887 results match your criteria pathways ginseng


Ginseng in vascular dysfunction: A review of therapeutic potentials and molecular mechanisms.

Phytother Res 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Bio-Macromolecules of Chinese Medicine, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Vascular dysfunction can lead to a variety of fatal diseases, including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Although a large number of studies have reported the therapeutic effects of natural compounds on vascular-related diseases, ginseng is still the focus of research. Ginseng and its active substances have bioactive effects against different diseases with vascular dysfunction. Read More

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January 2022

Exploring the Mechanism of Saponins against Alzheimer's Disease by Network Pharmacology and Experimental Validation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 30;2021:5730812. Epub 2021 Dec 30.

School of Pharmacy, Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning 530200, China.

Background: saponins (PNS) have been used for neurodegenerative disorders such as cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although increasing evidences show the neuron protective effects of PNS, the vital compounds and their functional targets remain elusive. To explore the potential functional ingredients of PNS for the AD treatment and their molecular mechanisms, an neuron injured model induced by A was investigated, and the potential mechanism was predicted by network pharmacology approach and validated by molecular biology methods. Read More

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December 2021

Compound traditional Chinese medicine dermatitis ointment ameliorates inflammatory responses and dysregulation of itch-related molecules in atopic dermatitis.

Chin Med 2022 Jan 4;17(1). Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, Jilin, China.

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease accompanied with itchy and scaly rash. Compound traditional Chinese medicine dermatitis ointment (CTCMDO) consists of a mixture of extracts from five plants, which had been used in AD treatment due to good anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects.

Materials And Methods: In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer (LC/MS) were performed to analyze the active ingredients of CTCMDO in detail and to establish its HPLC fingerprint. Read More

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January 2022

Protective Effect of NGR1 against Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in HT22 Hippocampal Neuronal Cells by Upregulating the SIRT1/Wnt/-Catenin Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 15;2021:4358163. Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Department of Neurological Diseases, Ziyang People's Hospital of Sichuan Province, Ziyang, Sichuan 641300, China.

Notoginsenoside R1 (NGR1) is an active compound isolated from . Despite the NGR1 having been used as a traditional medicine, little is known about the neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigate the protective effects of NGR1 against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells and its possible molecular mechanism. Read More

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December 2021

Ginsenoside Rd: A promising natural neuroprotective agent.

Phytomedicine 2022 Jan 8;95:153883. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Shanghai Frontiers Science Center of TCM Chemical Biology; Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Medicine Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, 201203, China. Electronic address:

Background: Neurological diseases seriously affect human health, which are arousing wider attention, and it is a great challenge to discover neuroprotective drugs with minimal side-effects and better efficacies. Natural agents derived from herbs or plants have become unparalleled resources for the discovery of novel drug candidates. Panax ginseng C. Read More

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January 2022

[Scr eening of key genes and pathways of brain aging and prediction of potential effective Chinese medicinals: based on bioinformatics].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Nov;46(21):5701-5709

Beijing Key Laboratory of Taditional Chinese Medicine Basic Research on Prevention and Treatment of Major Disease,Experimental Research Center, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

Microarray data of hippocampal tissue(HC) of the cognitively intact elderly(60-99 years old) were compared with those of the middle-aged and the young(20-59 years old) by bioinformatics techniques to initially screen out differentially expressed genes(DEGs) and then predict potential effective Chinese medicinals for the treatment of brain aging. The gene expression profile(accession: GSE11882) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO) and DEGs were screened based on R package. The key DEGs were identified by STRING, Cytoscape and the plug-in, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway analysis. Read More

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November 2021

[Application of UPLC-QTOF-MS non-targeted metabonomics in mechanism study of property differences of ginseng and American ginseng].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Nov;46(22):5930-5935

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine Changchun 130117, China Changchun Center of Mass Spectrometry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences Changchun 130022, China.

This study adopted ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-QTOF-MS)-based untargeted metabolomic approaches for exploring the changes in endogenous metabolites of rat serum related to property differences between ginseng and American ginseng. Then the action mechanisms of them with warm and cool properties and the effects of processing on their property changes were investigated. Based on principal component analysis(PCA), the differences in metabolite profiles between ginseng, red ginseng, American ginseng, and red American ginseng were compared. Read More

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November 2021

Molecular profiling of ginsenoside metabolites to identify estrogen receptor alpha activity.

Gene 2021 Dec 18;813:146108. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Department of Kampo Medicine, Yokohama University of Pharmacy, Yokohama 245-0066, Japan. Electronic address:

20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and 20(S)-Protopanaxatriol (PPT) are major metabolites of ginseng in humans and are considered to have estrogenic activity in cellular bioassays. In this study, we conducted in silico analyses to determine whether PPD and PPT interact with estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and compared them with ERα agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists to identify their ERα activity. The transcriptome profile of 17β-estradiol (E2), PPD, and PPT in MCF-7 cells expressing ERα was further compared to understand the ERα activity of ginsenoside metabolites. Read More

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December 2021

Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Malonyl Ginsenosides from American Ginseng ( L.) on Type 2 Diabetic Mice.

ACS Omega 2021 Dec 6;6(49):33652-33664. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research and The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.

American ginseng ( L.) is popularly consumed as traditional herbal medicine and health food for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Malonyl ginsenosides (MGR) are the main natural ginsenosides in American ginseng. Read More

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December 2021

Induction of PI3K/Akt-Mediated Apoptosis in Osteoclasts Is a Key Approach for Pills to Treat Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

Front Pharmacol 2021 29;12:729909. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

School of Pharmacy, School of Basic Medicine, Innovative Institute of Chinese Medicine and Pharmacy, School of Acupuncture and Tuina, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

The pill (BTP) is a self-made pill with the functions of nourishing blood, promoting blood circulation, dredging collaterals, and relieving pain. It consists of (Oliv.) Diels, (E. Read More

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November 2021

Ginsenosides Rd monomer inhibits proinflammatory cytokines production and alleviates DSS-colitis by NF-κB and P38MAPK pathways in mice.

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2021 Dec 13:1-9. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Digestive Department, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is dramatically increasing worldwide, cannot be thoroughly cured, and reduces patients' quality of life. Excessive activation of macrophages and over-production of cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis of UC. Therefore, for its treatment, inhibiting macrophages' hyperactivation would be effective to develop new treatment approaches. Read More

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December 2021

Biomarkers of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children by urine metabolomics based on Q Exactive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Dec 12:e9234. Epub 2021 Dec 12.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Key Laboratory of Active Substances and Biological Mechanisms of Ginseng Efficacy, Ministry of Education, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Rationale: Mycoplasma pneumoniae has become one of the common pathogens causing pediatric respiratory infections. In clinical diagnosis, throat swabs are very difficult to obtain from children, and there is a possibility of false positive results; hence, there are few clinically available diagnostic methods.

Methods: In this study, Q Exactive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the metabolites in the urine of healthy children (HC) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children (MPPC) patients. Read More

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December 2021

Untargeted metabolomics analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of Red ginseng extract in Type 2 diabetes Mellitus rats based on UHPLC-MS/MS.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Dec 7;146:112495. Epub 2021 Dec 7.

School of Pharmacy, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070, China. Electronic address:

Red ginseng is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has long been used to treat diabetes, and its blood sugar-lowering activity has been confirmed. However, the mechanism of action of red ginseng on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the metabolic level is still unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of red ginseng extract in the treatment of T2DM rats based on untargeted metabolomics. Read More

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December 2021

Transcriptomics and Metabolomics Changes Triggered by Inflorescence Removal in (Burk.).

Front Plant Sci 2021 12;12:761821. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

The root of (Burk.), in which saponins are the major active components, is a famous traditional Chinese medicine used to stop bleeding and to decrease inflammation and heart disease. Inflorescence removal increases the yield and quality of , but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown. Read More

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November 2021

The Protective Effect of Mixture on Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice Regulating NR3C2, SRC, and GAPDH.

Front Pharmacol 2021 11;12:756259. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

NHC Key Laboratory of Critical Care Medicine, Tianjin First Central Hospital, Tianjin, China.

mixture (PNM) has the characteristics of multicomponent, multitarget, and multieffect, which can cope with the multidirectional and multidimensional complex pathological process caused by hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (HIRI). Our animal experiments showed that PNM composed of notoginseng, dogwood, and white peony root could significantly reduce the level of aspartate transaminase and alanine aminotransferase in the blood of mice with HIRI, indicating that this preparation had a protective effect on HIRI in mice. Therefore, on this basis, the molecular mechanism of PNM intervention in HIRI was further explored by network pharmacology. Read More

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November 2021

A MYB Transcription Factor Modulates Panax notoginseng Resistance against the Root Rot Pathogen Fusarium solani by Regulating the Jasmonate Acid Signaling Pathway and Photosynthesis.

Phytopathology 2021 Nov 29. Epub 2021 Nov 29.

Kunming University of Science and Technology, 47910, Faculty of Life Science and Technology, Kunming, Yunnan, China;

Root rot of Panax notoginseng, a precious Chinese medicinal plant, seriously impacts its sustainable production. However, the molecular regulatory mechanisms employed by P. notoginseng against root rot pathogens, including Fusarium solani, are still unclear. Read More

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November 2021

Region-Specific Biomarkers and Their Mechanisms in the Treatment of Lung Adenocarcinoma: A Study of from Wendeng, China.

Molecules 2021 Nov 12;26(22). Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Engineering Research Center of Zebrafish Models for Human Diseases and Drug Screening of Shandong Province, Biology Institute, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250103, China.

, a popular medicinal herb, has been cultivated in China for many years. In this work, the region-specific profiles of metabolites in from Wendeng was investigated using liquid-chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight-(LC-Q-TOF)-based metabolomics analysis. The three most abundant biomarkers, identified as ginsenoside Rb, notoginsenoside R, and ginsenoside Rc, were the representative chemical components employed in the network pharmacology analysis. Read More

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November 2021

iTRAQ and RNA-seq analyses provide an insight into mechanisms of recalcitrance in a medicinal plant Panax notoginseng seeds during the after-ripening process.

Funct Plant Biol 2021 Dec;49(1):68-88

College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, Yunnan Agricultural University, Fengyuan Road, Panlong District, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China; and The Key Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biology of Yunnan Province, Yunnan Agricultural University, Fengyuan Road, Panlong District, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China; and National and Local Joint Engineering Research Center on Germplasm Innovation and Utilization of Chinese Medicinal Materials in Southwestern China, Yunnan Agricultural University, Fengyuan Road, Panlong District, Kunming, Yunnan 650201, China.

Panax notoginseng (Burk) F.H. Chen is an important economic and medicinal plant from the family of Araliaceae, and its seed is characterised by the recalcitrance and after-ripening process. Read More

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December 2021

Gintonin regulates inflammation in human IL-1β-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes and carrageenan/kaolin-induced arthritis in rats through LPAR2.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Sep 9;45(5):575-582. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: In ginseng, there exists a glycolipoprotein complex with a special form of lipid LPAs called Gintonin. The purpose of this study is to show that Gintonin has a therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis through LPA2 receptors.

Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were treated with Gintonin and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β. Read More

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September 2021

Chemical Constituents of the Essential oil from Cuminum cyminum L. and Its Antifungal Activity against Panax notoginseng Pathogens.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Dec 16;18(12):e2100638. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Yunnan University of Chinese Medicine, Kunming, 650500, P. R. China.

Cuminum cyminum L. (Cumin) is a flavoring agent that is commonly used worldwide, and is rich in essential oil. Essential oils (Eos) have been intensively investigated in regard to their potential for disease control in plants, which is provided a chance for the blossom of green pesticides. Read More

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December 2021

Enhanced biotransformation of the minor ginsenosides in red ginseng extract by Penicillium decumbens β-glucosidase.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2022 Jan 10;153:109941. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Department of Food Science & Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, South Korea. Electronic address:

Compound K (C-K) and Rh2, which are present at low levels in ginseng and ginseng extracts, have higher intestinal absorption rates than other ginsenosides. Here, we attempted to convert ginsenoside Rb1 to C-K using a β-glucosidase from Penicillium decumbens. Ten commercially available enzymes were screened to identify enzymes that can convert ginsenoside Rb1 to C-K, resulting in the selection of a P. Read More

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January 2022

Role of Bioactive Constituents of in the Modulation of Tumorigenesis: A Potential Review for the Treatment of Cancer.

Front Pharmacol 2021 27;12:738914. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Affiliated People's Hospital of Hangzhou Medical College, Hangzhou, China.

Cancer is a leading cause of death, affecting people in both developed and developing countries. It is a challenging disease due to its complicated pathophysiological mechanism. Many anti-cancer drugs are used to treat cancer and reduce mortality rates, but their toxicity limits their administration. Read More

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October 2021

UHPLC-MS-Based Serum and Urine Metabolomics Reveals the Anti-Diabetic Mechanism of Ginsenoside Re in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

Molecules 2021 Nov 3;26(21). Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Jilin Ginseng Academy, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117, China.

was employed in the treatment of "Xiao-Ke" symptom, which nowadays known as diabetes mellitus, in traditional Chinese medicine for more than a thousand years. Ginsenoside Re was the major pharmacologic ingredient found abundantly in ginseng. However, the anti-diabetic of Ginsenoside Re and its underlying mechanism in metabolic level are still unclear. Read More

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November 2021

CRISPRi-Guided Metabolic Flux Engineering for Enhanced Protopanaxadiol Production in .

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Oct 31;22(21). Epub 2021 Oct 31.

Intelligent Synthetic Biology Center, 291 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.

Protopanaxadiol (PPD), an aglycon found in several dammarene-type ginsenosides, has high potency as a pharmaceutical. Nevertheless, application of these ginsenosides has been limited because of the high production cost due to the rare content of PPD in and a long cultivation time (4-6 years). For the biological mass production of the PPD, de novo biosynthetic pathways for PPD were introduced in and the metabolic flux toward the target molecule was restructured to avoid competition for carbon sources between native metabolic pathways and de novo biosynthetic pathways producing PPD in . Read More

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October 2021

Ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates mechanical stress-induced cardiac injury via calcium sensing receptor-related pathway.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Nov 27;45(6):683-694. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Drug Research of Liaoning Province, Jinzhou Medical University, Jinzhou, China.

Background: Ginsenoside Rg1 (Rg1) has been well documented to be effective against various cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Rg1 on mechanical stress-induced cardiac injury and its possible mechanism with a focus on the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) signaling pathway.

Methods: Mechanical stress was implemented on rats through abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) procedure and on cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts by mechanical stretching with Bioflex Collagen I plates. Read More

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November 2021

Gypenoside XVII protects against myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting ER stress-induced mitochondrial injury.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Nov 14;45(6):642-653. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Innovative Drug Discovery of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Natural Medicine) and Translational Medicine, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Effective strategies are dramatically needed to prevent and improve the recovery from myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Direct interactions between the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during heart diseases have been recently investigated. This study was designed to explore the cardioprotective effects of gypenoside XVII (GP-17) against I/R injury. Read More

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November 2021

and its ginsenosides: potential candidates for the prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced side effects.

J Ginseng Res 2021 Nov 5;45(6):617-630. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Characteristic Chinese Medicine Resources in Southwest China, Pharmacy College, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Chemotherapy-induced side effects affect the quality of life and efficacy of treatment of cancer patients. Current approaches for treating the side effects of chemotherapy are poorly effective and may cause numerous harmful side effects. Therefore, developing new and effective drugs derived from natural non-toxic compounds for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced side effects is necessary. Read More

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November 2021

Identification of three groups of ginsenoside biosynthetic UDP-glycosyltransferases from Gynostemma pentaphyllum.

Plant Sci 2021 Dec 27;313:111069. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Biological Sciences, KAIST, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Ginsenosides are glycosylated dammarene-type triterpenes that have been identified in distantly related Panax ginseng and Gynostemma pentaphyllum. The phylogenetic relatedness of the ginsenoside biosynthetic genes in the two species was previously unknown. The final steps of ginsenoside biosynthesis are the glycosylations of hydroxylated triterpenes, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT), and their glycosylated forms by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Read More

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December 2021

Anti-inflammatory and osteoprotective effects of Chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa on rheumatoid arthritis via the JAK/STAT signaling pathway.

Phytomedicine 2021 Dec 14;93:153801. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Third-Grade Pharmacological Laboratory on Chinese Medicine Approved by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443002, China; Institute of Rheumatology, The First College of Clinical Medical Sciences, China Three Gorges University, Yichang, Hubei 443003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease, for which no economical and safe target drug treatment is available. Chikusetsusaponin Ⅳa (CS-IVa), an active compound in Panax japonicus C.A. Read More

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December 2021

Red ginseng has stronger anti-aging effects compared to ginseng possibly due to its regulation of oxidative stress and the gut microbiota.

Phytomedicine 2021 Dec 23;93:153772. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Jilin Institute of Bioloy, Changchun 130012, China.

Background: Panax ginseng (PG) and red ginseng (RG) are considered to be effective anti-aging treatments. However, evidence of their therapeutic mechanisms and difference in anti-aging effects is lacking.

Purpose: To explore the potential therapeutic mechanisms of RG and PG in brain damage in D-Gal-induced aging mice, and evaluate the difference in anti-aging effects caused by their compositional differences. Read More

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December 2021