32,737 results match your criteria patients cns


Revisiting the epidemiology of bloodstream infections and healthcare-associated episodes. Results from a multicentre prospective cohort in Spain (PRO-BAC study).

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 May 4:106352. Epub 2021 May 4.

Unidad Clínica de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Microbiología y Medicina Preventiva, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena / Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla / Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.

Background: The epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) is dynamic because it depends on microbiological, host, and healthcare system factors. The aim of this study is to update the information about the epidemiology of BSI in Spain considering the types of acquisition.

Methods: An observational, prospective cohort study in 26 Spanish hospitals from October 2016 throughout March 2017 including all episodes of BSI in adults was performed. Read More

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Characteristics of central nervous system progression in non-small cell lung cancer treated with crizotinib or alectinib.

Cancer Rep (Hoboken) 2021 May 7:e1414. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Thoracic Medical Oncology, The Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Most patients treated with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop resistance, leading to metastasis, with progression to the central nervous system (CNS) being a primary concern. Although alectinib has better CNS penetration than crizotinib, patients treated with alectinib also develop CNS progression. CNS metastases more likely occurs during crizotinib treatment due to less blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration capability than alectinib. Read More

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Impact of beta-2 microglobulin expression on the survival of glioma patients via modulating the tumor immune microenvironment.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Brain Glioma Center & Department of Neurosurgery, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Aims: High immune cell infiltration in gliomas establishes an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, which in turn promotes resistance to immunotherapy. Hence, it is important to identify novel targets associated with high immune cell infiltration in gliomas. Our previous study showed that serum levels of beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) in lower-grade glioma patients were lower than those in glioblastoma patients. Read More

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Current and emerging therapies for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Biomark Res 2021 May 6;9(1):32. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Hematology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, 12 Wulumuqi Middle Road, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare type of extranodal lymphoma exclusively involving the CNS at the onset, with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) as the most common histological subtype. As PCNSL is a malignancy arising in an immune-privileged site, suboptimal delivery of systemic agents into tumor tissues results in poorer outcomes in PCNSL than in non-CNS DLBCLs. Commonly used regimens for PCNSL include high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy with rituximab for induction therapy and intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or whole-brain radiotherapy for consolidation therapy. Read More

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Serial Tap Test of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: impact on cognitive function and its meaning.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2021 May 6;18(1):22. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neurology Service, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Clinics, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil.

Background: Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) is characterized by gait disturbance, urinary incontinence and cognitive decline. Symptoms are potentially reversible and treatment is based on cerebrospinal fluid shunting. The tap test (TT) is used to identify patients that will benefit from surgery. Read More

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Vinpocetine, cognition, and epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 May 3;119:107988. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Vinpocetine has been shown to enhance memory in animal models, with possible cognitive benefit in humans. The present study sought to demonstrate if vinpocetine can enhance cognition in healthy volunteers or patients with epilepsy. In addition, we compare blood levels of vinpocetine and its active metabolite (apovincaminic acid; AVA) in humans and animals to further characterize factors related to possible therapeutic benefit. Read More

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CNS inflammation after natalizumab therapy for multiple sclerosis: A retrospective histopathological and CSF cohort study.

Brain Pathol 2021 May 6:e12969. Epub 2021 May 6.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany.

Natalizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directed against the α4 subunit of the integrins α4ß1 and α4ß7, has been approved for the treatment of active relapsing-remitting MS. Although natalizumab is a highly beneficial drug that effectively reduces the risk of sustained disability progression and the rate of clinical relapses, some patients do not respond to it, and some are at higher risk of developing progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). The histopathological effects after natalizumab therapy are still unknown. Read More

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Back to the future: lessons from past viral infections and the link with Parkinson's disease.

Neuronal Signal 2021 Apr 16;5(1):NS20200051. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Pharmacology and Therapeutics, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 TK33, Ireland.

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been noticeable increase in the reporting of neurological symptoms in patients. There is still uncertainty around the significance and long-term consequence of these symptoms. There are also many outstanding questions on whether the causative virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) can directly infect the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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CSF lipocalin-2 increases early in subarachnoid hemorrhage are associated with neuroinflammation and unfavorable outcome.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 May 5:271678X211012110. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Lipocalin-2 mediates neuro-inflammation and iron homeostasis in vascular injuries of the central nervous system (CNS) and is upregulated in extra-CNS systemic inflammation. We postulate that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood lipocalin-2 levels are associated with markers of inflammation and functional outcome in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We prospectively enrolled 67 SAH subjects, serially measured CSF and plasma lipocalin-2, matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on post-SAH days 1-5 and assessed outcome by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) every 3 months. Read More

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The role of sex genotype in paediatric CNS tumour incidence and survival.

Childs Nerv Syst 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Purpose: Evidence exists, in CNS germinomas and medulloblastomas (MB), that patient sex significantly influences incidence and outcome. The role of sex genotype in other paediatric CNS tumours remains unclear. This study sought to examine the role of sex genotype in CNS tumour incidence and overall survival (OS). Read More

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Safety and diagnostic efficacy of gadoteridol for magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine in children 2 years of age and younger.

Pediatr Radiol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Neonates and young children require efficacious magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations but are potentially more susceptible to the short- and long-term adverse effects of gadolinium-based contrast agents due to the immaturity of their body functions.

Objective: To evaluate the acute safety and diagnostic efficacy of gadoteridol (ProHance) for contrast-enhanced MRI of the central nervous system (CNS) in children ≤2 years of age.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty-five children ≤2 years old (including 57 children <6 months old) who underwent contrast-enhanced MRI of the CNS with gadoteridol at 0. Read More

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Identification of First-in-Class Inhibitors of Kallikrein-Related Peptidase 6 That Promote Oligodendrocyte Differentiation.

J Med Chem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Sciences and Engineering, IBPS, UMR 8256 CNRS-UPMC, ERL INSERM U1164, Biological Adaptation and Ageing, Sorbonne Université, F-75252 Paris, France.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that causes severe motor, sensory, and cognitive impairments. Kallikrein-related peptidase (KLK)6 is the most abundant serine protease secreted in the CNS, mainly by oligodendrocytes, the myelin-producing cells of the CNS, and KLK6 is assumed to be a robust biomarker of MS, since it is highly increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients. Here, we report the design and biological evaluation of KLK6's low-molecular-weight inhibitors, -aminobenzyl derivatives. Read More

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Clinical utility of comprehensive genomic profiling in central nervous system tumors of children and young adults.

Neurooncol Adv 2021 Jan-Dec;3(1):vdab037. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital Los Angeles and Keck School of Medicine of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background: Recent large-scale genomic studies have revealed a spectrum of genetic variants associated with specific subtypes of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical utility of comprehensive genomic profiling of pediatric, adolescent and young adult (AYA) CNS tumors in a prospective setting, including detection of DNA sequence variants, gene fusions, copy number alterations (CNAs), and loss of heterozygosity.

Methods: OncoKids, a comprehensive DNA- and RNA-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, in conjunction with chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) was employed to detect diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic markers. Read More

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February 2021

PLEX: the best first-line treatment in nmosd attacks experience at a single center in Colombia.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 17;7(4):e06811. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Neurology, Instituto Neurológico de Colombia (INDEC) Medellín, Colombia.

Objective: Primary outcome was to evaluate complete improvement at six months after acute treatment in NMOSD relapses.

Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study of patients with diagnosis of NMOSD admitted for acute attacks. We performed an explanatory analysis using the univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression approach. Read More

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Seizure in isolated brain cryptococcoma: Case report and review of the literature.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 14;12:153. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Biomedicine, Neurosciences and Advanced Diagnostic, Section of Neurosurgery, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) cryptococcosis is an invasive fungal infection predominantly seen among immunosuppressed patients causing meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Rarely, cryptococcosis can affect immunologically competent hosts with the formation of localized CNS granulomatous reaction, known as cryptococcoma. Common symptoms of CNS cryptococcoma are headaches, consciousness or mental changes, focal deficits, and cranial nerve dysfunction. Read More

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Challenges and Novel Opportunities of Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 29;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Protontherapy Unit, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, 28027 Madrid, Spain.

Approximately 20% patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) present with CNS spread at the time of diagnosis and 25-50% are found to have brain metastases (BMs) during the course of the disease. The improvement in the diagnostic tools and screening, as well as the use of new systemic therapies have contributed to a more precise diagnosis and prolonged survival of lung cancer patients with more time for BMs development. In the past, most of the systemic therapies failed intracranially because of the inability to effectively cross the blood brain barrier. Read More

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CNS demyelination with TNFα inhibitor exposure: A retrospective cohort study.

J Neuroimmunol 2021 Apr 26;356:577587. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To study long-term outcomes in patients with CNS demyelinating events exposed to TNFa-inhibitors (TNFai), including subsequent clinical relapse, MRI lesions, and use of disease modifying therapy (DMT) for MS.

Methods: Adult patients evaluated for a CNS demyelinating disease during TNFai use were identified at Mass General Brigham [01/1998-08/2020] and analyzed in clinically-relevant subgroups. Inclusion criteria required a first neurological event while taking a TNFai, MRI lesions consistent with demyelination, and the absence of a more probable alternative diagnosis. Read More

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Lipocalin 2 regulates iron homeostasis, neuroinflammation, and insulin resistance in the brains of patients with dementia: Evidence from the current literature.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, Korea.

Dementia accompanied by memory loss is considered one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases worldwide, and its prevalence is gradually increasing. Known risk factors for dementia include genetic background, certain lifestyle and dietary patterns, smoking, iron overload, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose metabolism in the brain. Here, we review recent evidence on the regulatory role of lipocalin 2 (LCN2) in dementia from various perspectives. Read More

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Pertuzumab Plus High-Dose Trastuzumab in Patients With Progressive Brain Metastases and HER2-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: Primary Analysis of a Phase II Study.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 4:JCO2002822. Epub 2021 May 4.

Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Purpose: Effective therapies are needed for the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) with brain metastases. A trastuzumab radioisotope has been shown to localize in brain metastases of patients with HER2-positive MBC, and intracranial xenograft models have demonstrated a dose-dependent response to trastuzumab.

Methods: In the phase II PATRICIA study (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Predictors of Cognitive Performance Among Infants Treated for Brain Tumors: Findings From a Multisite, Prospective, Longitudinal Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2021 May 4:JCO2001687. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Psychology, St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Purpose: Infants treated for CNS malignancies experience a significantly poorer response to treatment and are particularly at risk for neuropsychological deficits. The literature is limited and inconsistent regarding cognitive outcomes among this group. We investigated predictors of cognitive outcomes in children treated for brain tumors during infancy as part of a large, prospective, multisite, longitudinal trial. Read More

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The role of NOTCH3 variants in Alzheimer's disease and subcortical vascular dementia in the Chinese population.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Aims: NOTCH3 gene mutations predominantly cause cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, a common etiology of subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD). Besides, there may be a pathogenic link between NOTCH3 variants and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to study the role of NOTCH3 variants in AD and SVaD patients. Read More

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Aβ-related Angiitis (ABRA)-A Rare Paraneoplastic Cause of Cerebral Vasculitis in a Young Patient: A Pathway From Unspecific Neurological Symptoms to Final Diagnosis.

Neurologist 2021 May 5;26(3):103-107. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Neurology, City of Cologne Municipal Hospitals, Medical Center Cologne-Merheim.

Introduction: Aβ-related angiitis (ABRA) is a very rare disease entity with combined features of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and primary angiitis of the CNS. However, the pathogenesis has not been conclusively described yet. Interestingly though, a possible paraneoplastic origin has been reported in the past. Read More

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Prognostic value of disease distribution in secondary central nervous system diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with radiation therapy.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 May 4:1-8. Epub 2021 May 4.

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of baseline disease distribution for patients with the secondary central nervous system (CNS) diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with chemotherapy and radiation (RT). 44 patients with secondary CNS DLBCL were reviewed. Twenty patients had leptomeningeal disease (LMD), and 24 had localized/targetable disease (LTD). Read More

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Brain organoids: a promising model to assess oxidative stress-induced Central Nervous System damage.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biomedical Engineering Sciences, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA, USA.

Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the most significant propagators of systemic damage with implications for widespread pathologies such as vascular disease, accelerated aging, degenerative disease, inflammation, and traumatic injury. OS can be induced by numerous factors such as environmental conditions, lifestyle choices, disease states, and genetic susceptibility. It is tied to the accumulation of free radicals, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insufficient antioxidant protection, which leads to cell aging and tissue degeneration over time. Read More

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Use of a panel of four microRNAs in CSF as a predicted biomarker for postoperative neoangiogenesis in moyamoya disease.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction And Aims: At present, the treatment for moyamoya disease (MMD) primarily consists of combined direct and indirect bypass surgery. Nevertheless, more than half of indirect bypass surgeries fail to develop good collaterals from the dura and temporal muscle. This study aimed to investigate whether microRNAs (miRNAs) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could serve as biomarkers for the prediction of postoperative collateral formation. Read More

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Magnetoencephalography for epileptic focus localization based on Tucker decomposition with ripple window.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, China.

Aims: To improve the Magnetoencephalography (MEG) spatial localization precision of focal epileptic.

Methods: 306-channel simulated or real clinical MEG is estimated as a lower-dimensional tensor by Tucker decomposition based on Higher-order orthogonal iteration (HOOI) before the inverse problem using linearly constraint minimum variance (LCMV). For simulated MEG data, the proposed method is compared with dynamic imaging of coherent sources (DICS), multiple signal classification (MUSIC), and LCMV. Read More

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Galectin-1 ameliorates perioperative neurocognitive disorders in aged mice.

CNS Neurosci Ther 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Introduction: The incidence of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) is higher in the elderly patients undergoing surgery. Microglia activation-mediated neuroinflammation is one of the hallmarks of PND. Galectin-1 has been identified as a pivotal modulator in the central nervous system (CNS), while the role of galectin-1 in PND induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is still undetermined. Read More

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Successful treatment of EBV-associated Primary CNS Lymphoma due to PTLD, with Ibrutinib and 3 Party EBV-specific T cells.

Am J Transplant 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Mater Research Institute UQ, Brisbane, Australia.

Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) occurring following organ transplantation (post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder 'PTLD') is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is typically treated with high-dose methotrexate-based regimens. Outcomes are dismal and clinical trials are lacking. Read More

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Neurosyphilis: a series of 178 cases at the 3rd-level hospital of Marrakesh (Morocco).

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Neuroscience Research Laboratory of Marrakech Medical School, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakesh, Morocco.

Neurosyphilis (NS) is an infection of the central nervous system (CNS), caused by Treponema pallidum. Up to 4-10% of patients with untreated syphilis may develop NS which still constitutes a health challenge. The aim of this study is to analyze epidemiological, clinical, paraclinical, therapeutic, and progression profiles of NS in the south of Morocco. Read More

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Symptomatic and preventive effects of the novel phosphodiesterase-9 inhibitor BI 409306 in an immune-mediated model of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zürich-Vetsuisse, Zürich, Switzerland.

BI 409306, a phosphodiesterase-9 inhibitor under development for treatment of schizophrenia and attenuated psychosis syndrome (APS), promotes synaptic plasticity and cognition. Here, we explored the effects of BI 409306 treatment in the polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (poly[I:C])-based mouse model of maternal immune activation (MIA), which is relevant to schizophrenia and APS. In Study 1, adult offspring received BI 409306 0. Read More

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