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Determination of Cytokines and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Cognitive Impairment Induced by Methylmalonic Acidemia.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2021 Aug 2:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Medical Laboratory, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Objective: Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is the most common organic acidemia in children. Many patients with MMA suffered from cognitive impairments. The aim of this study was to identify the significance of cytokines and oxidative stress biomarkers in MMA-induced cognitive impairment. Read More

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Mammographic and sonographic findings in the breast and axillary tail following a COVID-19 vaccine.

Clin Imaging 2021 Jul 26;80:202-204. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Mayo Clinic, Department of Breast Imaging and Intervention, Rochester, MN, United States of America. Electronic address:

Axillary lymphadenopathy on breast imaging after recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination has been reported in the literature as immunization has become more widespread. While muscle edema at the injection site has been observed on MRI secondary to an immune response, ipsilateral breast imaging observations of edema have not been reported to be seen with the COVID-19 vaccinations to date. Mammographic findings such as trabecular and skin thickening, along with increased echogenicity on ultrasound, can be seen with edema secondary to capillary leak or poor lymphatic drainage, and should be considered as a possible etiology for the observed breast edema following a recent COVID-19 vaccine. Read More

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Temporal lobe epilepsy: Evaluation of central and systemic immune-inflammatory features associated with drug resistance.

Seizure 2021 Jul 26;91:447-455. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Unidad Mixta de Estudio de la Neuroinflamación, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas (IIBO), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) / Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía (INNN), Ciudad de México, México; Departamento de Medicina Genómica y Toxicología Ambiental, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México Ciudad Universitaria. Apartado Postal 70228. México DF 04510. México. Electronic address:

Neuroinflammation is probably one of the factors involved in drug resistance in people with epilepsy. Finding peripheral markers reflecting the intensity of neuroinflammation could be of great help to decide for which patients anti-inflammatory treatment might be an option. In this context, peripheral cytokines levels and lymphocyte phenotypes were assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry in 3 groups of subjects: drug resistant patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (DR-TLE), non DR-TLE patients and healthy controls. Read More

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TSPO deficiency accelerates amyloid pathology and neuroinflammation by impairing microglial phagocytosis.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 3;106:292-303. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Immunology, CAMS Key Laboratory for T Cell and Immunotherapy, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and School of Basic Medicine, Peking Union Medical College, State Key Laboratory of Medical Molecular Biology, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Increasing evidence has placed inflammation and immune dysfunction at the center of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mitochondrial protein translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO) is highly upregulated in microglia and astrocytes in response to inflammatory stimulation. However, the biological action of TSPO in the pathogenesis of AD has not been determined to date. Read More

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miR-132-3p promotes the cisplatin-induced apoptosis and inflammatory response of renal tubular epithelial cells by targeting SIRT1 via the NF-κB pathway.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Jul 30;99:108022. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Urology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, China. Electronic address:

Cisplatin is a highly effective and broad-spectrum anticancer drug for the clinical treatment of solid tumors. However, it causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cancer. Consequently, its clinical application is limited. Read More

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Risk factors for postoperative recurrence of anal fistula identified by an international, evidence-based Delphi consultation survey of surgical specialists.

Int J Surg 2021 Jul 30;92:106038. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Despite the emerging knowledge about postoperative anal fistula recurrence (AFR) and the increasing number of clinical studies, there is no better understanding or consensus regarding the risk factors for AFR. The aim of this study was to generate international consensus guidance statements focusing on AFR.

Methods: A two-round modified Delphi process was conducted among international surgical specialists via an online survey delivered by email with a secure link created with Google Forms. Read More

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Nuclear Receptors in Liver Fibrosis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Jul 30:166235. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Vienna Experimental Hepatic Hemodynamic Lab (HEPEX), Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Christian Doppler Lab for Portal Hypertension and Liver Fibrosis, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Rare and Undiagnosed Diseases, Vienna, Austria; CeMM Research Center for Molecular Medicine of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Nuclear receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression of a variety of key molecular signals involved in liver fibrosis. The primary cellular driver of liver fibrogenesis are activated hepatic stellate cells. Different NRs regulate the hepatic expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic cytokines that promote the transformation of hepatic stellate cells into fibrogenic myofibroblasts. Read More

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Psychiatric and neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19 - a systematic review.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Electronic address:

It has become evident that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a multi-organ pathology that includes the brain and nervous system. Several studies have also reported acute psychiatric symptoms in COVID-19 patients. An increasing number of studies are suggesting that psychiatric deficits may persist after recovery from the primary infection. Read More

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Elevated Inflammatory Markers in Women with Remitted Major Depressive Disorder and the Role of Early Life Maltreatment.

Brain Behav Immun 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Campus Charité Mitte, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to elevated inflammation markers. It remains unclear whether the elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are not only observable in acute MDD but also in patients after remission. MDD is a common sequela of early life maltreatment (ELM), which has also been associated with elevated inflammation markers. Read More

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Antimicrobial stewardship in the ICU in COVID times: the known unknowns.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Jul 30:106409. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Division of Infectious Diseases, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon.

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been concern about the concomitant rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). While bacterial co-infections seem rare in COVID-19 patients admitted to hospital wards and ICUs, an increase in empirical antibiotic use has been described. In the ICU setting, where antibiotics are already abundantly -and often inappropriately- prescribed, the need for an ICU specific Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is widely advocated. Read More

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The inflammatory proteome of hidradenitis suppurativa skin is more expansive than that of psoriasis vulgaris.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratory for Investigative Dermatology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: While hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) shares some transcriptomic and cellular infiltrate features with psoriasis, their skin proteome remains unknown.

Objective: To define and compare inflammatory protein biomarkers of HS and psoriasis skin.

Methods: We assessed 92 inflammatory biomarkers in HS (n=13), psoriasis (n=11) and control skin (n=11) using Olink high-throughput proteomics. Read More

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Nose-to-brain delivery of chrysin transfersomal and composite vesicles in doxorubicin-induced cognitive impairment in rats: Insights on formulation, oxidative stress and TLR4/NF-kB/NLRP3 pathways.

Neuropharmacology 2021 Jul 30:108738. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, 11566, Cairo, Egypt. Electronic address:

Many cancer survivors suffer from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment known as 'Chemobrain'. Doxorubicin -topoisomerase II inhibitor-is widely used in breast cancer, hematological cancers and other neoplasms. However, it is reported to precipitate cognitive impairment in cancer patients via inducing oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Read More

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Abnormality in the NK cell population is prolonged in severe COVID-19 patients.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Graduate School of Medical Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Our understanding of adaptive immune responses in COVID-19 patients is rapidly evolving, but information on the innate immune responses by natural killer (NK) cells is still insufficient.

Objective: We aimed to examine the phenotypic and functional status of NK cells and their changes during the course of mild and severe COVID-19.

Methods: We performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometric analysis of NK cells from patients with mild and severe COVID-19 at multiple time points in the course of the disease using cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Read More

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Post-viral effects of COVID-19 in the olfactory system and their implications.

Lancet Neurol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Background: The mechanisms by which any upper respiratory virus, including SARS-CoV-2, impairs chemosensory function are not known. COVID-19 is frequently associated with olfactory dysfunction after viral infection, which provides a research opportunity to evaluate the natural course of this neurological finding. Clinical trials and prospective and histological studies of new-onset post-viral olfactory dysfunction have been limited by small sample sizes and a paucity of advanced neuroimaging data and neuropathological samples. Read More

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Neuropathological findings from COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms argue against a direct brain invasion of SARS-CoV-2: a critical systematic review.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

IRCCS Mondino Foundation, Pavia, Italy.

Background: Neuropathological studies can elucidate the mechanisms of nervous system damage associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Despite literature on this topic is rapidly expanding, correlations between neurological symptoms and brain pathology findings in COVID-19 patients remain largely unknown.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature review on neuropathological studies in COVID-19, including 438 patients from 45 papers published by April 22, 2021. Read More

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Comparison of clinical and laboratory profile of survivors and non-survivors of SARS-CoV-2-related multisystem inflammatory syndrome of childhood in India: An observational study.

J Paediatr Child Health 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital and Lady Hardinge Medical college, New Delhi, India.

Aim: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is characterised by multiple reports of paediatric multisystem inflammatory disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with Kawasaki disease-like features often complicated by myocarditis, shock and macrophage activation syndrome. Certain clinical and laboratory markers may be used to identify high risk cases.

Methods: All sequentially admitted patients hospitalised between April 2020 and October 2020, who met the WHO case definition for MIS-C were included. Read More

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Patterns of T and B cell responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis membrane-associated antigens and their relationship with disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis patients with latent tuberculosis infection.

PLoS One 2021 2;16(8):e0255639. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences (SGPGIMS), Lucknow, India.

This study was aimed at exploring whether latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) contributes to the pathogenesis of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases in a TB endemic setting. We screened 198 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with tuberculin skin test (TST) and studied 61 (median DAS28-ESR = 6.3) who were positive. Read More

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Predictive values for different cancers and inflammatory bowel disease of 6 common abdominal symptoms among more than 1.9 million primary care patients in the UK: A cohort study.

PLoS Med 2021 Aug 2;18(8):e1003708. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Epidemiology of Cancer Healthcare and Outcomes (ECHO) Research Group, Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: The diagnostic assessment of abdominal symptoms in primary care presents a challenge. Evidence is needed about the positive predictive values (PPVs) of abdominal symptoms for different cancers and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

Methods And Findings: Using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN) in the United Kingdom (2000-2017), we estimated the PPVs for diagnosis of (i) cancer (overall and for different cancer sites); (ii) IBD; and (iii) either cancer or IBD in the year post-consultation with each of 6 abdominal symptoms: dysphagia (n = 86,193 patients), abdominal bloating/distension (n = 100,856), change in bowel habit (n = 106,715), rectal bleeding (n = 235,094), dyspepsia (n = 517,326), and abdominal pain (n = 890,490). Read More

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Serological Evidence of in Patients with Morphea from West-Central Poland: An Original Paper and Review of Literature.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Dermatology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Morphea (localized scleroderma) is an inflammatory connective tissue disease. , as a causative factor, has been discussed controversially. The aim of this original study was to evaluate the frequency of IgM and IgG classes of anti-Borrelia antibodies in groups of morphea and psoriasis patients using the traditional ELISA method. Read More

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NSAIDs and COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Drug Saf 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Bordeaux PharmacoEpi, Inserm CIC 1401, University of Bordeaux, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076, Bordeaux, France.

Background: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been discouraged for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections, fearing that they could increase the risk of infection or the severity of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Original studies providing information on exposure to NSAIDs and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes were retrieved and were included in a descriptive analysis and a meta-analysis with Cochrane Revue Manager (REVMAN 5.4), using inverse variance odds ratio (OR) with random- or fixed-effects models. Read More

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Ovarian Cancer Stem Cells: Characterization and Role in Tumorigenesis.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1330:151-169

Department of Physiology and James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Ovarian cancer is a heterogenous disease with variable clinicopathological and molecular mechanisms being responsible for tumorigenesis. Despite substantial technological improvement, lack of early diagnosis contributes to its highest mortality. Ovarian cancer is considered to be the most lethal female gynaecological cancer across the world. Read More

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January 2021

Effect of calcium dobesilate on retrobulbar blood flow and choroidal thickness in patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

Int Ophthalmol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Poostchi Ophthalmology Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common causes of blindness in work-aging adults and develops in one third of diabetic patients. Calcium dobesilate (CaD) treatment have protective effects on blood retinal barrier (BRB) and anti-oxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties.

Objectives: To assess effects of CaD administration on retrobulbar blood flow and choroidal thickness in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Read More

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Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease - the Evolving Landscape.

Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2021 Aug 2;23(9):16. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, 676 N Saint Clair, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To update changes in the epidemiology of colorectal cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease over the past decades.

Recent Findings: Since the mid twentieth century, studies have found that the incidence of colorectal cancer in patients with IBD has been greater than that of the general population, especially for patients with a family history of colorectal cancer, a diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and/or pancolitis. While Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are still associated with a risk of colorectal cancer, current treatment approaches and surveillance measures have markedly reduced the risk according to population-based cohort studies such that the risk is now more comparable to that of the general population. Read More

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Immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment induces colitis with heavy infiltration of CD8 + T cells and an infiltration pattern that resembles ulcerative colitis.

Virchows Arch 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Medical Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, PO Box 30.001, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Colitis is a common, but poorly understood, adverse event of immune checkpoint inhibitors that are standard-of-care for an expanding range of cancer types. This explorative study aimed to describe the immune infiltrates in the colon from individuals developing checkpoint inhibitor colitis and compare them to well-known immunophenotypes of acute graft-versus-host disease, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. Colon biopsies (n = 20 per group) of patients with checkpoint inhibitor colitis, acute graft-versus-host disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, all colitis treatment-naïve, and of individuals with a normal colon were analyzed using immunohistochemistry: CD8 for cytotoxic T cells, CD4 for T helper cells, and CD68 to identify cells of macrophage lineage. Read More

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Serial assessment of inflammatory parameters for prediction of septic complications following surgery for colorectal endometriosis : A descriptive, retrospective study.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Gynecology, Center for Endometriosis, Hospital St. John of God Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Purpose: To assess whether C‑reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and body temperature changes are suitable parameters for the early detection of septic complications following resection of colorectal deep endometriosis (DE).

Methods: Retrospective data analysis of CRP, WBC and body temperature courses following colorectal surgery for DE at a tertiary referral center for endometriosis.

Results: Out of 183 surgeries performed, 10 major surgical complications were observed, including 4 anastomotic leakages (AL 2%) and 2 rectovaginal fistulae (RVF 1%). Read More

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Association of rs1800624 and rs1800625 gene polymorphisms with predisposition to optic neuritis and optic neuritis together with multiple sclerosis.

Ophthalmic Genet 2021 Aug 2:1-6. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Medical Academy, Neuroscience Institute, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Optic neuritis (ON) is demyelinating acute inflammatory disease which affects the optic nerve. ON is classified as a typical (demyelinating) or an atypical (idiopathic). Patients often complain having a periocular pain or a visual loss. Read More

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Progranulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in lean polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2021 Aug 2:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: In this study, levels of progranulin (PGRN) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were measured to detect the presence of inflammation in lean polycystic ovary (PCOS) patients.

Methods: 40 lean PCOS patients were assessed by Rotterdam criteria. Forty healthy women with regular menstrual cycles and without biochemical and clinical hyperandrogenism were involved in our study. Read More

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Pericarditis and pericardial effusion: one or two distinct diseases?

Minerva Cardiol Angiol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, Hippokration General Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

The main pericardial syndromes include acute and recurrent pericarditis, constrictive pericarditis and chronic pericardial effusion in the absence of overt inflammation. Despite recent advances in pericardial syndromes, certain clinical scenarios depict remarkable peculiarities and their management is often challenging for the clinician. Acute pericarditis is the most common pericardial disease and in most instances is accompanied by pericardial effusion. Read More

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Comparison of the effect of ticagrelor combined with tirofiban versus clopidogrel combined with tirofiban on inflammation response and prognosis of patients with unstable angina pectoris in long term follow-up.

Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

To investigate the effect of ticagrelor combined with tirofiban versus clopidogrel combined with tirofiban on inflammation response and prognosis of patients with unstable angina pectoris (UA). The present prospective study included a total of 291 patients who were diagnosed as unstable UA from January 2018 to December 2019. All UA patients were divided into two groups: ticagrelor combined with tirofiban group (n = 159) and clopidogrel combined with tirofiban group (n = 132). Read More

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Are cachexia-associated tumors transmitTERS of ER stress?

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Cancer cachexia is associated with deficient response to chemotherapy. On the other hand, the tumors of cachectic patients remarkably express more chemokines and have higher immune infiltration. For immunogenicity, a strong induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR) is necessary. Read More

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