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Clinical Presentation of Celiac Disease and Diagnosis Accuracy in a Single-Center European Pediatric Cohort over 10 Years.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 18;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Gastroenterology Unit, Modena University Hospital, 41124 Modena, Italy.

(1) Background: Changes in the clinical presentation of celiac disease (CD) in children have been reported. The guidelines of the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) allow esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with biopsies to be avoided under specific circumstances. We aimed to assess the clinical picture of pediatric CD patients at diagnosis and to validate ESPGHAN non-biopsy criteria. Read More

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November 2021

Elevated Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1β, Early Predictors of Severe COVID-19.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 29;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Group of Virology and Pathogenesis, Galicia Sur Health Research Institute (IIS Galicia Sur), SERGAS-UVigo, 36213 Vigo, Spain.

Viral and host immune kinetics during acute COVID-19 and after remission of acute symptoms need better characterization. SARS-CoV-2 RNA, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgA, IgM, and IgG antibodies, and proinflammatory cytokines were measured in sequential samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients during acute infection and six months following diagnosis. Twenty four laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients with mild/moderate and severe COVID-19 were included. Read More

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October 2021

Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Tick-Borne Pathogens in Czech Patients with Suspected Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome.

Microorganisms 2021 Oct 25;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 25.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University Olomouc, Hnevotinska 3, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The hypothesized importance of coinfections in the pathogenesis of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS) leads to the use of combined, ongoing antimicrobial treatment in many cases despite the absence of symptoms typical of the presence of infection with specific pathogens. Serum samples from 103 patients with suspected post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome were tested for the presence of antibodies to the major tick-borne pathogens , /, and . Although the presence of anti- antibodies was detected in 12. Read More

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October 2021

New-Onset and Relapsed Kidney Histopathology Following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Oct 29;9(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Introduction: The introduction of COVID-19 vaccination programs has become an integral part of the major strategy to reduce COVID-19 numbers worldwide. New-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination, sparking debate on whether there are causal associations. How these vaccines achieve an immune response to COVID-19 and the mechanism that this triggers kidney pathology remains unestablished. Read More

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October 2021

Dynamics of Neutralizing Antibody Responses Following Natural SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Correlation with Commercial Serologic Tests. A Reappraisal and Indirect Comparison with Vaccinated Subjects.

Viruses 2021 Nov 22;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmacy, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences, University of Namur, 5000 Namur, Belgium.

Neutralising antibodies (NAbs) represent the real source of protection against SARS-CoV-2 infections by preventing the virus from entering target cells. The gold standard in the detection of these antibodies is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). As these experiments must be done in a very secure environment, other techniques based on pseudoviruses: pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT) or surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) have been developed. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular and Serological Characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 Delta Variant in Bangladesh in 2021.

Viruses 2021 Nov 19;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 19.

SeraDiaLogistics, 81545 Munich, Germany.

Novel SARS-CoV-2 variants are emerging at an alarming rate. The delta variant and other variants of concern (VoC) carry spike (S)-protein mutations, which have the potential to evade protective immunity, to trigger break-through infections after COVID-19 vaccination, and to propagate future waves of COVID-19 pandemic. To identify SARS CoV-2 variants in Bangladesh, patients who are RT-PCR-positive for COVID-19 infections in Dhaka were screened by a RT-PCR melting curve analysis for spike protein mutations. Read More

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November 2021

Robust and Persistent B- and T-Cell Responses after COVID-19 in Immunocompetent and Solid Organ Transplant Recipient Patients.

Viruses 2021 Nov 11;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Unit of Microbiology and Virology, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

The development and persistence of SARS-CoV-2-specific immune response in immunocompetent (IC) and immunocompromised patients is crucial for long-term protection. Immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection was analysed in 57 IC and 15 solid organ transplanted (TX) patients. Antibody responses were determined by ELISA and neutralization assay. Read More

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November 2021

Peritoneal Administration of a Subunit Vaccine Encapsulated in a Nanodelivery System Not Only Augments Systemic Responses against SARS-CoV-2 but Also Stimulates Responses in the Respiratory Tract.

Viruses 2021 Nov 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.

The COVID-19 pandemic has currently created an unprecedented threat to human society and global health. A rapid mass vaccination to create herd immunity against SARS-CoV-2 is a crucial measure to ease the spread of this disease. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of a SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccine candidate, a SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein encapsulated in ,,-trimethyl chitosan particles or S-TMC NPs. Read More

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November 2021

Cyclomodulins and Hemolysis in as Potential Low-Cost Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 31;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Palacký University Olomouc, Hněvotínská 3, 775 15 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

The frequent occurrence of positive for cyclomodulins such as colibactin (CLB), the cytotoxic necrotizing factor (CNF), and the cytolethal distending factor (CDT) in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients published so far provides the opportunity to use them as CRC screening markers. We examined the practicability and performance of a low-cost detection approach that relied on culture followed by simplified DNA extraction and PCR in isolates recovered from 130 CRC patients and 111 controls. Our results showed a statistically significant association between CRC and the presence of colibactin genes and , the gene, and newly, the hemolytic phenotype of isolates. Read More

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October 2021

and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in COVID-19 Patients with Severe Pneumonia.

Life (Basel) 2021 Oct 22;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Department of Microbiology, University Hospital Olomouc, I. P. Pavlova 6, 779 00 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics administered to patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia pose a risk of infection caused by . This risk is reduced mainly by strict hygiene measures and early de-escalation of antibiotic therapy. Recently, oral vancomycin prophylaxis (OVP) has also been discussed. Read More

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October 2021

Relationship between Saliva and Sublingual Immunotherapy.

Pathogens 2021 Oct 21;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, International University of Health and Welfare Narita Hospital, 852 Hatakeda, Narita, Chiba Prefecture 286-0124, Japan.

The demand for allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT), especially sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT), is increasing because of its efficacy in inducing clinical remission of allergic diseases and its low risk of side effects. Since not all patients that undergo SLIT demonstrate an improvement in allergic symptoms, the development of biomarkers to predict the outcome and adjuvants for SLIT is desired. Saliva is the first target with which tablets used in SLIT come into contact, and salivary pH, chemical properties or microbiome composition are reported to possibly be associated with the outcome of SLIT. Read More

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October 2021

Glucocorticoid Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Membranous and IgA Nephropathies.

Cells 2021 Nov 16;10(11). Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Diseases, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-006 Warsaw, Poland.

Glomerular diseases (GNs) are responsible for approximately 20% of chronic kidney diseases. Glucocorticoid receptor gene () single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are implicated in differences in predisposition to autoimmunity and steroid sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of the SNPs-rs6198, rs41423247 and rs17209237-in 72 IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and 38 membranous nephropathy (MN) patients compared to 175 healthy controls and to correlate the effectiveness of treatment in IgAN and MN groups defined as a reduction of proteinuria <1 g/24 h after 12 months of treatment. Read More

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November 2021

Immunogenicity of BNT162b2 Vaccine in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Infliximab Combination Therapy: A Multicenter Prospective Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Nov 18;10(22). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Genetics and Bioinformatics, Dasman Diabetes Institute (DDI), Dasman 15462, Kuwait.

Background: Vaccination is a promising strategy to protect vulnerable groups like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients against COVID-19 and associated severe outcomes. COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials excluded IBD patients taking infliximab with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine (infliximab combination). Therefore, we sought to evaluate serologic responses to COVID-19 vaccination with the mRNA vaccine, BNT162b2, in patients with IBD receiving infliximab combination therapy compared with healthy participants. Read More

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November 2021

Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Accurate and Prompt Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Diagnosis Using the Rational Selection of Serological Biomarkers.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Oct 23;11(11). Epub 2021 Oct 23.

First Department of Paediatrics, "Aghia Sophia" Children's Hospital, Immunology and Vaccinology Research Laboratory and Infectious Diseases Department "MAKKA", Athens Medical School, 11527 Athens, Greece.

Prompt COVID-19 diagnosis is urgently required to support infection control measures. Currently available serological tests for measuring SARS-CoV-2 antibodies use different target antigens, although their sensitivity and specificity presents a challenge. We aimed to develop an "in-house" serological ELISA to measure antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 by combining different protein antigens. Read More

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October 2021

Global Prevalence of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Nov 18;7(11). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Czech National Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare and Knowledge Translation (Cochrane Czech Republic, Czech EBHC: JBI Centre of Excellence, Masaryk University GRADE Centre), Institute of Biostatistics and Analyses, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Kamenice 5, 625 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Mucormycosis, a secondary fungal infection, gained much attention in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. This deadly infection has a high all-cause mortality rate and imposes a significant economic, epidemiological, and humanistic burden on the patients and healthcare system. Evidence from the published epidemiological studies showed the varying prevalence of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM). Read More

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November 2021

Baricitinib: The First Jak Inhibitor Approved in Europe for the Treatment of Moderate to Severe Atopic Dermatitis in Adult Patients.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 Nov 18;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Dermatological Clinic, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic Marche University, Via Conca 71, 60020 Ancona, Italy.

: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease characterized by a wide phenotypic variety with a very complex pathophysiological mechanism that has led to the identification of new therapeutic targets, such as janus kinasis (JAK) inhibitors. : To evaluate the efficacy and safety of baricitinib, the first JAK 1 and 2 inhibitor approved in Europe for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe AD. : The efficacy and safety data available from the Phase III studies belonging to the BREEZE AD program are presented. Read More

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November 2021

Evaluation of five widely used serologic assays for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Oct 29;102(2):115587. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

SYNLAB Academy, Mannheim, Germany; Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University of Graz, Graz; Medical Clinic V, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany. Electronic address:

Reliable diagnostic technologies are pivotal to the fight against COVID-19. While real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) remains the gold standard, commercial assays for antibodies against (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged. We sought to examine 5 widely used commercial methods. Read More

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October 2021

Humoral immune responses against facultative pathogen Candida utilis in atopic patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis. Candida utilis glucomannan - New serologic biomarker.

Immunobiology 2021 Nov 19;227(1):152154. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Dept. Clin. Immunol .and Allergy, Oncology Institute of St. Elisabeth and Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is one of the most commonly reported female genital tract infections, affecting approximately 70-75% of childbearing age women at least once during their lifetime. Approximately 50% of patients have refractory episodes and in 5-10% of cases the disease has a chronic course. The fungal cell wall represents the important host-invader interface. Read More

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November 2021

Avacopan: First Approval.

Authors:
Arnold Lee

Drugs 2021 Nov 26. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Springer Nature, Private Bag 65901, Mairangi Bay, Auckland, 0754, New Zealand.

Avacopan (TAVNEOS™) is a complement 5a receptor (C5aR) antagonist developed by ChemoCentryx for the treatment of autoimmune diseases including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. The therapeutic effects of avacopan are attributed to the inhibition of C5aR activity on neutrophils, however, the exact mechanism of therapeutic efficacy in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis has not been established. In September 2021, avacopan received its first approval in Japan for the treatment of microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), the two most common forms of ANCA-associated vasculitis, where it is being commercialized by Kissei Pharmaceutical through a partnership with Vifor Pharma. Read More

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November 2021

Higher levels of IgA and IgG at sepsis onset are associated with higher mortality: results from the Albumin Italian Outcome Sepsis (ALBIOS) trial.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Nov 26;11(1):161. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Institute for Pharmacological Research Mario Negri IRCCS, Via Mario Negri 2, 20156, Milan, Italy.

Background: The role of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) during sepsis is controversial, as different trials on IVIG have observed inconsistent survival benefits. We aimed to elucidate the possible association and clinical significance between circulating levels of immunoglobulins.

Methods: In a subset of 956 patients with severe sepsis and septic shock of the multicentre, open-label RCT ALBIOS, venous blood samples were serially collected 1, 2, and 7 days after enrolment (or at ICU discharge, whichever came first). Read More

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November 2021

Identification of miRNA-mRNA network and immune-related gene signatures in IgA nephropathy by integrated bioinformatics analysis.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Nov 25;22(1):392. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Nephrology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, 246 Xuefu Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, 150086, People's Republic of China.

Background: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, and its diagnosis depends mainly on renal biopsy. However, there is no specific treatment for IgAN. Moreover, its causes and underlying molecular events require further exploration. Read More

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November 2021

Antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with myocardial infarction with and without obstructive coronary arteries.

J Intern Med 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Recent studies demonstrate that prothrombotic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are overrepresented in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) due to coronary artery disease (MICAD). However, it is not known whether aPL differ between the two subsets of MI: MICAD and MI with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA).

Objectives: To determine whether aPL are associated with MINOCA or MICAD, or with hypercoagulability as assessed by activated protein C-protein C inhibitor (APC-PCI) complex. Read More

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November 2021

Antibodies specific to SARS-CoV-2 proteins N, S and E in COVID-19 patients in the normal population and in historical samples.

J Gen Virol 2021 Nov;102(11)

Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wrocław, Poland.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally; recognition of immune responses to this virus will be crucial for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) control, prevention and treatment. We comprehensively analysed IgG and IgA antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N), spike protein domain 1 (S1) and envelope protein (E) in: SARS-CoV-2-infected patient, healthy, historical and pre-epidemic samples, including patients' medical, epidemiological and diagnostic data, virus-neutralizing capability and kinetics. N-specific IgG and IgA are the most reliable diagnostic targets for infection. Read More

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November 2021

Elevated Myeloperoxidase-DNA Complex Levels in Sera of Patients with IgA Vasculitis.

Pathobiology 2021 Nov 23:1-6. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Dermatology, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Japan.

Introduction: IgA vasculitis is a systemic disease that results from the entrapment of circulating IgA-containing immune complexes in small-vessel walls in the skin, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. An excessive formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is involved in the pathogenesis of vasculitis, especially in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. This study aimed to clarify whether NETs are implicated in IgA vasculitis. Read More

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November 2021

Detection of cross-reactive immunoglobulin A against the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike 1 subunit in saliva.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(11):e0249979. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

Department of Maxillofacial Radiology, Graduate School of Dentistry, Kanagawa Dental University, Yokosuka, Kanagawa, Japan.

Abundant secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in the mucus, breast milk, and saliva provides immunity against infection of mucosal surfaces. Pre-pandemic breast milk samples containing SIgA have been reported to cross-react with SARS-CoV-2; however, it remains unknown whether SIgA showing the cross-reaction with SARS-CoV-2 exists in saliva. We aimed to clarify whether SIgA in saliva cross-reacts with SARS-CoV-2 spike 1 subunit in individuals who have not been infected with this virus. Read More

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November 2021

Mycobiota-induced IgA antibodies regulate fungal commensalism in the gut and are dysregulated in Crohn's disease.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Dec 22;6(12):1493-1504. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology Division, Joan and Sanford I. Weill Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, USA.

Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) plays an important role in gut barrier protection by shaping the resident microbiota community, restricting the growth of bacterial pathogens and enhancing host protective immunity via immunological exclusion. Here, we found that a portion of the microbiota-driven sIgA response is induced by and directed towards intestinal fungi. Analysis of the human gut mycobiota bound by sIgA revealed a preference for hyphae, a fungal morphotype associated with virulence. Read More

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December 2021

The prognostic role of heart rate recovery after exercise and metabolic syndrome in IgA nephropathy.

BMC Nephrol 2021 Nov 23;22(1):390. Epub 2021 Nov 23.

2nd Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Diabetology Center, University of Pécs, Clinical Center Medical School, Pacsirta street 1, Pécs, 7624, Hungary.

Background: Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are higher in chronic kidney disease (CKD) than in the general population. Reduced heart rate recovery (HRR) is an independent risk factor for CV disease. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic role of HRR in a homogenous group of CKD patients. Read More

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November 2021

Profiling Antibody Response Patterns in COVID-19: Spike S1-Reactive IgA Signature in the Evolution of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:772239. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Division of Immunology, Transplantation and Infectious Disease, Immunobiology of HIV Group, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

This contribution explores in a new statistical perspective the antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 141 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting a broad range of clinical manifestations. This cohort accurately reflects the characteristics of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy. We determined the IgM, IgA, and IgG levels towards SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, and NP antigens, evaluating their neutralizing activity and relationship with clinical signatures. Read More

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November 2021

Intestinal CD11b B Cells Ameliorate Colitis by Secreting Immunoglobulin A.

Front Immunol 2021 3;12:697725. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

The intestinal mucosal immune environment requires multiple immune cells to maintain homeostasis. Although intestinal B cells are among the most important immune cells, little is known about the mechanism that they employ to regulate immune homeostasis. In this study, we found that CD11b B cells significantly accumulated in the gut lamina propria and Peyer's patches in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mouse models and patients with ulcerative colitis. Read More

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November 2021

Secretory immunoglobulin A from human milk hydrolyzes 5 histones and myelin basic protein.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, 8 Lavrentiev Ave., Novosibirsk 630,090, Russia. Electronic address:

Mother's milk provides newborns with various nutrients (e.g., enzymes, proteins, peptides, hormones, antibodies) that help babies grow and protect them from bacterial and viral infections. Read More

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November 2021