32,126 results match your criteria pathways events

Linking Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Platelet Activation: A Composite Biomarker Score for Predicting Outcomes after Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Thromb Haemost 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgery and Anaesthesia, The University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand.

Background:  Activation of both platelets and neutrophils can contribute to the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are an important product of the platelet-neutrophil axis and exaggerate vascular damage in cardiovascular disease. Additionally, activated platelets can drive NETosis and are directly linked to thromboembolic risk. Read More

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The relationship between intermittent hypoxemia events and neural outcomes in neonates.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 10:113753. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Neonatology, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, United States of America; Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States of America.

This brief review examines 1) patterns of intermittent hypoxemia in extremely preterm infants during early postnatal life, 2) the relationship between neonatal intermittent hypoxemia exposure and outcomes in both human and animal models, 3) potential mechanistic pathways, and 4) future alterations in clinical care that may reduce morbidity. Intermittent hypoxemia events are pervasive in extremely preterm infants (<28 weeks gestation at birth) during early postnatal life. An increased frequency of intermittent hypoxemia events has been associated with a range of poor neural outcomes including language and cognitive delays, motor impairment, retinopathy of prematurity, impaired control of breathing, and intraventricular hemorrhage. Read More

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β-Catenin mediates glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide increases in lysyl oxidase expression in osteoblasts.

Bone Rep 2021 Jun 13;14:101063. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Department of Translational Dental Medicine, 700 Albany Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States of America.

Osteoblast lysyl oxidase (LOX) is a strongly up-regulated mRNA and protein by the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). LOX is critically required for collagen maturation, and was shown to be dramatically down-regulated in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes, consistent with known low collagen cross-linking and poor bone quality in diabetic bone disease in humans and in mouse models. GIP is a gastric hormone released by the gut upon consumption of nutrients, which then stimulates insulin release from β-cells in the pancreas. Read More

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CRISPAltRations: a validated cloud-based approach for interrogation of double-strand break repair mediated by CRISPR genome editing.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 2;21:478-491. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Integrated DNA Technologies, Coralville, IA 52241, USA.

CRISPR systems enable targeted genome editing in a wide variety of organisms by introducing single- or double-strand DNA breaks, which are repaired using endogenous molecular pathways. Characterization of on- and off-target editing events from CRISPR proteins can be evaluated using targeted genome resequencing. We characterized DNA repair fingerprints that result from non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) after double-stranded breaks (DSBs) were introduced by Cas9 or Cas12a for >500 paired treatment/control experiments. Read More

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The up-to-date pathophysiology of Kawasaki disease.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 10;10(5):e1284. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics Graduate School of Medical Sciences Kyushu University Fukuoka Japan.

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute systemic vasculitis of an unknown aetiology. A small proportion of children exposed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or infected by reproducibly develop principal symptoms of KD in various ethnic areas, but not in all studies. These microbes provoke a rapid cell-damaging process, called 'pyroptosis', which is characterised by a subsequent release of proinflammatory cellular components from damaged endothelial and innate immune cells. Read More

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Specialized Pro-resolving Lipid Mediators and Glial Cells: Emerging Candidates for Brain Homeostasis and Repair.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 26;15:673549. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Laboratory of Resolution of Neuroinflammation, European Center for Brain Research, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes are known to play critical roles in the central nervous system development, homeostasis and response to injury. In addition to their well-defined functions in synaptic signaling, blood-brain barrier control and myelination, it is now becoming clear that both glial cells also actively produce a wide range of immune-regulatory factors and engage in an intricate communication with neurons, microglia or with infiltrated immune cells, thus taking a center stage in both inflammation and resolution processes occurring within the brain. Resolution of inflammation is operated by the superfamily of specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), that include lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins, and that altogether activate a series of cellular and molecular events that lead to spontaneous regression of inflammatory processes and restoration of tissue homeostasis. Read More

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Apoptosis is not conserved in plants as revealed by critical examination of a model for plant apoptosis-like cell death.

BMC Biol 2021 May 12;19(1):100. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Molecular Sciences, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Linnean Center for Plant Biology, P.O. Box 7015, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Animals and plants diverged over one billion years ago and evolved unique mechanisms for many cellular processes, including cell death. One of the most well-studied cell death programmes in animals, apoptosis, involves gradual cell dismantling and engulfment of cellular fragments, apoptotic bodies, through phagocytosis. However, rigid cell walls prevent plant cell fragmentation and thus apoptosis is not applicable for executing cell death in plants. Read More

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From cellular function to global impact: the vascular perspective on COVID-19.

Can J Surg 2021 05 12;64(3):E289-E297. Epub 2021 May 12.

From the Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Ottawa at The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Strauss, Jetty); the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ont. (Strauss, Seo, Carrier, Jetty); the Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. (Carrier); and the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ont. (Carrier).

Since COVID-19 was declared a pandemic a year ago, our understanding of its effects on the vascular system has slowly evolved. At the cellular level, SARS-CoV-2 - the virus that causes COVID-19 - accesses the vascular endothelium through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and induces proinflammatory and prothrombotic responses. At the clinical level, these pathways lead to thromboembolic events that affect the pulmonary, extracranial, mesenteric, and lower extremity vessels. Read More

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Exercise-induced changes in miRNA expression in coronary artery disease.

Clin Chem Lab Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

University Institute of Sports Medicine, Prevention and Rehabilitation and Research Institute of Molecular Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

Objectives: Micro ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that control gene expression by translational inhibition. Exercise has been shown to affect several miRNAs' expression in healthy subjects, but this has not yet been studied in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Since exercise training confers beneficial long-term effects and may also trigger acute coronary events, it is of utmost interest to be able to identify those who are risk for untoward effects. Read More

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Predictors of posttraumatic growth of intensive care unit nurses in Korea.

Jpn J Nurs Sci 2021 May 11:e12427. Epub 2021 May 11.

Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.

Aim: Nurses working in intensive care units are repeatedly exposed to trauma (e.g., verbal or physical abuse by confused patients, and unexpected death). Read More

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Inhibition of the HEG1-KRIT1 interaction increases KLF4 and KLF2 expression in endothelial cells.

FASEB Bioadv 2021 May 18;3(5):334-355. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Medicine University of California San Diego La Jolla CA USA.

The transmembrane protein heart of glass1 (HEG1) directly binds to and recruits Krev interaction trapped protein 1 (KRIT1) to endothelial junctions to form the HEG1-KRIT1 protein complex that establishes and maintains junctional integrity. Genetic inactivation or knockdown of endothelial HEG1 or KRIT1 leads to the upregulation of transcription factors Krüppel-like factors 4 and 2 (KLF4 and KLF2), which are implicated in endothelial vascular homeostasis; however, the effect of acute inhibition of the HEG1-KRIT1 interaction remains incompletely understood. Here, we report a high-throughput screening assay and molecular design of a small-molecule HEG1-KRIT1 inhibitor to uncover acute changes in signaling pathways downstream of the HEG1-KRIT1 protein complex disruption. Read More

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Helicobacter pylori induced gastric carcinogenesis - The best molecular model we have?

Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2021 Mar-Apr;50-51:101743. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Section of Molecular Gastroenterology and Microbiota-associated Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Gastric carcinogenesis can be described as a consequence of multilevel molecular alterations that is triggered by a cascade of events. Historically, diet and environmental factors have been identified to substantially contribute to carcinogenesis before the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Read More

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Recruitment of MRE-11 to complex DNA damage is modulated by meiosis-specific chromosome organization.

Mutat Res 2021 Apr 20;822:111743. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52241, USA. Electronic address:

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most dangerous assaults on the genome, and yet their natural and programmed production are inherent to life. When DSBs arise close together they are particularly deleterious, and their repair may require an altered form of the DNA damage response. Our understanding of how clustered DSBs are repaired in the germline is unknown. Read More

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COVID-19: lessons learnt and priorities in trauma and orthopaedic surgery.

Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Royal Free Trust NHS Foundation Trust, UK.

The COVID-19 pandemic is the most serious health crisis of our time. Global public measures have been enacted to try to prevent healthcare systems from being overwhelmed. The trauma and orthopaedic (T&O) community has overcome challenges in order to continue to deliver acute trauma care to patients and plan for challenges ahead. Read More

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Atomic-Level Features for Kinetic Monte Carlo Models of Complex Chemistry from Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

J Phys Chem A 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, United States.

The high computational cost of evaluating atomic interactions recently motivated the development of computationally inexpensive kinetic models, which can be parameterized from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the complex chemistry of thousands of species or other processes and accelerate the prediction of the chemical evolution by up to four orders of magnitude. Such models go beyond the commonly employed potential energy surface fitting methods in that they are aimed purely at describing kinetic effects. So far, such kinetic models utilize molecular descriptions of reactions and have been constrained to only reproduce molecules previously observed in MD simulations. Read More

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Genome-wide analysis of the soybean root transcriptome reveals the impact of nitrate on alternative splicing.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture and Agri-Product Safety, the Ministry of Education of China, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genomics and Molecular Breeding, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009, China.

In plants, nitrate acts not only as a signaling molecule that affects plant development but also as a nutrient. The development of plant roots, which directly absorb nutrients, is greatly affected by nitrate supply. Alternative gene splicing plays a crucial role in the plant stress response by increasing transcriptome diversity. Read More

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Global declines in coral reef calcium carbonate production under ocean acidification and warming.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(21)

Oceans Graduate School and Oceans Institute, The University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia.

Ocean warming and acidification threaten the future growth of coral reefs. This is because the calcifying coral reef taxa that construct the calcium carbonate frameworks and cement the reef together are highly sensitive to ocean warming and acidification. However, the global-scale effects of ocean warming and acidification on rates of coral reef net carbonate production remain poorly constrained despite a wealth of studies assessing their effects on the calcification of individual organisms. Read More

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Intracranial VCAM1 at time of mechanical thrombectomy predicts ischemic stroke severity.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 May 11;18(1):109. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Neurology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Background: Emergent large vessel occlusion (ELVO) strokes are devastating ischemic vascular events for which novel treatment options are needed. Using vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1) as a prototype, the objective of this study was to identify proteomic biomarkers and network signaling functions that are potential therapeutic targets for adjuvant treatment for mechanical thrombectomy.

Methods: The blood and clot thrombectomy and collaboration (BACTRAC) study is a continually enrolling tissue bank and registry from stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Read More

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PRKA/PKA signals and autophagy: space matters.

Autophagy 2021 May 10:1-2. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Macroautophagy/autophagy is the cellular process responsible for the elimination and recycling of aggregated proteins and damaged organelles. Whereas autophagy is strictly regulated by several signaling cascades, the link between this process and the subcellular distribution of its regulatory pathways remains to be established. Our recent work suggests that the compartmentalization of PRKA/PKA (protein kinase cAMP-activated) determines its effects on autophagy. Read More

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Detecting pollutant sources and pathways: High-frequency automated online monitoring in a small rural French/German transborder catchment.

J Environ Manage 2021 May 7;290:112619. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Saarland University, Dudweiler Zeile 4, 66125, Saarbruecken, Germany.

Great temporal and spatial variability of inputs make comprehensive monitoring in small and middle sized rivers difficult. In this study, relevant inputs in a small river were recorded with suitable online monitoring equipment coupled in mobile water quality monitoring stations, the study area being a transborder catchment with French and German (Saarland federal state) subcatchments. In addition to a pronounced spatial variability necessitating a denser net of measuring points this catchment has also to be assessed in the light of different national regulations. Read More

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Heart failure in adults with congenital heart disease: a narrative review.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2021 Apr;11(2):529-537

Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

The number of adults with congenital heart disease (ACHD) has increased over the last decades due to advancements in medical care, including interventional and surgical therapies. We are therefore more frequently challenged by the long-term consequences of palliative or corrective surgery carried out during childhood. Although patients with ACHD may develop conditions related to general cardiovascular risk factors, such as coronary artery disease, the most common complications leading to morbidity and mortality are arrhythmias, heart failure and thromboembolic events. Read More

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Transcriptomic analysis and competing endogenous RNA network in the human endometrium between proliferative and mid-secretory phases.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jun 20;21(6):660. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Priority Research Center, Myunggok Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Konyang University, Daejeon 35365, Republic of Korea.

Successful embryo implantation is the first step for establishing natural pregnancy and is dependent on the crosstalk between the embryo and a receptive endometrium. However, the molecular signaling events for successful embryo implantation are not entirely understood. To identify differentially expressed transcripts [long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs] and competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks associated with endometrial receptivity, the current study analyzed gene expression profiles between proliferative and mid-secretory endometria in fertile women. Read More

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Innate Immunity in Diabetic Wound Healing: Focus on the Mastermind Hidden in Chronic Inflammatory.

Front Pharmacol 2021 21;12:653940. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, China.

A growing body of evidence suggests that the interaction between immune and metabolic responses is essential for maintaining tissue and organ homeostasis. These interacting disorders contribute to the development of chronic diseases associated with immune-aging such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In Diabetic wound (DW), innate immune cells respond to the Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMAs) and/or Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), changes from resting to an active phenotype, and play an important role in the triggering and maintenance of inflammation. Read More

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Gamabufotalin Inhibits Osteoclastgenesis and Counteracts Estrogen-Deficient Bone Loss in Mice by Suppressing RANKL-Induced NF-κB and ERK/MAPK Pathways.

Front Pharmacol 2021 23;12:629968. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Spine Surgery, Changzheng Hospital, Naval Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Osteolytic bone disease is a condition of imbalanced bone homeostasis, characterized mainly by excessive bone-resorptive activity, which could predispose these populations, such as the old and postmenopausal women, to developing high risk of skeletal fragility and fracture. The nature of bone homeostasis is the coordination between the osteoblasts (OBs) and osteoclasts (OCs). Abnormal activation of osteoclasts (OCs) could compromise the bone homeostasis, constantly followed by a clutch of osteolytic diseases, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Read More

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Metabolic reprogramming in renal cancer: Events of a metabolic disease.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2021 May 6;1876(1):188559. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nephrology, Boston Children's Hospital, MA 02115, United States of America; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, United States of America. Electronic address:

Recent studies have established that tumors can reprogram the pathways involved in nutrient uptake and metabolism to withstand the altered biosynthetic, bioenergetics and redox requirements of cancer cells. This phenomenon is called metabolic reprogramming, which is promoted by the loss of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. Because of alterations and perturbations in multiple metabolic pathways, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is sometimes termed as a "metabolic disease". Read More

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Genome wide identification, classification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor in cultivated and ancestral cotton (Gossypium).

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Zhengzhou Research Base, State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450000, China; State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Institute of Cotton Research Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Anyang 455000, Henan, China. Electronic address:

Heat shock transcription factors (HSF) have been demonstrated to play a significant transcriptional regulatory role in plants and considered as an integral part of signal transduction pathways against environmental stresses. 42, 39, 67, and 79 nonredundant HSF genes were identified from G. arboreum (A2), G. Read More

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RFX1: a promising therapeutic arsenal against cancer.

Cancer Cell Int 2021 May 8;21(1):253. Epub 2021 May 8.

Cancer Research Program, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Thycaud.P.O, Thiruvananthapuram, 695014, Kerala, India.

Regulatory factor X1 (RFX1) is an evolutionary conserved transcriptional factor that influences a wide range of cellular processes such as cell cycle, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, by regulating a number of target genes that are involved in such processes. On a closer look, these target genes also play a key role in tumorigenesis and associated events. Such observations paved the way for further studies evaluating the role of RFX1 in cancer. Read More

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The integrin signaling network promotes axon regeneration via the Src-ephexin-RhoA GTPase signaling axis.

J Neurosci 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602, Japan

Axon regeneration is an evolutionarily conserved process essential for restoring the function of damaged neurons. In hermaphrodites, initiation of axon regeneration is regulated by the RhoA GTPase-ROCK (Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase)-regulatory non-muscle myosin light-chain phosphorylation signaling pathway. However, the upstream mechanism that activates the RhoA pathway remains unknown. Read More

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