714,472 results match your criteria pathways


Mechanisms of exTreg induction.

Eur J Immunol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA.

CD4 CD25 Foxp3 regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the maintenance of the immune system by regulating immune responses and resolving inflammation. Tregs exert their function by suppressing other immune cells and mediating peripheral self-tolerance. Under homeostatic conditions, Tregs are stable T cell populations. Read More

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New safe approach to target symptomatic Hisian ectopy/tachycardia.

Europace 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Cardiology, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France.

Aims: Although cryoenergy safety profile is appropriate for the ablation of arrhythmogenic foci near the conduction system, mapping using the cryoablation catheter is of limited precision. Combining the safety of cryoenergy and the high precision of a 3D mapping system therefore appears the most appropriate set-up for ablation in the vicinity of the His bundle.

Methods And Results: A 29-year-old woman with a 3-year history of increasing shortness of breath and palpitations refractory to medical treatment was sent to the electrophysiology (EP) laboratory for catheter ablation. Read More

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Effects of strain on the electrical, optical, and ferroelectric transition properties of HfO2: ab initio simulation study.

Authors:
Jibao Wu

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, No. 2 South Taibai Road, Xian, Shaanxi, 710071, CHINA.

The amazing ferroelectricity observed in hafnium oxide thin films is due to the existence of non-centrosymmetric orthorhombic Pca21 phase. In this study, the structural, electronic, optical, and polarization switching properties of the orthorhombic Pca21 phase with various strains are investigated by employing DFT calculations based on the density functional theory. Out-of-plane and in-plane strains are taken into consideration. Read More

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Integrated gut microbiota and fecal metabolomics reveal the renoprotective effect of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata and Corni Fructus on adenine-induced CKD rats.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 24;1174:122728. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal Resources Industrialization, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 138 Xianlin Road, Nanjing 210023, PR China. Electronic address:

Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (RR) and Corni Fructus (CF), well-known traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), were generally used together in the clinical practices to treat chronic kidney disease (CKD) with synergistic effects for thousands of years, but their combination mechanism remains largely unknown so far. Recent evidences have implicated intestinal flora as potential targets for the therapy of CKD. In this study, the CKD rat model was induced by adenine. Read More

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Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) significantly influences prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma.

Ann Diagn Pathol 2021 Mar 31;53:151742. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Medical College, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Móstoles, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) in one of AHR ligands. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic influence of AIP in pancreatic carcinoma. Read More

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Anaerobe-enriched gut microbiota predicts pro-inflammatory responses in pulmonary tuberculosis.

EBioMedicine 2021 May 7;67:103374. Epub 2021 May 7.

DSI-NRF Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Tuberculosis Research, and SAMRC Centre for Tuberculosis Research, Division of Molecular Biology and Human Genetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, Cape Town, South Africa. Electronic address:

Background: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB), one of the leading infectious causes of death worldwide, and the microbiome, which is critical for health, is poorly understood.

Methods: To identify potential microbiome-host interactions, profiling of the oral, sputum and stool microbiota [n = 58 cases, n = 47 culture-negative symptomatic controls (SCs)] and whole blood transcriptome were done in pre-treatment presumptive pulmonary TB patients. This was a cross-sectional study. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis reveals new insight of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV)-infected DF-1 cells.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Apr 29;137:150-158. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Institute of Veterinary Medicine, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Diagnosis, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biological Engineering and Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing, 210014, China.

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused huge economic losses to the duck industry in China since 2010. Moreover, the infection has spread rapidly, resulted in a potential public health concern. To improve our understanding of the host cellular responses to virus infection and the pathogenesis of DTMUV infection, we used RNA-Seq to detect the gene changes in DF-1 cells infected and mock-infected with DTMUV. Read More

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The molecular-level understanding of the uptake of PFOS and its alternatives (6:2 Cl-PFESA and OBS) into phospholipid bilayers.

J Hazard Mater 2021 May 4;417:125991. Epub 2021 May 4.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is an important indicator of their hazard. Partitioning to membrane phospholipids is one of the pathways for their bioaccumulation. However, the molecular mechanism on PFASs uptake into membrane phospholipids is not yet to be fully understood. Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis of NaCl and KCl stress response in Malus hupehensis Rehd. Provide insight into the regulation involved in Na and K homeostasis.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 4;164:101-114. Epub 2021 May 4.

College of Horticulture, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China; Qingdao Key Laboratory of Genetic Improvement and Breeding in Horticulture Plants, Qingdao, 266109, China. Electronic address:

Background: Apple is among the most widely cultivated perennial fruit crops worldwide. It is sensitive to salt stress, which seriously affects the growth and productivity of apple trees by destroying the homeostasis of Na and K. Previous studies focused on the molecular mechanism underlying NaCl stress. Read More

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Recruitment of MRE-11 to complex DNA damage is modulated by meiosis-specific chromosome organization.

Mutat Res 2021 Apr 20;822:111743. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52241, USA. Electronic address:

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most dangerous assaults on the genome, and yet their natural and programmed production are inherent to life. When DSBs arise close together they are particularly deleterious, and their repair may require an altered form of the DNA damage response. Our understanding of how clustered DSBs are repaired in the germline is unknown. Read More

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Occurrence of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in paired human urine and indoor dust from two typical cities in China and its implications for human exposure.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147485. Epub 2021 May 3.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, UCAS, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310000, China; Institute of Environment and Health, Jianghan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430056, China; College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Parabens, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are emerging endocrine disrupting chemicals, which are commonly used in personal care products and household applications in daily life. Due to their adverse health effects, human exposure to these chemicals has been a public concern. Despite evidence showing different exposure pathways of these chemicals, few studies have examined contribution of certain exposure to total human exposure. Read More

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Mass balance of nine trace elements in two karst catchments in southwest China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 4;786:147504. Epub 2021 May 4.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China; CAS Centre for Excellence in Quaternary Science and Global Change, Xi'an 710061, China. Electronic address:

High geological background levels of trace elements (TEs) and high population density in the karst areas of southwest China have imposed environmental pressure on the fragile ecosystems in this region. Understanding the mass budget of TEs, especially the toxic ones, is of great importance to sustain future developments. This study investigates the mass balance and fate of nine TEs (cadmium, arsenic, lead, chromium, copper, nickel, zinc, thallium, and antimony) in two karst catchments (Huilong and Chenqi) in southwest China through estimation of their mass budgets in throughfall, open field precipitation, total suspended particulate matter (TSP), litterfall, fertilization, harvested crops, surface runoff, and underground runoff. Read More

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Curcumin improves insulin sensitivity and increases energy expenditure in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice associated with activation of FNDC5/irisin.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 7;90:111263. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Jiangxi Province Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Jiangxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Curcumin (Cur) has a beneficial role in preventing metabolic dysfunctions; however, the underlying mechanism are not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the beneficial metabolic effects of curcumin are associated with the regulation of energy metabolism and activation of fibronectin type 3 domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin.

Methods: We used cellular and molecular techniques to investigate the effects of Cur on C57 BL/6 mice that were fed either a control diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without 0. Read More

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A genetic variant conferred high expression of CAV2 promotes pancreatic cancer progression and associates with poor prognosis.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 7;151:94-105. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Key Laboratory for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Sciences and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Aim: This study aimed to identify the functional genes and genetic variants associated with the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and reveal the mechanism underlying their prognostic roles.

Methods: First, we implement a two-stage exome-wide association study in a total of 1070 patients to identify the genetic variant correlated with PDAC prognosis. Then we performed fine mapping through bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assays to reveal the causal functional variant and prognostic gene. Read More

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Moderated mediation analyses to assess intervention mechanisms for impacts on victimisation, psycho-social problems and mental wellbeing: Evidence from the INCLUSIVE realist randomized trial.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113984. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Realist evaluations aim to evaluate interventions by understanding the mechanisms they trigger, assessing not merely what works but what works for whom, under what conditions, and how. Significant disagreement in the literature exists as to whether randomized trials can be used as a tool for realist evaluation. INCLUSIVE, which was the first realist randomized trial explicitly designed as such, evaluated the impact of Learning Together, a school-based intervention for students aged 12-15 that included restorative practice, on bullying victimisation, mental wellbeing and psychological problems. Read More

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Control of intestinal epithelial permeability by lysophosphatidic acid receptor 5.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Division of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; Gastroenterology Research, Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA; Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Epithelial cells form a monolayer at mucosal surface that functions as a highly selective barrier. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that elicits a broad range of biological effects via cognate G protein-coupled receptors. LPA receptor 5 (LPA) is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells, but its role in the intestine is not well known. Read More

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Immune and barrier characterization of atopic dermatitis skin phenotype in Tanzanian patients.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Laboratory of Inflammatory Skin Diseases, Department of Dermatology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Atopic dermatitis/AD is a common disease, with particularly high prevalence seen in Africa. It is increasingly recognized that AD patients of different ethnic backgrounds have unique molecular signatures in skin, potentially accounting for treatment response variations. However, the skin profile of AD patients from Africa is unknown, hindering development of new treatments targeted to this patient population. Read More

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Multifaceted control of mRNA translation machinery in cancer.

Cell Signal 2021 May 8:110037. Epub 2021 May 8.

Patrick G. Johnston Centre for Cancer Research, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, UK. Electronic address:

The mRNA translation machinery is tightly regulated through several, at times overlapping, mechanisms that modulate its efficiency and accuracy. Due to their fast rate of growth and metabolism, cancer cells require an excessive amount of mRNA translation and protein synthesis. However, unfavorable conditions, such as hypoxia, amino acid starvation, and oxidative stress, which are abundant in cancer, as well as many anti-cancer treatments inhibit mRNA translation. Read More

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Verification of Ferroptosis and Pyroptosis and Identification of PTGS2 as the Hub Gene in Human Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 210029, Jiangsu Province, China. Electronic address:

Ferroptosis and pyroptosis have not been fully studied in atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the expression of ferroptosis-related and pyroptosis-related proteins in human coronary arteries and analyse correlation with severity of atherosclerosis and clarify the interactions between proteins and possible mechanisms of atherosclerosis. 40 human coronary artery specimens were employed. Read More

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Switching the proteolytic system from the ubiquitin-proteasome system to autophagy in the spinal cord of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model.

Neuroscience 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-Ku, Okayama, 700-8558, Japan. Electronic address:

The degradation of damaged proteins takes place via two major proteolytic pathways: the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy. However, since it is unclear how these two proteolytic pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we investigated the switching mechanism from UPS to autophagy by pharmacologically modifying these pathways by treating the spinal cords of female ALS mouse model bearing G93A human SOD1 (G93A mice) with MG132 or 3-methyladenine (3MA). G93A mice exhibited a progressive increase in the amount of ubiquitin and p62 aggregates, BAG3 expression, and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio in both astroglia and motor neurons. Read More

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Quantitative proteomics and bioinformatics analyses reveal the protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and its metabolite protocatechuic acid against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells via apoptosis-related pathways.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 May 8:112256. Epub 2021 May 8.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, Beijing Engineering and Technology Research Center of Food Additives, Beijing Technology and Business University, Beijing, 100048, China. Electronic address:

The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) and its metabolite protocatechuic acid (PCA) mediated protection against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ)-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. The effects of C3G and PCA on cell viability, LDH release and apoptosis in IQ-induced HepG2 cells were evaluated using CCK-8, LDH release and flow cytometry assays, respectively. TMT-based proteomics was utilized to characterize the proteins and pathways associated with the improvement after C3G and PCA treatment. Read More

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Ubiquitin ligases in cancer: functions and clinical potentials.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, NYU Grossman School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Ubiquitylation, a highly regulated post-translational modification, controls many cellular pathways that are critical to cell homeostasis. Ubiquitin ligases recruit substrates and promote ubiquitin transfer onto targets, inducing proteasomal degradation or non-degradative signaling. Accumulating evidence highlights the critical role of dysregulated ubiquitin ligases in processes associated with the initiation and progression of cancer. Read More

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Timer-based proteomic profiling of the ubiquitin-proteasome system reveals a substrate receptor of the GID ubiquitin ligase.

Mol Cell 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Molecular Biology (IMB), Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Selective protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is involved in all cellular processes. However, the substrates and specificity of most UPS components are not well understood. Here we systematically characterized the UPS in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Read More

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Asperuloside suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in DSS-induced chronic colitis and RAW 264.7 macrophages via Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

Chem Biol Interact 2021 May 8:109512. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China; National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine (Guangzhou Branch), Guangzhou, 510006, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), which mainly include Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract for which effective pharmacological treatments are lacking or options are very limited.

Purpose: Here, we aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of an iridoid glycoside, asperuloside (ASP) on mice experimental chronic colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and further explore underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.

Methods: LPS-treated RAW 264. Read More

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Effects of trans-resveratrol on type 1 diabetes-induced up-regulation of apoptosis and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in retinal pigment epithelium of Dark Agouti rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2021 May 8:174167. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University.

Microvascular changes and retinal degeneration precede diabetic retinopathy. Oxidative stress alters several intracellular signaling pathways, which form the basis of diabetic retinopathy. Many antioxidants have been investigated as possible preventive and therapeutic remedies for diabetic retinopathy. Read More

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Ambient Heat and Stillbirth in Northern and Central Florida.

Environ Res 2021 May 8:111262. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Epidemiology College of Public Health and Health Professions & College of Medicine University of Florida Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: Elevated temperature is well-recognized as a health hazard, and may be particularly harmful to pregnant women, including increasing risk of stillbirth. We conducted a study in Northern and Central Florida, an area prone to periodic extreme heat but with significant seasonal variation, focusing on the most socioeconomically vulnerable populations least able to mitigate the impact of heat.

Methods: We obtained electronic health records data from the OneFlorida Data Trust for the period 2012-2017, with 1,876 stillbirths included in the analysis. Read More

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Structural Heterogeneity of Human Histone H2A.1.

J Phys Chem B 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, United States.

Histones are highly basic chromatin proteins that tightly package and order eukaryotic DNA into nucleosomes. While the atomic structure of the nucleosomes has been determined, the three-dimensional structure of DNA-free histones remains unresolved. Here, we combine tandem nonlinear and linear ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS-TIMS) coupled to mass spectrometry in parallel with molecular modeling to study the conformational space of a DNA-free histone H2A type 1 (H2A. Read More

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Genetic variants and immune responses in a cohort of patients with varicella zoster virus encephalitis.

J Infect Dis 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) may involve different central nervous system (CNS) manifestations, including meningitis, encephalitis, and vasculitis. In cases where otherwise healthy individuals are affected, an inborn error of immunity may underlie increased susceptibility or severity of infection.

Methods: We collected a cohort of 17 adults who experienced VZV encephalitis and performed whole exome sequencing. Read More

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Second-generation hormonotherapy in prostate cancer and bone microenvironment.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

A Guillot, Medical oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de la Loire, Saint Priest en Jarez, France.

Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer affecting men in France. Before the age of 75 years old, 1 in 8 French men will have Pca. Androgen deprivation therapies (ADT) remain the standard of care. Read More

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Integrated profiling identifies ITGB3BP as prognostic biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Bosn J Basic Med Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, School of Public Health, Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, China; Key Laboratory of High-Incidence-Tumor Prevention and Treatment, Guangxi Medical University, Ministry of Education, Nanning, China.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor. In this study, we sought to identify a novel biomarker for HCC by analyzing transcriptome and clinical data. The R software was used to analyze the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the datasets GSE74656 and GSE84598 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, followed by a functional annotation. Read More

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