25,993 results match your criteria pathways involving

Midkine: a multifaceted driver of atherosclerosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University, Haikou 570100, Hainan, China. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis constitutes the pathological basis of life-threatening events, including heart attack and stroke. Midkine is a heparin-binding growth factor and forms a small protein family with pleiotrophin. Under inflammatory or hypoxic conditions, midkine expression is up-regulated. Read More

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Multimodal regulation of encystation in Giardia duodenalis revealed by deep proteomics.

Int J Parasitol 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medical Biology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Cyst formation in the parasitic protist Giardia duodenalis is critical to its transmission. Existing proteomic data quantifies only 17% of coding genes transcribed during encystation and does not cover the complete process from trophozoite to mature cyst. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we have quantified proteomic changes across encystation and compared this with published transcriptomic data. Read More

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In silico screening of neurokinin receptor antagonists as a therapeutic strategy for neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease.

Mol Divers 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

Neuroinflammation is one of the detrimental factors leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders. The activation of microglial neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) by substance P (SP) enhances neuroinflammation which is mediated through pro-inflammatory pathways involving NFkB, ERK1/2, and P38 and thus projects the scope and importance of NK1R inhibitors. Emphasizing the inhibitory role of N Acetyl L Tryptophan (L-NAT) on NK1R, this is the first in silico screening of L-NAT mediated NK1R antagonism. Read More

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Low dose ionizing radiation and the immune response: what is the role of non-targeted effects?

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 Jul 30:1-60. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

Objectives: This review aims to trace the historical narrative surrounding the low dose effects of radiation on the immune system and how our understanding has changed from the beginning of the 20th century to now. The particular focus is on the non-targeted effects (NTEs) of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) which are effects that occur when irradiated cells emit signals that cause effects in the nearby or distant non-irradiated cells known as radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE). Moreover, radiation induced genomic instability (RIGI) and abscopal effect (AE) also regarded as NTE. Read More

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Koumine modulates spinal microglial M1 polarization and the inflammatory response through the Notch-RBP-Jκ signaling pathway, ameliorating diabetic neuropathic pain in rats.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jun 29;90:153640. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P.R. China; Fujian Key Laboratory of Natural Medicine Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP), a complication of diabetes, has serious impacts on human health. As the pathogenesis of DNP is very complex, clinical treatments for DNP is limited. Koumine (KM) is an active ingredient extracted from Gelsemium elegans Benth. Read More

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Changes in the gut microbiome influence the hypoglycemic effect of metformin through the altered metabolism of branched-chain and nonessential amino acids.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 27:108985. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Seoul National University College of Medicine and Hospital, Seoul 03080, Korea; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea. Electronic address:

Aims: Although metformin has been reported to affect the gut microbiome, the mechanism has not been fully determined. We explained the potential underlying mechanisms of metformin through a multiomics approach.

Methods: An open-label and single-arm clinical trial involving 20 healthy Korean was conducted. Read More

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Healthcare costs due to low back pain in the emergency department and inpatient setting in Sydney, Australia.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2021 Feb 29;7:100089. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Institute for Musculoskeletal Health, The University of Sydney and Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, Australia.

Background: Low back pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide and a common presentation to emergency departments, often resulting in subsequent admissions to hospital. There have been several studies investigating the cost of low back pain to society, but few specific to the emergency department and inpatient setting, especially in Australia. The aim was to describe the cost of low back pain in Australian public hospital emergency departments, and inpatient settings, and explore healthcare costs associated with different care pathways. Read More

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February 2021

Patient pathways and delays to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in an urban setting in Indonesia.

Lancet Reg Health West Pac 2020 Dec 28;5:100059. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Tuberculosis Working Group, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Background: Understanding patient pathways can help align patient preferences and tuberculosis (TB) related services. We investigated patient pathways, and diagnostic and treatment delays among TB patients in Indonesia, which has one of the highest proportions of non-notified TB cases globally.

Methods: We conducted a study of TB patients recruited from Community Health Centers (CHCs), public and private hospitals, and private practitioners from 2017 to 2019 in Bandung City, regarding general characteristics and symptoms, and health-seeking, diagnostic and treatment pathways. Read More

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December 2020

Cellular pathways during spawning induction in the starlet sea anemone Nematostella vectensis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 29;11(1):15451. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Marine Biology Department, The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences, University of Haifa, 3498838, Haifa, Israel.

In cnidarians, long-term ecological success relies on sexual reproduction. The sea anemone Nematostella vectensis, which has emerged as an important model organism for developmental studies, can be induced for spawning by temperature elevation and light exposure. To uncover molecular mechanisms and pathways underlying spawning, we characterized the transcriptome of Nematostella females before and during spawning induction. Read More

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Aetiology of acute respiratory infection in preschool children requiring hospitalisation in Europe-results from the PED-MERMAIDS multicentre case-control study.

BMJ Open Respir Res 2021 Jul;8(1)

Paediatrics and Infectious Diseases Department, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Both pathogenic bacteria and viruses are frequently detected in the nasopharynx (NP) of children in the absence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to estimate the aetiological fractions for ARI hospitalisation in children for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus and to determine whether detection of specific respiratory pathogens on NP samples was associated with ARI hospitalisation.

Methods: 349 children up to 5 years of age hospitalised for ARI (following a symptom-based case definition) and 306 hospital controls were prospectively enrolled in 16 centres across seven European Union countries between 2016 and 2019. Read More

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Genome wide DNA methylation analysis of alveolar capillary dysplasia lung tissue reveals aberrant methylation of genes involved in development including the FOXF1 locus.

Clin Epigenetics 2021 Jul 29;13(1):148. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Rm Ee2089, Erasmus MC Rotterdam, Wytemaweg 80, 3015 CN, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with or without misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a lethal congenital lung disorder associated with a variety of heterozygous genomic alterations in the FOXF1 gene or its 60 kb enhancer. Cases without a genomic alteration in the FOXF1 locus have been described as well. The mechanisms responsible for FOXF1 haploinsufficiency and the cause of ACD/MPV in patients without a genomic FOXF1 variant are poorly understood, complicating the search for potential therapeutic targets for ACD/MPV. Read More

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The transcriptome of rabbit conjunctiva in dry eye disease: Large-scale changes and similarity to the human dry eye.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0254036. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, United States of America.

The pathophysiology of dry eye disease (DED) remains largely unknown, accounting in part for the lack of successful treatments. We explored the pathophysiology of DED using a rabbit model of chronic DED induced with 3 weekly injections of Concanavalin A into the periorbital lacrimal glands. The transcriptome of full-thickness's conjunctival tissue from rabbits with DED and from normal controls was determined using microarrays and, as needed, confirmatory real-time polymerase chain reactions. Read More

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Electron Transfer-Induced Active Site Structural Relaxation in 64-Photolyase of .

J Phys Chem B 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Max-Born-Institut für Nichtlineare Optik und Kurzzeitspektroskopie, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.

While catalytic electron flow and photoreactivation of CPD-photolyases are increasingly understood, the microscopic details of the 64-photolyase repair mechanism are perpetually debated. Here, we investigate in long-time (μs) molecular dynamics simulations combined with extensive quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations the primary electron transfer (ET) reactions in 64-photolyase of (). The characterization of the relative energetics of locally excited and charge separated states in the (6-4) photoproduct enzyme repair complex reveals a charge-separated state involving the adenine moiety of the FADH cofactor that facilitates reduction of the photoproduct. Read More

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Gaseous ozone to preserve quality and enhance microbial safety of fresh produce: Recent developments and research needs.

Xuetong Fan

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, USA.

Fresh fruits and vegetables are highly perishable and are subject to large postharvest losses due to physiological (senescence), pathologic (decay), and physical (mechanical damage) factors. In addition, contamination of fresh produce with foodborne human pathogens has become a concern. Gaseous ozone has multiple benefits including destruction of ethylene, inactivation of foodborne and spoilage microorganisms, and degradation of chemical residues. Read More

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Adipo-specific chemerin knockout alters the metabolomic profile of adipose tissue under normal and high fat diet using untargeted LC-MS metabolomics.

Biomed Chromatogr 2021 Jul 29:e5220. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, China.

To explore the metabolic effect of chemerin, adipose-specific chemerin knockout (adipo-chemerin (-/-)) male mice were established and fed with 5-week normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), then the glycolipid metabolism index were measured and epididymal adipose tissue metabolomics were detected using untargeted liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Under HFD, adipo-chemerin (-/-) mice showed improved glycolipid metabolism (decreases of TC, LDL, insulin and HOMA-IR) compared with flox (control) mice. Furthermore, OPLS-DA score plots found metabolites separations between adipo-chemerin (-/-) mice and flox mice fed with ND and HFD. Read More

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Charge-transfer dynamics in van der Waals heterojunctions formed by thiophene-based semiconductor polymers and exfoliated franckeite investigated from resonantly core-excited electrons.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

MackGraphe-Graphene and Nanomaterial Research Center, Mackenzie Presbyterian University, 01302-907, São Paulo, Brazil.

Organic/inorganic van der Waals heterojunctions formed by a combination of 2D materials with semiconductor polymer films enable the fabrication of new device architectures that are interesting for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we investigated the charge-transfer dynamics at the interface between 2D layered franckeite (Fr) and two thiophene-based conjugated polymers (PFO-DBT and P3HT) from the resonantly core-excited electron. The unoccupied electronic states of PFO-DBT/Fr and P3HT/Fr heterojunctions were studied using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and resonant Auger (RAS) synchrotron-based spectroscopies. Read More

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Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Dampen Airway Inflammation Through Prostaglandin E2 Receptor 4.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:695933. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics, University Hospital Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Emerging evidence suggests a mechanistic role for myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung diseases like asthma. Previously, we showed that adoptive transfer of MDSCs dampens lung inflammation in murine models of asthma through cyclooxygenase-2 and arginase-1 pathways. Here, we further dissected this mechanism by studying the role and therapeutic relevance of the downstream mediator prostaglandin E2 receptor 4 (EP4) in a murine model of asthma. Read More

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Altered neuronal physiology, development, and function associated with a common chromosome 15 duplication involving CHRNA7.

BMC Biol 2021 Jul 28;19(1):147. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, 660 S. Euclid Avenue, Campus, Box 8103, St. Louis, MO, 63110, USA.

Background: Copy number variants (CNVs) linked to genes involved in nervous system development or function are often associated with neuropsychiatric disease. While CNVs involving deletions generally cause severe and highly penetrant patient phenotypes, CNVs leading to duplications tend instead to exhibit widely variable and less penetrant phenotypic expressivity among affected individuals. CNVs located on chromosome 15q13. Read More

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Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits 3D Matrigel-induced vasculogenic mimicry of breast cancer cells via TGF-β1/Smad2/3 and β-catenin signaling.

FEBS Open Bio 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Radiation Oncology Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a cellular stress condition involving disturbance in the folding capacity of the ER caused by endogenous and exogenous factors. ER stress signaling pathways affect tumor malignant growth, angiogenesis and progression, and promote the anti-tumor effects of certain drugs. However, the impact of ER stress on the vasculogenic mimicry (VM) phenotype of cancer cells has not been well addressed. Read More

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The Function and Regulation of Platelet P2Y12 Receptor.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Jilin University, Fujin Road, Changchun, 130021, Jilin, China.

In addition to the key role in hemostasis and thrombosis, platelets have also been wildly acknowledged as immune regulatory cells and involving in the pathogenesis of inflammation-related diseases. Since purine receptor P2Y12 plays a crucial role in platelet activation, P2Y12 antagonists such as clopidogrel, prasugrel, and ticagrelor have been widely used in cardiovascular diseases worldwide in recent decades due to their potent antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects. Meanwhile, the role of P2Y12 in inflammatory diseases has also been extensively studied. Read More

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Investigation of phytochemical composition and metabolite profiling in vivo of Beta vulgaris L.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Jul 28:e9172. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Beta vulgaris L. has aroused increasing attention because of its broad application. The root of Beta vulgaris L. Read More

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Analysis of long intergenic non-coding RNAs transcriptomic profiling in skeletal muscle growth during porcine embryonic development.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 27;11(1):15240. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding, and Reproduction of the Ministry of Education and Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding of the Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Skeletal muscle growth plays a critical role during porcine muscle development stages. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are implicated as crucial regulator involving in epigenetic regulation. However, comprehensive analysis of lincRNAs in embryonic muscle development stages remain still elusive. Read More

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Perturbation of semaphorin and VEGF signaling in ACDMPV lungs due to FOXF1 deficiency.

Respir Res 2021 Jul 27;22(1):212. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Rm ABBR-R809, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Background: Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a rare lethal congenital lung disorder in neonates characterized by severe progressive respiratory failure and refractory pulmonary hypertension, resulting from underdevelopment of the peripheral pulmonary tree. Causative heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNVs) or copy-number variant (CNV) deletions involving FOXF1 or its distant lung-specific enhancer on chromosome 16q24.1 have been identified in 80-90% of ACDMPV patients. Read More

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Identification of ferroptosis genes in immune infiltration and prognosis in thyroid papillary carcinoma using network analysis.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jul 27;22(1):576. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore DC, QLD, 4558, Australia.

Background: Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common thyroid cancer. While many patients survive, a portion of PTC cases display high aggressiveness and even develop into refractory differentiated thyroid carcinoma. This may be alleviated by developing a novel model to predict the risk of recurrence. Read More

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Structure-based screening for the discovery of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles as promising hits for the development of new anti-inflammatory agents interfering with eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 13;224:113693. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132, 84084, Fisciano, Italy. Electronic address:

The multiple inhibition of biological targets involved in pro-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis represents an innovative strategy for treating inflammatory disorders in light of higher efficacy and safety. Herein, following a multidisciplinary protocol involving virtual combinatorial screening, chemical synthesis, and in vitro and in vivo validation of the biological activities, we report the identification of 1,2,4-oxadiazole-based eicosanoid biosynthesis multi-target inhibitors. The multidisciplinary scientific approach led to the identification of three 1,2,4-oxadiazole hits (compounds 1, 2 and 5), all endowed with IC values in the low micromolar range, acting as 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein (FLAP) antagonists (compounds 1 and 2), and as a multi-target inhibitor (compound 5) of arachidonic acid cascade enzymes, namely cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1). Read More

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CsMYB96 enhances citrus fruit resistance against fungal pathogen by activating salicylic acid biosynthesis and facilitating defense metabolite accumulation.

J Plant Physiol 2021 Jul 14;264:153472. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

National R&D Centre for Citrus Preservation, Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education), College of Horticulture and Forestry Science, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

Citrus fruit are generally confronted with various fungal diseases that cause fruit deterioration and economic loss. Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone, is an important signal molecule required for stimulating the disease resistance of plants. However, there has been limited information about the molecular mechanism of SA biosynthesis involving biotic stress response in citrus fruit. Read More

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Day-night active photocatalysts obtained through effective incorporation of [email protected] nanoparticles onto ZnO nanowalls.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 21;421:126674. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan; Hierarchical Green-Energy Materials (Hi-GEM) Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes has been considered one of the promising solutions that enabled to effectively treat the demanding pollutants in wastewater. Yet, insight into the photocatalytic process under both illumination and dark conditions were hitherto missing. Herein, by virtue of incorporating the core-shell [email protected] nanoparticles to the ZnO nanowalls synthesized via all-solution synthesis, the intriguing heterostructures allowed to trigger the extraordinary capability of dye degradation either under light irradiance or dark environment. Read More

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Anterograde regulation of mitochondrial genes and FGF21 signaling by hepatic LSD1.

JCI Insight 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, United States of America.

Mitochondrial biogenesis and function are controlled by anterograde regulatory pathways involving more than one thousand nuclear-encoded proteins. Transcriptional networks controlling the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that histone demethylase LSD1 knockout from adult mouse liver (LSD1-LKO) reduces the expression of one-third of all nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes and decreases mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Read More

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Alterations of gut microbiome and metabolite profiles in choledocholithiasis concurrent with cholangitis.

Hepatol Int 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Navy Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China.

Background And Aims: Gut microbiota and their metabolic products might play important roles in regulating the pathogenesis of choledocholithiasis concurrent with cholangitis (CC). The aim of this study was to explore the characteristic gut dysbiosis, metabolite profiles and the possible roles in patients with CC.

Methods: A case-control study was carried out to analyze the alterations in the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites in patients with CC (n = 25) compared with healthy controls (HCs) (n = 25) by metagenomic sequencing to define the gut microbiota community and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to characterize the metabolite profiles. Read More

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[Effects of brown rice on metabolomics related to glucose and lipid in normal rats].

Wei Sheng Yan Jiu 2021 Jul;50(4):600-608

National Health and Family Planning Commission, National Institute for Nutrition and Health, China CDC, Beijing 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of whole grain rice on blood sugar, blood lipid and metabonomics compared with ordinary feed and refined rice.

Methods: According to the initial body weight and fasting blood glucose, 36 male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, RG-rice group and WG-rice group, fed with AIN-93 G feed, feeds prepared with refined rice flour or brown rice flour, respectively, for 18 weeks. Food intake and body weight were monitored weekly. Read More

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