127,387 results match your criteria pathways including


Association of obesity-related inflammatory pathways with lung function and exercise capacity.

Respir Med 2021 Apr 30;183:106434. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

From the Cardiovascular Research Center, Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Cardiology Division of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Obesity has multifactorial effects on lung function and exercise capacity. The contributions of obesity-related inflammatory pathways to alterations in lung function remain unclear.

Research Question: To examine the association of obesity-related inflammatory pathways with pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and pulmonary-specific contributors to exercise intolerance. Read More

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Outdoor dissolution and photodegradation of insensitive munitions formulations IMX-101 and IMX-104: Photolytic transformation pathway and mechanism study.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130672. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ, 85721-0158, United States; Department of Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0038, United States. Electronic address:

New munition compounds have been developed to replace traditional explosives to prevent unintended detonations. However, insensitive munitions (IM) can leave large proportion of unexploded charge in the field, where it is subjected to photodegradation and dissolution in precipitation. The photolytic reactions occurring on the surfaces of IMX-101 and IMX-104 formulations and the subsequent fate of photolytic products in the environment were thoroughly investigated. Read More

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Stress-activated protein kinases are involved in the replication of porcine deltacoronavirus.

Virology 2021 May 3;559:196-209. Epub 2021 May 3.

Animal Virology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, BK21 FOUR KNU Creative BioResearch Group, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study was conducted to examine the role of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs), including c-Jun NH-terminal kinases (JNK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), in porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) infection. Results demonstrated the activation of JNK1/2 and p38 MAPK in PDCoV-infected cells, which occurred concomitant with viral biosynthesis and irrespective of cell type. Pharmacological inhibition or knockdown of either SAPK significantly attenuated PDCoV replication, whereas addition of a signaling activator augmented virus infectivity. Read More

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Differential DNA Methylation is associated with Hippocampal Abnormalities in Pediatric Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, The Netherlands; De Bascule, Academic Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Recent findings in neuroimaging and epigenetics offer important insights into brain structures and biological pathways of altered gene expression associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown to what extent epigenetic mechanisms are associated with PTSD and its neurobiology in youth.

Methods: In this study we combined a methylome-wide association study and structural neuroimaging measures in a Dutch cohort of youth with PTSD (ages 8-18 years). Read More

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Loss of FOXO Transcription Factors in the Liver Mitigates Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia.

Mol Metab 2021 May 5:101246. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Physiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Objective: Stress-induced hyperglycemia is associated with poor outcomes in nearly all critical illnesses. This acute elevation in glucose after injury or illness is associated with increased morbidity and mortality including multiple organ failure. Stress-induced hyperglycemia is often attributed to insulin resistance as controlling glucose levels via exogenous insulin improves outcomes, but mechanisms are unclear. Read More

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Identification of hub genes and signaling pathways related to gastric cells infected by Helicobacter pylori.

Microb Pathog 2021 May 5:104932. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China; Department of Clinical Medicine, The Third Clinical School of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 511436, China; Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China; Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, 510150, China. Electronic address:

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a pathogen involved in several gastroduodenal diseases, whose infection mechanisms have not been completely confirmed. To study the specific mechanism of gastropathy caused by H. pylori, we analyzed the gene microarray of gastric mucosa and gastric cells infected by H. Read More

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Morphological and transcriptomic alterations in neonatal lamb testes following developmental exposure to low-level environmental chemical mixture.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 May 5:103670. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, UK. Electronic address:

Exposure to anthropogenic environmental chemical mixtures could be contributing to the decline in male reproductive health. This study used the biosolid treated pasture (BTP) sheep model to assess the effects of exposure to low-dose chemical mixtures. Maternal BTP exposure was associated with lower plasma testosterone concentrations, a greater proportion of Sertoli cell-only seminiferous tubules, and fewer gonocytes in the testes of neonatal offspring. Read More

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Konzo risk factors, determinants and etiopathogenesis: what is new? A systematic review.

Neurotoxicology 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hôpital Provincial Général de Référence de Bukavu (HPGRB), Université Catholique de Bukavu (UCB), Bukavu, Congo; Department of Neuroscience and Movement Science, Faculty of Science and Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Konzo is a toxico-nutritional upper motor neuron disease causing a spastic paraparesis in schoolchildren and childbearing women in some African countries. Almost a century since the first description of konzo, its underlying etiopathogenic mechanisms and causative agent remain unknown. This paper aims at refreshing the current knowledge of konzo determinants and pathogenesis in order to enlighten potential new research and management perspectives. Read More

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Dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) mRNA and protein abundance is regulated by fibroblast growth factor 2 in sheep granulosa cells and inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase (MAPK8) phosphorylation.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 May 5:111297. Epub 2021 May 5.

Centre de recherche en reproduction animale, Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, J2S 7C6, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Growth factors regulate ovarian follicle development and they signal through intracellular pathways including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, which is negatively regulated by a subfamily of 23 dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSP). Using sheep granulosa cells as a model, we detected mRNA encoding 16 DUSPs in vivo and in vitro. Stimulation of cells in vitro with FGF2 increased (p < 0. Read More

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Impact of the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic on a tertiary referral centre for kidney cancer.

BJU Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

Objectives: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a centralised specialist kidney cancer care pathway.

Materials & Methods: Retrospective analysis of patient and pathway characteristics including prioritisation strategies at the Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer (SCKC) located at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust (RFH) before and during the surge of COVID-19.

Results: On March 18, 2020 all elective surgery was halted at RFH to redeploy resources and staff for the COVID-19 surge. Read More

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Fate processes of Parabens, Triclocarban and Triclosan during wastewater treatment: assessment via field measurements and model simulations.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150090, China.

The high levels of parabens (including methyl-, ethyl- and propyl congeners), triclocarban (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) used every year in China might be a problem to the typical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This study addresses measurements of parabens, TCC and TCS Northern China WWTP and a modelling assessment on the occurrence, fate and removal pathways in WWTP. Per-capita emissions of the three parabens, TCC and TCS to the WWTP were estimated as 0. Read More

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The role of metabolic reprogramming and de novo amino acid synthesis in collagen protein production by myofibroblasts: implications for organ fibrosis and cancer.

Amino Acids 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Medicine, Section of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Avenue, MC6026, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Fibrosis is a pathologic condition resulting from aberrant wound healing responses that lead to excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components, distortion of organ architecture, and loss of organ function. Fibrotic disease can affect every organ system; moreover, fibrosis is an important microenvironmental component of many cancers, including pancreatic, cervical, and hepatocellular cancers. Fibrosis is also an independent risk factor for cancer. Read More

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HDAC9 exacerbates myocardial infarction via inactivating Nrf2 pathways.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

First Department of Cardiology, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Hebei, China.

Objectives: Myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) collectively participate in the initiation and progression of heart diseases, including MI. This study aimed to investigate the roles of histone deacetylase 9 (HDAC9) in the development of MI. Read More

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[Exploring the therapeutic mechanism of pills for hyperuricemia based on network pharmacology and molecular docking].

Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2021 Apr;41(4):579-587

School of Chinese Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China.

Objective: To explore the mechanism of pills for treatment of hyperuricemia based on network pharmacology and molecular docking.

Objective: The active ingredients of pills and their targets of action were predicted using TCMSP, SEA, Swiss and PharmMapper databases. GeneCards and TCD databases were searched for the disease targets related to hyperuricemia. Read More

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Comparing cost of intravenous infusion and subcutaneous biologics in COVID-19 pandemic care pathways for Rheumatoid Arthritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease - A brief UK stakeholder survey.

Int J Clin Pract 2021 May 8:e14341. Epub 2021 May 8.

Res Consortium, Andover, Hampshire, UK.

Objectives: One important group of people at higher risk from the SARS-CoV-2(COVID-19) pandemic are those with autoimmune conditions including rheumatoid arthritis/inflammatory bowel disease. To minimise infection risk, many people have been switched from intravenous to subcutaneous biologics including biosimilars.

Design: The survey was designed to understand comparative economic issues related to the intravenous infusion vs subcutaneous biologic administration routes for infliximab. Read More

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Molecular insights into the role of plant transporters in salt stress response.

Physiol Plant 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani K. K. Birla Goa Campus, Zuarinagar, Goa, India.

Salt stress disturbs the cellular osmotic and ionic balance, which then creates a negative impact on plant growth and development. The Na and Cl ions can enter into plant cells through various membrane transporters, including specific and non-specific Na , K and Ca transporters. Therefore, it is important to understand Na and K transport mechanisms in plants along with the isolation of genes, their characterization, the structural features and their post-translation regulation under salt stress. Read More

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Quality of care and risk of incident atrial fibrillation in patients with newly-diagnosed heart failure: A nationwide cohort study.

Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Danish Center for Clinical Health Services Research, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark.

Aims: Incident atrial fibrillation (AF) is an adverse prognostic indicator in heart failure (HF); identifying modifiable targets may be relevant to reduce the incidence and morbidity of AF. Therefore, we examined the association between quality of HF care and risk of AF.

Methods And Results: Using the Danish Heart Failure Registry, we conducted a nationwide registry-based cohort study of all incident HF patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2018 and without history of AF. Read More

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Diagnosis delayed: health profile differences between women with undiagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome and those with a clinical diagnosis by age 35 years.

Hum Reprod 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

The University of Adelaide, Discipline of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Study Question: Are reproductive, metabolic or psychological health profiles of women with clinically diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) different from those with undiagnosed PCOS?

Summary Answer: Obtaining a clinical diagnosis of PCOS is strongly linked to the experience of fertility problems, but not clinical depression or poor metabolic health, although these were highly prevalent in women with PCOS irrespective of when they were diagnosed.

What Is Known Already: PCOS is an endocrine disorder that is relative common, but heterogeneous in presentation. This may impact on the pathways to diagnosis and timely treatment. Read More

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WNT4 balances development versus disease in gynecologic tissues and women's health.

Endocrinology 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Dept. of Pathology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus.

The WNT family of proteins are crucial in numerous developmental pathways and tissue homeostasis. WNT4, in particular, is uniquely implicated in development of the female phenotype in the fetus, and in the maintenance of Müllerian and reproductive tissues. WNT4 dysfunction or dysregulation can drive sex reversal syndromes, highlighting the key role of WNT4 in sex determination. Read More

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Senescence mechanisms and targets in the heart.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology and the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, 7 Divinity Ave, Cambridge, MA 02138.

Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell cycle arrest associated with ageing. Senescence of different cardiac cell types can direct the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and cardiac fibrosis. While age-related telomere shortening represents a major cause of replicative senescence, the senescent state can also be induced by oxidative stress, metabolic dysfunction, and epigenetic regulation, among other stressors. Read More

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Network pharmacology integrated with experimental validation revealed the anti-inflammatory effects of Andrographis paniculata.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9752. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Chengde Medical College, Chengde, 067000, China.

Inflammation is a key factor in the development and complications of various diseases because it has a complex pathogenesis. Andrographis paniculate (Burm. f. Read More

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Elevated dimethylarginine, ATP, cytokines, metabolic remodeling involving tryptophan metabolism and potential microglial inflammation characterize primary open angle glaucoma.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9766. Epub 2021 May 7.

Disease Biology Lab, SSSIHL-Agilent Center for Excellence in Multiomics and Cell Sciences, Dept. of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai Institute of Higher Learning, Prasanthi Nilayam, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, 515 134, India.

Glaucoma of which primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) constitutes 75%, is the second leading cause of blindness. Elevated intra ocular pressure and Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) dysfunction are hallmarks of POAG. We analyzed clinical data, cytokine profile, ATP level, metabolomics and GEO datasets to identify features unique to POAG. Read More

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ILRUN downregulates ACE2 expression and blocks infection of human cells by SARS-CoV-2.

J Virol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CSIRO Health & Biosecurity, Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness, Private bag 24, Geelong 3220, Victoria, Australia

The human protein-coding gene (inflammation and lipid regulator with UBA-like and NBR1-like domains, previously C6orf106) was identified as a proviral factor for Hendra virus infection and recently characterised to function an inhibitor of type-I interferon expression. Here, we have utilised RNA-seq to define cellular pathways regulated by ILRUN in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of Caco-2 cells. We find that inhibition of ILRUN expression by RNA interference alters transcription profile of numerous cellular pathways, including upregulation of the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor and several other members of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Read More

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Introduction to the mini special issue on next generation drug discovery and development: rethinking translational pharmacology for accelerated drug development.

Drug Metab Rev 2021 May 7:1-2. Epub 2021 May 7.

Gilead Alberta ULC, Edmonton, Canada.

AbstratThe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic further revealed the barriers to accelerated discovery and development of transformative medicines for life threatening diseases. To effectively and efficiently respond to unmet medical needs, efforts should be directed towards revolutionizing the predictive capability of non-clinical surrogates that inform drug discovery and development programs. I developed this mini special issue amidst the COVID-19 pandemic to evaluate recent advancements and opportunities for four main subthemes that support drug discovery and development including prediction of metabolic pathways, translational pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies, pharmacogenomics, and trends in bioanalysis. Read More

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Ketogenic diet-mediated steroid metabolism reprogramming improves the immune microenvironment and myelin growth in spinal cord injury rats according to gene and co-expression network analyses.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 May 6;13. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing 100191, China.

The ketogenic diet has been widely used in the treatment of various nervous system and metabolic-related diseases. Our previous research found that a ketogenic diet exerts a protective effect and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury. However, the mechanism of action is still unclear. Read More

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A two-miRNA signature of upregulated miR-185-5p and miR-362-5p as a blood biomarker for breast cancer.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Apr 29;222:153458. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Breast Surgery, General Surgery, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, 107 West Wenhua Road, Jinan, 250012, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in the blood of breast cancer patients may serve as diagnostic biomarkers.

Methods: In this study, miRNA microarray of the blood of breast cancer patients and healthy controls was performed. Candidate differentially expressed miRNAs were further verified by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 68 breast cancer patients and 13 healthy controls. Read More

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Therapeutic Approaches for SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Methods 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Centre for Advanced Research (CFAR), Faculty of Medicine, King George's Medical University (KGMU), Lucknow 226003, India. Electronic address:

Therapeutic approaches to COVID-19 treatment leverage on crucial target proteins of SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. It's been approximately 12 months of pandemic and yet there is no known specific drugs are available. However, research is progressing with time in terms of high throughput virtual screening (HTVS) and rational design of repurposed, novel synthetic and natural products drug discovery by understanding the viral life cycle, immuno-pathological and clinical outcomes in patients based on host's nutritional, metabolic and lifestyle status. Read More

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Rubioncolin C, a natural naphthohydroquinone dimer isolated from Rubia yunnanensis, inhibits the proliferation and metastasis by inducing ROS-mediated apoptotic and autophagic cell death in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 May 4:114184. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of TCMs Pharmaceuticals, School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Rubia yunnanensis Diels is a traditional Chinese medicine that has diverse pharmacological activities, including antituberculosis, antirheumatism and anticancers. Rubioncolin C (RC), a natural naphthohydroquinone dimer isolated from the roots and rhizomes of R. yunnanensis Diels, has shown potent antitumor activity. Read More

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Metformin protects against neuroinflammation through integrated mechanisms of miR-141 and the NF-ĸB-mediated inflammasome pathway in a diabetic mouse model.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 4:174146. Epub 2021 May 4.

Discipline of Medical Biochemistry, School of Laboratory Medicine and Medical Sciences, College of Health Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Electronic address:

The brain responds to diabetic stress by inducing the inflammatory response. Under normal circumstances this process is tightly regulated. However, uncontrolled inflammatory responses lead to compromised function and eventual neurodegeneration. Read More

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Single-cell dissection of cellular components and interactions shaping the tumor immune phenotypes in ovarian cancer.

Cancer Cell 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Distinct T cell infiltration patterns, i.e., immune infiltrated, excluded, and desert, result in different responses to cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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