168,800 results match your criteria pathways studies

Preliminary study on impacts of polystyrene microplastics on the hematological system and gene expression in bone marrow cells of mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 4;218:112296. Epub 2021 May 4.

Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics (MPs) are currently a global environmental pollutants and health hazards that caused by MPs cannot be ignored. However, studies on MP toxicity in mammals are scare. Here, we investigated the effects of two doses (0. Read More

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Proteomic analysis of liver tissues in chicken embryo at Day 16 and Day 20 reveals antioxidant mechanisms.

J Proteomics 2021 May 4:104258. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Food and Biological Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, 193 Tunxi Road, Hefei, Anhui 230009, PR China. Electronic address:

To investigate the mechanisms of the defense system and antioxidant defense system during chicken embryo development, protein profiling of liver tissues in chicken embryo at Day 16 and Day 20 was conducted. TMT was used to analyze the liver tissues proteomes with significantly different activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in chicken embryo. PRM was operated to validate the target differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) using the same samples. Read More

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Translational evidence for the Inflammatory Response System (IRS)/Compensatory Immune Response System (CIRS) and neuroprogression theory of major depression.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 May 4:110343. Epub 2021 May 4.

Deakin University, School of Medicine, IMPACT Strategic Research Centre, Barwon Health, Geelong, Victoria, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common, severe and disabling neuropsychiatric disorder with a heterogenous aetiology. Among the most widely recognized etiological models, immunopathogenesis is a predominant one. Numerous studies have demonstrated aberrant levels of inflammatory markers in the peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain of patients with MDD. Read More

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Glutaminolysis-induced mTORC1 activation drives non-alcoholic steatohepatitis progression.

J Hepatol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Medicine and Surgery, Reus, Spain; Unitat de Recerca Biomèdica (URB-CRB), Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, Institut d'Investigacio Sanitaria Pere Virgili, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, Spain; The Campus of International Excellence Southern Catalonia, Tarragona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: A holistic insight on the relationship between obesity and metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease is an unmet clinical need. Omics investigations can be used to investigate the multifaceted role of altered mitochondrial pathways to promote nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, a major risk factor for liver disease-associated death. There are no specific treatments but remission via surgery might offer an opportunity to examine the signaling processes that govern the complex spectrum of chronic liver diseases observed in extreme obesity. Read More

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Computational modeling of gene-specific transcriptional repression, activation and chromatin interactions in leukemogenesis by LASSO-regularized logistic regression.

IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform 2021 May 7;PP. Epub 2021 May 7.

Many physiological and pathological pathways are dependent on gene-specific on/off regulation of transcription. Some genes are repressed, while others are activated. Although many previous studies have analyzed the mechanisms of gene-specific repression and activation, these studies are mainly based on the use of candidate genes, which are either repressed or activated, without simultaneously comparing and contrasting both groups of genes. Read More

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Developmental Origins of Health and Disease - towards a combined bio- and social life-course perspective.

Acta Paediatr 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Health Promotion, Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The life-course concept has been widely used during the 20 century to give insights into biomedical as well as wider social issues. However, the biomedical and social science fields have developed concepts in parallel without much cross-fertilisation. For the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) biomedical scientific discourse, the focus has largely been on pro- and retrospective epidemiological cohort studies of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and of underlying mechanisms such as epigenetic processes. Read More

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The Ste20-like kinase - a Jack of all trades?

J Cell Sci 2021 May 7;134(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Cancer Therapeutics, Ottawa, Ontario, K1H8L1, Canada.

Over the past 20 years, the Ste20-like kinase (SLK; also known as STK2) has emerged as a central regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Reorganization of the cytoskeleton is necessary for a plethora of biological processes including apoptosis, proliferation, migration, tissue repair and signaling. Several studies have also uncovered a role for SLK in disease progression and cancer. Read More

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POLYGALACTURONASE45 cleaves pectin and links cell proliferation and morphogenesis to leaf curvature in Arabidopsis thaliana.

Plant J 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Hainan Institute of Zhejiang University, Sanya, 572025, China.

Regulating plant architecture is a major goal in current breeding programs. Previous studies have increased our understanding of the genetic regulation of plant architecture, but it is also essential to understand how organ morphology is controlled at the cellular level. In the cell wall, pectin modification and degradation are required for organ morphogenesis, and these processes involve a series of pectin-modifying enzymes. Read More

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External application of N alleviates toxicity of Cd on poplars via starch and sucrose metabolism.

Tree Physiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

College of Landscape Architecture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, China.

Phytoremediation technology can help achieve moderate cost and considerable effect, with respect to the remediation of heavy metal pollution in soil and water. Many previous studies have suggested the role of N in the alleviation of effects of heavy metal on plants. Herein, we sought to determine the molecular mechanisms by which additional N supplementation mitigates Cd toxicity in poplars using a combination of physiological, transcriptomic, and phosphoproteomic analyses. Read More

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Relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma and depression via online database analysis.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):1689-1697

Clinical laboratory, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

There may be a mutually reinforcing relationship between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and depression, but the mechanism is unknown. This study used bioinformatics to evaluate the relationship between HCC and depression at the genetic level. Genes associated with HCC and depression were obtained from pubmed2ensemble. Read More

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December 2021

Multidisciplinary practice guidelines for the diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic/parasympathetic neural ganglia, respectively. The heterogeneity in its etiology makes PPGL diagnosis and treatment very complex. The aim of this article was to provide practical clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PPGLs from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the involvement of the Spanish Societies of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN), Medical Oncology (SEOM), Medical Radiology (SERAM), Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM), Otorhinolaryngology (SEORL), Pathology (SEAP), Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Surgery (AEC) and the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO). Read More

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Contribution of the Gut Microbiome to Drug Disposition, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Variability.

Clin Pharmacokinet 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, MC 0657, La Jolla, San Diego, CA, 90293-0657, USA.

The trillions of microbes that make up the gut microbiome are an important contributor to health and disease. With respect to xenobiotics, particularly orally administered compounds, the gut microbiome interacts directly with drugs to break them down into metabolic products. In addition, microbial products such as bile acids interact with nuclear receptors on host drug-metabolizing enzyme machinery, thus indirectly influencing drug disposition and pharmacokinetics. Read More

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Roles of Stra8 and Tcerg1l in retinoic acid induced spermatogonial differentiation in mouse.

Biol Reprod 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Retinoic acid (RA) induces spermatogonial differentiation, but the mechanism by which it operates remains largely unknown. We developed a germ cell culture assay system to study genes involved in spermatogonial differentiation triggered by RA. Stimulated by Retinoic Acid 8 (Stra8), a RA-inducible gene, is indispensable for meiosis initiation, and its deletion results in a complete block of spermatogenesis at the pre-leptotene/zygotene stage. Read More

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Defining functional variants associated with Alzheimer's disease in the induced immune response.

Brain Commun 2021 19;3(2):fcab083. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 4HQ, UK.

Defining the mechanisms involved in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease from genome-wide association studies alone is challenging since Alzheimer's disease is polygenic and most genetic variants are non-coding. Non-coding Alzheimer's disease risk variants can influence gene expression by affecting miRNA binding and those located within enhancers and within CTCF sites may influence gene expression through alterations in chromatin states. In addition, their function can be cell-type specific. Read More

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Two cortical representations of voice control are differentially involved in speech fluency.

Brain Commun 2021 5;3(2):fcaa232. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Georg August University, Göttingen, Göttingen 37075, Germany.

Recent studies have identified two distinct cortical representations of voice control in humans, the ventral and the dorsal laryngeal motor cortex. Strikingly, while persistent developmental stuttering has been linked to a white-matter deficit in the ventral laryngeal motor cortex, intensive fluency-shaping intervention modulated the functional connectivity of the dorsal laryngeal motor cortical network. Currently, it is unknown whether the underlying structural network organization of these two laryngeal representations is distinct or differently shaped by stuttering intervention. Read More

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January 2021

Cell Fate Decisions in the Wake of Histone H3 Deposition.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:654915. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Stem Cell Center, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States.

An expanding repertoire of histone variants and specialized histone chaperone partners showcases the versatility of nucleosome assembly during different cellular processes. Recent research has suggested an integral role of nucleosome assembly pathways in both maintaining cell identity and influencing cell fate decisions during development and normal homeostasis. Mutations and altered expression profiles of histones and corresponding histone chaperone partners are associated with developmental defects and cancer. Read More

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STAM Prolongs Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients' Survival Inhibiting Cell Growth and Invasion.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:611081. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Urology and Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Signal transducing adaptor molecule 1 (STAM1) was considered to mediate cell growth and be involved in multiple signaling pathways; however, no research on the role of STAM1 in any tumors has been published yet. Our study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of STAM1 for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and its role in modulating cancer cell function. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) in December 2019 were used to examine the role of STAM1 in indicating ccRCC patients' survival. Read More

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Slacklining as therapy to address non-specific low back pain in the presence of multifidus arthrogenic muscle inhibition.

World J Orthop 2021 Apr 18;12(4):178-196. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

INSERM U1028, CNRS UMR5292, Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Université de Lyon, Lyon 69000, France.

Low back pain (LBP) represents the most prevalent, problematic and painful of musculoskeletal conditions that affects both the individual and society with health and economic concerns. LBP is a heterogeneous condition with multiple diagnoses and causes. In the absence of consensus definitions, partly because of terminology inconsistency, it is further referred to as non-specific LBP (NSLBP). Read More

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Effects of a Traditional Caraway Formulation on Experimental Models of Vitiligo and Mechanisms of Melanogenesis.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 19;2021:6675657. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory Basis of Xinjiang Indigenous Medicinal Plants Resource Utilization, and Key Laboratory of Plant Resources and Chemistry in Arid Regions, Xinjiang Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China.

Background: Kursi Karwiya or caraway tablet (CWT), a traditional medicine formula, is widely used in Xinjiang, China, for treating vitiligo, a common autoimmune disease for which there is currently no satisfactory cure. Clinical interventions include pharmacological treatment with psoralens, often in conjunction with UVA radiation, but toxic side effects limit this application. Studies on the activities and mechanisms of CWT are scarce. Read More

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Functional 3-Dimensional Retinal Organoids: and Existing Challenges.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:668857. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Retina Group, Department of Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration, Paul Flechsig Institute of Brain Research, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Stem cell scientists have developed methods for the self-formation of artificial organs, often referred to as organoids. Organoids can be used as model systems for research in multiple biological disciplines. Yoshiki Sasai's innovation for deriving mammalian retinal tissue from stem cells has had a large impact on the study of the biology of vision. Read More

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Gene Set and Pathway Enrichment Analyses Highlight Involvement of Ion Transport in Cholinergic Pathways in Autism: Rationale for Nutritional Intervention.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:648410. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Nutrition and Food Studies, College of Health and Human Services, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States.

Food is the primary human source of choline, an essential precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which has a central role in signaling pathways that govern sensorimotor functions. Most Americans do not consume their recommended amount of dietary choline, and populations with neurodevelopmental conditions like autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be particularly vulnerable to consequences of choline deficiency. This study aimed to identify a relationship between ASD and cholinergic signaling through gene set enrichment analysis and interrogation of existing database evidence to produce a systems biology model. Read More

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Uncovering genetic mechanisms of hypertension through multi-omic analysis of the kidney.

Nat Genet 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Centre for Biostatistics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Biology and Health, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

The kidney is an organ of key relevance to blood pressure (BP) regulation, hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. However, genetically mediated renal mechanisms underlying susceptibility to hypertension remain poorly understood. We integrated genotype, gene expression, alternative splicing and DNA methylation profiles of up to 430 human kidneys to characterize the effects of BP index variants from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on renal transcriptome and epigenome. Read More

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Melatonin delays ovarian aging in mice by slowing down the exhaustion of ovarian reserve.

Commun Biol 2021 May 6;4(1):534. Epub 2021 May 6.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction of Ministry of Education, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Studies have shown that melatonin (MLT) can delay ovarian aging, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that granulosa cells isolated from mice follicles can synthesize MLT; the addition of MLT in ovary culture system inhibited follicle activation and growth; In vivo experiments indicated that injections of MLT to mice during the follicle activation phase can reduce the number of activated follicles by inhibiting the PI3K-AKT-FOXO3 pathway; during the early follicle growth phase, MLT administration suppressed follicle growth and atresia, and multiple pathways involved in folliculogenesis, including PI3K-AKT, were suppressed; MLT deficiency in mice increased follicle activation and atresia, and eventually accelerated age-related fertility decline; finally, we demonstrated that prolonged high-dose MLT intake had no obvious adverse effect. This study presents more insight into the roles of MLT in reproductive regulation that endogenous MLT delays ovarian aging by inhibiting follicle activation, growth and atresia. Read More

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Endothelial angiogenic activity and adipose angiogenesis is controlled by extracellular matrix protein TGFBI.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9644. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

Several studies have suggested that extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and the microenvironment are tightly associated with adipogenesis and adipose angiogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that transforming growth factor-beta induced (TGFBI) suppresses angiogenesis stimulated by adipocyte-conditioned medium (Ad-CM), both in vitro and in vivo. TGFBI knockout (KO) mice exhibited increased numbers of blood vessels in adipose tissue, and blood vessels from these mice showed enhanced infiltration into Matrigel containing Ad-CM. Read More

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A biomimetic peptide has no effect on the isotopic fractionation during in vitro silica precipitation.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9698. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Bristol, School of Earth Sciences, Wills Memorial Building, Queen's Road, Brsitol, BS8 1RJ, UK.

The stable isotopic composition of diatom silica is used as a proxy for nutrient utilisation in natural waters. This approach provides essential insight into the current and historic links between biological production, carbon cycling and climate. However, estimates of isotopic fractionation during diatom silica production from both laboratory and field studies are variable, and the biochemical pathways responsible remain unknown. Read More

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Comprehensive molecular dissection of TIFY Transcription factors reveal their dynamic responses to biotic and abiotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9739. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Bio-Engineering, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, 835215, Jharkhand, India.

The plant specific TIFY (previously known as ZIM) transcription factor (TF) family plays crucial roles in cross talk between Jasmonic Acid and other phytohormones like gibberellins, salicylic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, and ethylene signaling pathways. Wheat yield is severely affected by rust diseases and many abiotic stresses, where different phytohormone signaling pathways are involved. TIFYs have been studied in many plants yet reports describing their molecular structure and function in wheat are lacking. Read More

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Sex and dependence related neuroanatomical differences in regular cannabis users: findings from the ENIGMA Addiction Working Group.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 6;11(1):272. Epub 2021 May 6.

Neuroscience of Addiction & Mental Health Program, Healthy Brain and Mind Research Centre, School of Behavioural & Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Males and females show different patterns of cannabis use and related psychosocial outcomes. However, the neuroanatomical substrates underlying such differences are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to map sex differences in the neurobiology (as indexed by brain volumes) of dependent and recreational cannabis use. Read More

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Methanolic Extract from Sea Cucumber, , Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Metastasis of PC3 Prostate Cancer Cells Modulated by MAPK Signaling Pathway.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Apr 30;31(1). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Sea cucumber, , is a well-known traditional Asian medicine that has been used for suppressing inflammation, promoting wound healing, and improving immunity. Moreover, previous studies demonstrated that the extract from contains many bioactive compounds and has potent on inhibiting tumor cells survival and progression. However, the effect of the methanolic extract from the body wall of (BWMT) on human prostate cancer cells has not yet been investigated. Read More

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Progesterone promotes immunomodulation and tumor development in the murine mammary gland.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA

Background: Clinical studies have linked usage of progestins (synthetic progesterone [P4]) to breast cancer risk. However, little is understood regarding the role of native P4, signaling through the progesterone receptor (PR), in breast tumor formation. Recently, we reported a link between PR and immune signaling pathways, showing that P4/PR can repress type I interferon signaling pathways. Read More

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Natural hazards, disasters and violence against women and girls: a global mixed-methods systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2021 Apr;6(4)

Department of Global Health and Development, Faculty of Public Health and Policy, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Introduction: Disasters triggered by climate and other natural hazards are increasing in frequency, severity and duration worldwide. Disasters disproportionately impact women and girls, with some evidence suggesting that violence against women and girls (VAWG) increases in disaster settings. Suggested risk factors for postdisaster VAWG include increased life stressors, failure of law enforcement, exposure to high-risk environments, exacerbation of existing gender inequalities and unequal social norms. Read More

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