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Comprehensive analysis of BTN3A1 in cancers: mining of omics data and validation in patient samples and cellular models.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021, China.

Butyrophilin 3A1 (BTN3A1), a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-associated gene that encodes a membrane protein with 2 extracellular immunoglobulin domains and an intracellular B30.2 domain, is critical in T-cell activation and adaptive immune response. Here, the expression of BTN3A1 in cancers was analyzed in 8 databases comprising 86,733 patients of 33 cancers and the findings were validated in patient samples and cell models. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of a novel artificial intelligence system for adenoma detection in daily practice: a prospective non-randomized comparative study.

Endoscopy 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology and interventional Endoscopy, Krankenhaus Barmherzige Bruder Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.

Background And Aims: Adenoma detection rate (ADR) varies significantly between endoscopists with up to 26% adenoma miss rate (AMR). Artificial intelligence (AI) systems may improve endoscopic quality and reduce the rate of interval cancer. We evaluated the efficacy of an AI system in real time colonoscopy and its influence on the AMR and the ADR. Read More

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Deep neural network-based approach to improving radiomics analysis reproducibility in liver cancer: effect on image resampling.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Nuclear & Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA, Atlanta, Georgia, UNITED STATES.

Objectives: To test the effect of traditional up-sampling slice thickness (ST) methods on the reproducibility of CT radiomics features of liver tumors and investigate the improvement using a deep neural network (DNN) scheme.

Methods: CT images with ≤ 1 mm ST in the public dataset were converted to low resolution (3 mm, 5 mm) CT images. A DNN model was trained for the conversion from 3 mm-ST and 5 mm-ST to 1 mm-ST and compared with conventional interpolation-based methods (cubic, linear, nearest) using structural similarity (SSIM) and peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR). Read More

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Synthetic pulmonary perfusion images from 4DCT for functional avoidance using deep learning.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan, UNITED STATES.

Purpose: To develop and evaluate the performance of a deep learning model to generate synthetic pulmonary perfusion images from clinical 4DCT images for patients undergoing radiotherapy for lung cancer.

Methods: A clinical data set of 58 pre- and post-radiotherapy 99mTc-labelled MAA-SPECT perfusion studies (32 patients) each with contemporaneous 4DCT studies was collected. Using the inhale and exhale phases of the 4DCT, a 3D-Residual Network was trained to create synthetic perfusion images utilizing the MAA-SPECT as ground truth. Read More

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SOURCE-PANC: A Prediction Model for Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Based on Nationwide Population-Based Data.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

1Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Background: A prediction model for overall survival (OS) in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) including patient and treatment characteristics is currently not available, but it could be valuable for supporting clinicians in patient communication about expectations and prognosis. We aimed to develop a prediction model for OS in metastatic PDAC, called SOURCE-PANC, based on nationwide population-based data.

Materials And Methods: Data on patients diagnosed with synchronous metastatic PDAC in 2015 through 2018 were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Read More

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Tumor Budding is a reliable predictor for death and metastasis in invasive ductal breast cancer and correlates with other prognostic clinicopathological parameters.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Jul 15;54:151792. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Turkey.

Background And Objective: Breast cancers are the most common type of cancer and the most common cause of mortality in women worldwide. Different prognostic factors are the subject of research to differentiate the prognosis even between cases at a similar stage and identify risky patients earlier and create individual treatment approaches. Tumor budding (TB) has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in many types of cancer, especially colorectal carcinomas. Read More

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Prediction of chemotherapy response in breast cancer patients at pre-treatment using second derivative texture of CT images and machine learning.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jul 19;14(10):101183. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; Physical Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Center, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON, Canada; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is a crucial component of treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC), only about 70% of patients respond to it. Effective adjustment of NAC for individual patients can significantly improve survival rates of those resistant to standard regimens. Thus, the early prediction of NAC outcome is of great importance in facilitating a personalized paradigm for breast cancer therapeutics. Read More

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Prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes based on the evaluation of frequency in patients with oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;154:217-226. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics Technology, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou, 350007, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: We investigate the prognostic value of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) based on the evaluation of the present frequency in patients with breast cancer rather than that of the density proposed in previous research.

Methods: Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was introduced to label-freely obtain TIL images from a total of 564 patients, and then TILs were redefined as TILs-1 to TILs-3 from MPM images according to the relative positions between TILs, tumour cells and collagen fibres. More seminally, a new method, which was based on the present frequency of TILs-1 to TILs-3, was presented for assessing the predictive ability of TILs, and then a tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes score (TILs-score) for each patient was obtained by ridge regression analysis. Read More

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Prognostic nomogram for progression-free survival in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer on maintenance olaparib therapy following response to chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;154:190-200. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia; Department of Medical Oncology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia; Australia New Zealand Gynecological Oncology Group, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The impact of maintenance therapy with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (PSROC) varies widely. Individual prognostic factors do not reliably distinguish patients who progress early from those who have durable benefit. We developed and validated a prognostic nomogram to predict PFS in these patients. Read More

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Systemic therapy and prognosis of older patients with stage II/III breast cancer: A large-scale analysis of the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 19;154:157-166. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Breast Oncology, Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya, Japan. Electronic address:

Aim: This study aimed at investigating the real-world prognostic impact of systemic treatment in older patients with stage II/III breast cancer (BC).

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with stage II/III primary BC, aged ≥55 years, and registered in the Japanese Breast Cancer Registry from 2004 to 2011. The clinicopathological characteristics, treatments, and prognosis of patients aged ≥75 years (older) were compared to those of younger patients. Read More

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Diagnostic potential of trace metals concentration in expressed prostatic secretion and serum of patients with category IV prostatitis.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 Jul 8;68:126819. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Scientific Research Center, Guilin Medical University, Guilin, Guangxi, China; Guangxi Health Commission Key Laboratory of Disease Proteomics Research, China. Electronic address:

Background: The National Institutes of Health (NIH) category IV prostatitis is a painless prostate gland inflammation, just as its name implies, this type of prostatitis is related with inflammation of the prostate, but most men are not conscious of it. However, category IV prostatitis is fairly common in general populations and reported having indirect relationships with prostate cancer.

Method: We analyzed the concentration of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in expressed prostatic secretion (EPS) and serum of patients with category IV prostatitis and healthy controls, investigating the diagnostic potential of different metals in category IV prostatitis using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Read More

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Onion component, isoalliin, stimulates feeding and activates the arcuate nucleus neuropeptide Y, ghrelin- and Ninjin'yoeito-responsive neurons.

Neuropeptides 2021 Jul 10;89:102180. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Center for Integrative Physiology, Division of Integrative Physiology, Kansai Electric Power Medical Research Institute, 1-5-6 Minatojimaminamimachi, Chuou-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan; Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-2 Kusunoki-Cho, Chuo-Ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan; Pharmacological Department of Herbal Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical & Dental Sciences, Kagoshima 890-8544, Japan. Electronic address:

Appetite loss or anorexia substantially decreases the quality of life in patients with cancer, depression and gastrointestinal disorders, and can lead to sarcopenia and frailty. Foods that restore appetite have been sought-for but are not currently available. Historically, onion intake was adopted to treat a variety of diseases with reduced appetite including cancer and gastrointestinal disturbances. Read More

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Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides decrease PD-1 in T cells of healthy subjects and patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and increase their proliferation and eradication of HCC cells.

Neuropeptides 2021 May 12;89:102159. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Gene Therapy, Hadassah Hebrew University Hospital, Ein Karem, Jerusalem 91120, Israel.

T cells of aged people, and of patients with either cancer or severe infections (including COVID-19), are often exhausted, senescent and dysfunctional, leading to increased susceptibilities, complications and mortality. Neurotransmitters and Neuropeptides bind their receptors in T cells, and induce multiple beneficial T cell functions. Yet, T cells of different people vary in the expression levels of Neurotransmitter and Neuropeptide receptors, and in the magnitude of the corresponding effects. Read More

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miR-543 impairs cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer by suppressing VCAN.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 19;570:191-198. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Jianghan University, Wuhan, 430000, Hubei, China.

Breast cancer (BC) continues to plague millions of people worldwide. MicroRNAs have been observed to be closely associated with many cancers and may serve as promising biomarkers for the diagnosis of BC. BC tissue samples were collected from 26 patients, and qRT-PCR and western blotting were performed to evaluate the levels of miR-543 and VCAN. Read More

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Elevated levels of perfluoroalkyl substances in breast cancer patients within the Greater Manila Area.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 12;286(Pt 1):131545. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Several studies have reported exposure of humans to various endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) worldwide. However, there is a lack of data regarding EDC exposures in humans living in Southeast Asian countries, such as the Philippines. Hence, this study measured levels of 41 EDCs in women residing in the Greater Manila Area, home to the second largest city in Southeast Asia. Read More

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"Allogeneic blood or marrow transplant with non-myeloablative conditioning and high dose cyclophosphamide-based graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis for secondary central nervous system lymphoma".

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287.

Secondary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma is a rare and often fatal complication of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Treatment options include radiation therapy, high-dose systemic chemotherapy, intrathecal chemotherapy, and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell rescue, but outcomes remain poor. Allogeneic blood or marrow transplant (alloBMT) is widely used in relapsed/refractory systemic NHL. Read More

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A retrospective observational study of the natural history of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in patients with KRAS p.G12C mutated or wild-type disease.

Lung Cancer 2021 May 25;159:1-9. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, 12902 Magnolia Dr, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: The KRAS p.G12C mutation, prevalent in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has only recently become a viable target. Here we present results of the largest retrospective observational study analyzing KRAS p. Read More

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The Effects of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis on Clinicopathological Factors In Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

Endocr Pract 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Health Sciences, Diskapi Yildirim Beyazit Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Introduction: This study evaluated the impact of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) on clinicopathological parameters, prognostic outcome and initial treatment responses in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Methods: A retrospective review was made of 1409 patients with PTC, comprising 443 pathology proven PTC patients with CLT and 447 PTC patients without CLT.

Results: The median follow-up time was 58 (8-380) months and the median age at the time of diagnosis was 43 years. Read More

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Combining tumor deposits with the number of lymph node metastases to improve the prognostic accuracy in stage III colon cancer: a post hoc analysis of the CALGB/SWOG 80702 phase III study (Alliance).

Ann Oncol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber/Partners Cancer Care, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: In colon cancer, tumor deposits (TD) are considered in assigning prognosis and staging only in the absence of lymph node metastasis (i.e., stage III pN1c tumors). Read More

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Pembrolizumab for locally advanced and recurrent/metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (KEYNOTE-629 Study): an open-label, nonrandomized, multicenter, phase 2 trial.

Ann Oncol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Service de Dermatologie et Cancérologie Cutanée, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Background: Pembrolizumab demonstrated clinically meaningful and durable antitumor activity with a manageable safety profile in recurrent/metastatic (R/M) cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC).

Patients And Methods: KEYNOTE-629 was a global, open-label, nonrandomized, phase 2 trial of patients with locally advanced (LA) or R/M cSCC conducted at 59 centers. Eligible patients received intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every three weeks for up to 35 cycles. Read More

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Seminal vesicle intrafraction motion during the delivery of radiotherapy sessions on a 1.5 T MR-Linac.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy, Utrecht 3508 GA, The Netherlands.

PurposeTo evaluate seminal vesicle (SV) intrafraction motion using cinematic magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MR) during the delivery of online adaptive MR-Linac radiotherapy fractions, in preparation of MR-guided extremely hypofractionated radiotherapy for intermediate to high-risk prostate cancer patients.Material and MethodsFifty prostate cancer patients were treated with 5 x 7.25 Gy on a 1. Read More

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Anti-microbial antibody response is associated with future onset of Crohn's disease independent of biomarkers of altered gut barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and genetic risk.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: /Aim: Altered host immune reactivity to microbial antigens is hypothesized to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether increased serum anti-microbial antibody response in asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDR) of CD patients is an independent risk factor for future CD development.

Methods: We measured host serum antibody response to six microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus ELISA test: ASCA IgA/IgG, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS). Read More

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Intensity-modulated radiation therapy and doxorubicin in thyroid cancer: A prospective phase 2 trial.

Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: The use of external-beam radiotherapy for locally advanced nonanaplastic thyroid cancer remains controversial. This prospective study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with or without concurrent chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced thyroid cancer.

Methods: The authors conducted a nonrandomized phase 2 trial of IMRT with or without concurrent doxorubicin in patients with gross residual or unresectable nonanaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Metachronous Skull Base Paraganglioma Surgical Management: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Paragangliomas (PGLs) are benign hypervascular tumors that can develop in head and neck at different locations, primarily in the carotid bifurcation, jugular bulb, tympanic plexus, and vagal ganglia.1 Different gene mutations have been linked to the familial inherited forms, which can represent approximately 30% of all PGLs.1,2 These are classified into 5 different clinical syndromes: PGL 1 to 5. Read More

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In-depth bioinformatic study of the cadherin 5 interactome in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm unveils 8 novel biomarkers.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, St Mary's Hospital, London, UK.

Objectives: Thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) is characterized by the dilation of the aorta and is associated with poor prognosis if not diagnosed and treated early. In this context, the identification of biomarkers regarding the TAA diagnosis, monitoring and prognosis is crucial. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the differential gene expression profile of the cadherin 5 (CDH5 or VE-Cadherin) gene network in patients with TAA, to propose novel biomarkers. Read More

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Use of a Daratumumab-Specific Immunofixation Assay to Assess Possible Immunotherapy Interference at a Major Cancer Center: Our Experience and Recommendations.

J Appl Lab Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Clinical Chemistry Service, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Background: The incorporation of monoclonal antibodies, such as daratumumab, into multiple myeloma treatment regimens has led to the issue of false-positive interference in both serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) and immunofixation (IF). The Hydrashift assay removes daratumumab interference from IF, allowing for correct interpretation. Here, we retrospectively examined the use of the Hydrashift assay at a large cancer center and provide guidelines on its most appropriate use. Read More

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Tracheal window resection and reconstruction via sternocleidomastoid flap for invasive thyroid carcinoma.

Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to present surgical techniques and evaluate outcomes of a sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) myoperiosteal flap used for the reconstruction of tracheal or laryngotracheal defects after the radical resection of invasive thyroid carcinoma.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed for patients at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 2008 to December 2018 of papillary thyroid carcinoma with tracheal or laryngotracheal invasion. Patients were enrolled only when they received window resection and reconstruction via an SCM myoperiosteal flap. Read More

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USO1 isoforms differentially promote liver cancer progression by dysregulating the ER-Golgi network.

Carcinogenesis 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Physiology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Alternative splicing of RNA transcripts plays an important role in cancer development and progression. Recent advances in RNA-seq technology have made it possible to identify alternately spliced events in various types of cancer; however, research on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still limited. Here, by performing RNA-Seq profiling of HCC transcripts at isoform level, we identified tumor-specific and molecular subtype-dependent expression of the USO1 isoforms, which we designated as a normal form USO1-N (XM_001290049) and a tumor form USO1-T (NM_003715). Read More

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Role of Flow Cytometric Immunophenotyping for Classic Hodgkin Lymphoma in Small Biopsy and Cytology Specimens.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

From the Hematopathology (Chan, Gao, Sigler, Baik, Roshal, Lin), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Context.—: The diagnosis of classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) traditionally requires surgical tissue biopsy because of the paucity of diagnostic Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. Diagnosis can be challenging in small core needle and cytologic biopsies, which are increasingly used because of reduced costs and minimal invasiveness. Read More

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Tailored approach to the choice of long-term vascular access in breast cancer patients.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(7):e0255004. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Vascular and Transplantation Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

This study compared the possible options for vascular access in breast cancer patients by analyzing the complications of each method. We retrospectively evaluated the vascular access procedures for intravenous chemotherapy in breast cancer patients from 2016 to 2018. A total of 300 consecutive patients were included, 100 each who received peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), arm ports, and chest ports. Read More

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