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Beclin-1 overexpression regulates NLRP3 activation by promoting TNFAIP3 in microvascular injury following myocardial reperfusion.

Cell Signal 2021 Apr 10:110008. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Technology Transfer Center, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China. Electronic address:

Innate immune response contributes significantly to ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Targeting innate immunity seems to be a promising method for protecting the microvascular injury in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients following myocardial I/R injury (MI/R). NLRP3 inflammasome is a central part of the innate immune system involved in the pathophysiological process of MI/R. Read More

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Ileal Crohn's Disease Exhibits Similar Transmural Fibrosis Irrespective of Phenotype.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 13;12(4):e00330. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Portugal.

Introduction: In Crohn's disease (CD), the assessment of transmural inflammation and fibrosis is of utmost importance. This study aimed to quantify these parameters in CD ileal specimens and correlate them with disease progression.

Methods: This is a retrospective unicentric study based on the analysis of archived specimens (n = 103) of primary ileal resection. Read More

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Multiscale modeling of glioma pseudopalisades: contributions from the tumor microenvironment.

J Math Biol 2021 Apr 12;82(6):49. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

TU Kaiserslautern, Felix-Klein-Zentrum für Mathematik, Paul-Ehrlich-Street 31, 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Gliomas are primary brain tumors with a high invasive potential and infiltrative spread. Among them, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) exhibits microvascular hyperplasia and pronounced necrosis triggered by hypoxia. Histological samples showing garland-like hypercellular structures (so-called pseudopalisades) centered around the occlusion site of a capillary are typical for GBM and hint on poor prognosis of patient survival. Read More

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[Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome: 2 cases with misleading presentation].

Rev Med Interne 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Service de médecine interne, hôpital de la Timone, AP-HM, 264, rue Saint-Pierre, 13005 Marseille, France; Université d'Aix-Marseille, Marseille, France.

Introduction: Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) also known as Clarkson syndrome is a rare and sudden life-threatening entity. Three consecutive phases are described. A first non-specific prodromal phase often manifests as "flu-like" symptoms and precedes capillary leak phase with major hypovolemic and distributive shock leading to serious and frequent multiorgan dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Read More

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Kaempferol induces ROS-dependent apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells via TGM2-mediated Akt/mTOR signaling.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 12;21(1):396. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Integrative Oncology, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, 270 Dong An Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, exhibits anticancer properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, increasing evidence has demonstrated that, under certain conditions, kaempferol can inhibit tumor growth by upregulating ROS levels. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether kaempferol effectively suppresses pancreatic cancer through upregulation of ROS, and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism. Read More

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TWIST1-mediated transcriptional activation of PDGFRβ in breast cancer stem cells promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2021 Apr 9:166141. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Applied Biology, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Uppal Road, Tarnaka, Hyderabad -500 007, TS 500 007, India; Academy of Science and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, UP - 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients often exhibit poor prognosis and breast cancer relapse due to metastasis. This results in secondary tumor generation at distant-unrelated organs that account for the majority of breast cancer-related deaths. Although breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been attributed to metastasis, a mechanistic understanding is essential for developing therapeutic interventions to combat breast cancer relapse. Read More

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Physicians Treating Alzheimer's Disease Patients Should Be Aware that Televised Direct-to-Consumer Advertising Links More Strongly to Drug Utilization in Older Patients.

Authors:
Robin Feldman

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Arthur J. Goldberg Distinguished Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Innovation at University of California, Hastings Law, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: US direct-to-consumer advertising spending for medicine has soared in recent decades. Advertising has been shown to impact drug utilization. Most Alzheimer's disease patients are above age 65 and may take a range of prescription medications for various disease states. Read More

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Enhancing glucose metabolism via gluconeogenesis is therapeutic in a zebrafish model of Dravet syndrome.

Brain Commun 2021 25;3(1):fcab004. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, CA 80045, USA.

Energy-producing pathways are novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we focussed on correcting metabolic defects in a catastrophic paediatric epilepsy, Dravet syndrome which is caused by mutations in sodium channel NaV1.1 gene, . Read More

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January 2021

Developing and validating a novel nomogram used a competing-risks model for predicting the prognosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma: a retrospective study based on the SEER database.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Mar;9(5):378

Department of Clinical Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: The current prognostic methods for primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) are inadequate. This study is the first to use a competing-risks model to perform an accurate analysis of the prognostic factors for PFTC cause-specific death (CSD). We used the model to established a nomogram for the 3-, 5-, and 8-year CSD rates based on the identified prognostic factors. Read More

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Influence of anesthetic induction of propofol combined with esketamine on perioperative stress and inflammatory responses and postoperative cognition of elderly surgical patients.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1701-1709. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Anesthesiology, Yichun People's Hospital Yichun 336000, Jiangxi Province, China.

Objective: To analyze the influence of anesthetic induction of propofol combined with esketamine on perioperative stress and inflammatory responses and postoperative cognition in elderly surgical patients.

Methods: A total of 80 elderly surgical patients were randomly divided into a control group (n=40) and a study group (n=40). The control group received anesthetic induction with propofol combined with sufentanil, while the study group received anesthetic induction with propofol combined with esketamine. Read More

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Host-Directed Therapies for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:660183. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical presentations from self-resolving infections to severe chronic disease. Anti-parasitic drugs are often ineffective in the most severe forms of the disease, and in some cases the magnitude of the disease can result from an uncontrolled inflammatory response rather than unrestrained parasite replication. In these patients, host-directed therapies offer a novel approach to improve clinical outcome. Read More

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Immunoglobulin Expression in Cancer Cells and Its Critical Roles in Tumorigenesis.

Front Immunol 2021 24;12:613530. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China.

Traditionally, immunoglobulin (Ig) was believed to be produced by only B-lineage cells. However, increasing evidence has revealed a high level of Ig expression in cancer cells, and this Ig is named cancer-derived Ig. Further studies have shown that cancer-derived Ig shares identical basic structures with B cell-derived Ig but exhibits several distinct characteristics, including restricted variable region sequences and aberrant glycosylation. Read More

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Gintonin facilitates brain delivery of donepezil, a therapeutic drug for Alzheimer disease, through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Mar 16;45(2):264-272. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea.

Background: Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous G-protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, which exhibits and functions against Alzheimer disease (AD) through lysophosphatidic acid 1/3 receptors. A recent study demonstrated that systemic treatment with gintonin enhances paracellular permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) through the LPA1/3 receptor. However, little is known about whether gintonin can enhance brain delivery of donepezil (DPZ) (Aricept), which is a representative cognition-improving drug used in AD clinics. Read More

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Dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy: beam shape, size and energy dependencies in clinical photon beams.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medical Physics, TYKS, Sädetie 6, Turku, 33520 Tampere, FINLAND.

In small-field radiotherapy (RT), a significant challenge is to define the amount of radiation dose absorbed in the patient where the quality of the beam has to be measured with high accuracy. The properties of a proposed new beam quality specifier, namely the dose-area-product ratio at 20 and 10 cm depths in water or DAPR, were studied to yield more information on its feasibility over the conventional quality specifier tissue-phantom ratio or TPR. The DAPRmay be measured with a large-area ionization chamber (LAC) instead of small volume chambers or semi-conductors where detector, beam and water phantom positioning and beam perturbations introduce uncertainties. Read More

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Multilevel Deep-Aggregated Boosted Network to Recognize COVID-19 Infection from Large-Scale Heterogeneous Radiographic Data.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Apr 9;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

In the present epidemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), radiological imaging modalities, such as X-ray and computed tomography (CT), have been identified as effective diagnostic tools. However, the subjective assessment of radiographic examination is a time-consuming task and demands expert radiologists. Recent advancements in artificial intelligence have enhanced the diagnostic power of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools and assisted medical specialists in making efficient diagnostic decisions. Read More

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The combination of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 and fibroblast growth factor 21 exhibits better prediction of renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

J Endocrinol Invest 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shih-Pai Road, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan.

Purpose: Numerous biomarkers of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) are associated with renal prognosis but head-to-head comparisons are lacking. This study aimed to examine the association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (sTNFR1), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), endocan, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), and renal outcomes of patients with or without clinical signs of DKD.

Methods: A total of 312 patients were enrolled in a prospective observational study that excluded individuals with estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) < 30 mL/min/1. Read More

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Latin-American Registry of Cardiovascular Disease and COVID-19: Rationale and Design of the CARDIO COVID 19-20 Registry.

Glob Heart 2021 02 12;16(1):14. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Servicios y Tecnología Cardiovascular de Guatemala S.A, GT.

Background: Infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) exhibits a strong infectivity but less virulence compared to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). In terms of cardiovascular morbidity, susceptible population include elderly and patients with certain cardiovascular conditions. This infection has been associated with cardiac injury, cardiovascular complications and higher mortality. Read More

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February 2021

Ketorolac in Postoperative Neonates and Infants: A Systematic Review.

Authors:
Sadie B Stone

J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2021 31;26(3):240-247. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Objective: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, dosing, efficacy, and safety of ketorolac in postoperative patients younger than 6 months of age.

Methods: PubMed (1988-July 2020), Medline (1946-July 2020), and EBSCO Discovery Service (1988-July 2020) were searched to identify relevant published articles using the following search terms: ketorolac, neonate, infant. English-language articles evaluating the use of ketorolac in infants younger than 6 months of age were included. Read More

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Myocardial Angiotensin Metabolism in End-Stage Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr;77(14):1731-1743

Clinical Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine II, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The myocardium exhibits an adaptive tissue-specific renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and local dysbalance may circumvent the desired effects of pharmacologic RAS inhibition, a mainstay of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) therapy.

Objectives: This study sought to investigate human myocardial tissue RAS regulation of the failing heart in the light of current therapy.

Methods: Fifty-two end-stage HFrEF patients undergoing heart transplantation (no RAS inhibitor: n = 9; angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitor: n = 28; angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]: n = 8; angiotensin receptor neprilysin-inhibitor [ARNi]: n = 7) were enrolled. Read More

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