessed whether lncRNA-TP53TG1 plays a key role in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Read More

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Similar Prevalence of Long-Term Post-COVID Symptoms in Patients with Asthma: A Case-Control Study.

J Infect 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Physical Therapy, Ocupational Therapy, Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Avenida de Atenas s/n, 28922 Alcorcon, Spain.

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Sex differences in Behavioral and Psychological Signs and Symptoms of Dementia Presentation Regarding Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairment Suffering from Pain- Results of the Services and Health for Elderly in Long-Term Care Study.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Competence Center of Geriatric Medicine, Helios Medical Center Bonn/Rhein-Sieg, Academic Teaching Hospital, University Bonn, Germany; Department of Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) place a heavy burden on patients as well as caregivers. Recently, pain was identified as an important determinant of BPSD. However, it is not yet known what influence sex has on BPSD and pain. Read More

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Long-Term Prognostic Outcomes and Implication of Oral Anticoagulants in Patients with New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation following ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am Heart J 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: New-onset atrial fibrillation (NEW-AF) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a common complication, but the long-term mortality and morbidity remains unknown the true prognostic impact of NEW-AF is unknown. Additionally, the optimal treatment of NEW-AF among patients with STEMI is warranted.

Methods: A large cohort of consecutive patients with STEMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were identified using the Eastern Danish Heart Registry from 1999-2016. Read More

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Long-Term Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients with Metachronous Brain-Only Oligorecurrence Who Underwent Definitive Treatment.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: Metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a rare event with favorable prognosis, but the clinical outcome has not been fully determined. We retrospectively analyzed clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in metachronous brain-only oligorecurrence in patients with NSCLC who underwent definitive treatment.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed 4,437 NSCLC patients without oncogenic driver mutations who underwent definitive treatment between 2008 and 2018. Read More

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Liver-first strategy for a combined lung and liver transplant in patients with cystic fibrosis.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplant and Vascular Surgery, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Objectives: A combined lung and liver transplant in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is an uncommon procedure. The goal of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with CF who underwent either a combined lung-liver or a lung-only transplant.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-centre study of patients with CF who underwent a lung transplant between January 2005 and May 2020. Read More

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Advancing health equity in cancer care: The lived experiences of poverty and access to lung cancer screening.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0251264. Epub 2021 May 6.

Women's College Research Institute, Women's College Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Individuals living with low income are more likely to smoke, have a higher risk of lung cancer, and are less likely to participate in preventative healthcare (i.e., low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) for lung cancer screening), leading to equity concerns. Read More

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Predictive performance of oximetry in detecting sleep apnea in surgical patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0250777. Epub 2021 May 6.

Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: In adults with cardiovascular risk factors undergoing major noncardiac surgery, unrecognized obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) was associated with postoperative cardiovascular complications. There is a need for an easy and accessible home device in predicting sleep apnea. The objective of the study is to determine the predictive performance of the overnight pulse oximetry in predicting OSA in at-risk surgical patients. Read More

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The genetic diversity of human papillomavirus types from the species Gammapapillomavirus 15: HPV135, HPV146, and HPV179.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(5):e0249829. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Objectives: To determine the prevalence, viral load, tissue tropism, and genetic variability of novel human papillomavirus (HPV) type 179, which is etiologically associated with sporadic cases of common warts in immunocompromised patients, and phylogenetically related HPV types 135 and 146.

Methods: The representative collection of 850 HPV-associated clinical samples (oral/nasopharyngeal/anal, archival specimens of oral/oropharyngeal/conjunctival/cervical/skin cancer, benign lesions of the larynx/conjunctiva/skin, and eyebrows), obtained from immunocompetent individuals, was tested for the presence of HPV179, HPV135, and HPV146 using type-specific real-time PCRs. To assess the genetic diversity of the HPVs investigated in the non-coding long control region (LCR), several highly sensitive nested PCR protocols were developed for each HPV type. Read More

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Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna Vaccines Against COVID-19 Among Hospitalized Adults Aged ≥65 Years - United States, January-March 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 7;70(18):674-679. Epub 2021 May 7.

Adults aged ≥65 years are at increased risk for severe outcomes from COVID-19 and were identified as a priority group to receive the first COVID-19 vaccines approved for use under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) in the United States (1-3). In an evaluation at 24 hospitals in 14 states,* the effectiveness of partial or full vaccination with Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccines against COVID-19-associated hospitalization was assessed among adults aged ≥65 years. Among 417 hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years (including 187 case-patients and 230 controls), the median age was 73 years, 48% were female, 73% were non-Hispanic White, 17% were non-Hispanic Black, 6% were Hispanic, and 4% lived in a long-term care facility. Read More

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Outpatient Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Systematic Review Evaluating Outcomes and Cost-Effectiveness.

JBJS Rev 2021 05 6;9(5). Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: Orthopaedic surgical procedures are increasingly being performed in outpatient settings. The drive for cost reduction without compromising patient safety and outcomes has increased interest in outpatient total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). The primary aim of this study was to perform a review of the evidence regarding the outcomes and cost-effectiveness of outpatient TSA. Read More

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Macrolides: a novel risk factor for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in intensive care units.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2021 Apr 30;15(4):584-589. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine and PhD Program in Clinical Medicine and Public Health, University of Granada-ibs. Granada, España.

Introduction: Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) have emerged as a substantial cause of morbi-mortality worldwide, with a prevalence of approximately 5% in areas with high endemicity. However, available data may not be representative of developing countries, such as Ecuador. In this study, the incidence of CPE in Ecuador and risk factors for infection/colonisation were evaluated. Read More

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Ultrasonic Percutaneous Tenotomy for Recalcitrant Lateral Elbow Tendinopathy: Clinical and Sonographic Results at 90 Months.

Am J Sports Med 2021 May 6:3635465211010158. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: In a study from our institution, ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy of the brevis and the common extensor tendon for recalcitrant lateral elbow tendinopathy showed excellent safety profiles, high tolerability, efficiency, sustained pain relief, functional improvement, and sonographic evidence of tissue healing in 20 patients at 3 years' follow-up.

Purpose: To explore the long-term clinical and sonographic results of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy of the brevis and the common extensor tendon.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Read More

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Kidney transplant in patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome in the anti-C5 era: single-center experience with tailored Eculizumab.

J Nephrol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Kidney Transplant Unit, Center for HUS Prevention, Control and Management, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Rationale And Objective: Patients with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) have long been considered ineligible for kidney transplantation (KTx) in several centers due to the high risk of disease recurrence, graft loss and life-threatening complications. The availability of Eculizumab (ECU) has now overcome this problem. However, the best approach towards timing, maintenance schedule, the possibility of discontinuation and patient monitoring has not yet been clearly established. Read More

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