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Cellular internalization and release of polystyrene microplastics and nanoplastics.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 18;779:146523. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Environment Research Institute, Shandong University, Qingdao 266237, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics and nanoplastics can accumulate in organisms after being ingested, be transported in the food web, and ultimately threaten human health. An understanding of the cellular internalization and release of micro(nano)plastics is important to predict their cytotoxicity. In this study, 50 nm, 500 nm and 5 μm polystyrene particles (PS50, PS500 and PS5000) were exposed to both model cell membranes and rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells. Read More

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Why Family Medicine Program Directors Leave Their Position.

Fam Med 2021 May;53(5):347-354

University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix Family Medicine Residency, Phoenix, AZ.

Background And Objectives: Family medicine residency program directors (PD) oversee the training of every new family physician in the United States. The median tenure of family medicine PDs is 4.5 years, and factors relating to length of tenure and reasons for departure are not well known. Read More

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A simple approach to the determination of three curcuminoids with similar chemical structures in different substrates.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jun 18;58(6):2170-2177. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 People's Republic of China.

The determination of curcuminoids in mixtures is more difficult due to their similar chemical structures as well as serious interferences, thus the complex pretreatments of samples and the optimization of experimental conditions are often required. Here, owing to the mathematical separation of chemical signals by Tchebichef image moments, a simple and effective approach to the simultaneous quantitative analysis was proposed, and applied to the determination of the three curcuminoids in turmeric and curry based on their raw fluorescence 3D spectra. For the established linear models, the leave-one-out correlation coefficients () were more than 0. Read More

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Outdoor dissolution and photodegradation of insensitive munitions formulations IMX-101 and IMX-104: Photolytic transformation pathway and mechanism study.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130672. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Biosphere 2, University of Arizona, Oracle, AZ, 85721-0158, United States; Department of Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721-0038, United States. Electronic address:

New munition compounds have been developed to replace traditional explosives to prevent unintended detonations. However, insensitive munitions (IM) can leave large proportion of unexploded charge in the field, where it is subjected to photodegradation and dissolution in precipitation. The photolytic reactions occurring on the surfaces of IMX-101 and IMX-104 formulations and the subsequent fate of photolytic products in the environment were thoroughly investigated. Read More

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Transcriptome analysis of upland cotton revealed novel pathways to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) responding to NaSO tolerance.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 21;11(1):8670. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

State Key Laboratory of Cotton Biology, Key Laboratory for Cotton Genetic Improvement, MOA, Institute of Cotton Research of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Anyang, 455000, Henan, China.

Salinity is an extensive and adverse environmental stress to crop plants across the globe, and a major abiotic constraint responsible for limited crop production threatening the crop security. Soil salinization is a widespread problem across the globe, threatening the crop production and food security. Salinity impairs plant growth and development via reduction in osmotic potential, cytotoxicity due to excessive uptake of ions such as sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl), and nutritional imbalance. Read More

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An ensemble of the iCluster method to analyze longitudinal lncRNA expression data for psoriasis patients.

Suyan Tian Chi Wang

Hum Genomics 2021 Apr 20;15(1):23. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, 800 Rose St, Lexington, KY, 40536, USA.

Background: Psoriasis is an immune-mediated, inflammatory disorder of the skin with chronic inflammation and hyper-proliferation of the epidermis. Since psoriasis has genetic components and the diseased tissue of psoriasis is very easily accessible, it is natural to use high-throughput technologies to characterize psoriasis and thus seek targeted therapies. Transcriptional profiles change correspondingly after an intervention. Read More

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Preventive and Tumor-Suppressive Effects of Lactobacillus Paracasei X12 in Rat Model of Colorectal Cancer.

Iran J Pharm Res 2020 ;19(4):330-342

Department of Community Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The paper in hand seeks to evaluate the tumor-suppressive and apoptotic effects of X12 in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 8-12 per group X12 was administrated to these animals for forty weeks. The findings of this study indicated that X12 administration prevented severe weight loss in DMH-treated rats. Read More

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January 2020

Collision-induced dissociation of [UO (NO )(O )] and reactions of product ions with H O and O.

J Mass Spectrom 2021 May;56(5):e4720

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

We recently reported a detailed investigation of the collision-induced dissociation (CID) of [UO (NO ) ] and [UO (NO ) (O )] in a linear ion trap mass spectrometer (J. Mass Spectrom. DOI:10. Read More

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A New Pathway to University Retention? Identity Fusion With University Predicts Retention Independently of Grades.

Soc Psychol Personal Sci 2021 Jan 19;12(1):108-117. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

University of Texas at Austin, TX, USA.

Individuals who are "strongly fused" with a group view the group as self-defining. As such, they should be particularly reluctant to leave it. For the first time, we investigate the implications of identity fusion for university retention. Read More

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January 2021

Degradation from the outside in: targeting extracellular and membrane proteins for degradation through the endolysosomal pathway.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry and Stanford ChEM-H, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Targeted protein degradation (TPD) is a promising strategy to remove deleterious proteins for therapeutic benefit and to probe biological pathways. The past two decades have witnessed a surge in the development of technologies that rely on intracellular machinery to degrade challenging cytosolic targets. However, these TPD platforms leave the majority of extracellular and membrane proteins untouched. Read More

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Organizational aspects of pediatric anesthesia and surgery between two waves of Covid-19.

Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2021 Jul 4;65(6):755-760. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, "V. Buzzi" Children's Hospital, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Background: The initial wave of the Covid-19 pandemic has hit Italy, and Lombardy in particular, with violence, forcing to reshape all hospitals' activities; this happened even in pediatric hospitals, although the young population seemed initially spared from the disease. "Vittore Buzzi" Children's Hospital, which is a pediatric/maternal hospital located in Milan (Lombardy Region), had to stop elective procedures-with the exception of urgent/emergent ones-between February and May 2020 to leave space and resources to adults' care. We describe the challenges of reshaping the hospital's identity and structure, and restarting pediatric surgery and anesthesia, from May on, in the most hit area of the world, with the purpose to avoid and contain infections. Read More

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Immunity against Mycobacterium ulcerans: The subversive role of mycolactone.

Immunol Rev 2021 May 19;301(1):209-221. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Immunobiology of Infection Unit, INSERM U1221, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Mycobacterium ulcerans causes Buruli ulcer, a neglected tropical skin disease manifesting as chronic wounds that can leave victims with major, life-long deformity and disability. Differently from other mycobacterial pathogens, M ulcerans produces mycolactone, a diffusible lipid factor with unique cytotoxic and immunomodulatory properties. Both traits result from mycolactone targeting Sec61, the entry point of the secretory pathway in eukaryotic cells. Read More

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The allosteric modulation of complement C5 by knob domain peptides.

Elife 2021 02 11;10. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdom.

Bovines have evolved a subset of antibodies with ultra-long heavy chain complementarity determining regions that harbour cysteine-rich knob domains. To produce high-affinity peptides, we previously isolated autonomous 3-6 kDa knob domains from bovine antibodies. Here, we show that binding of four knob domain peptides elicits a range of effects on the clinically validated drug target complement C5. Read More

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February 2021

Pathway analysis of time of pacifier use by children whose mothers are hearing impaired or have normal hearing.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Dec 11;6(6):217-224. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Background: The lack of mothers' understanding and information can increase their anxiety and lead to unhealthy behaviors, such as pacifier-use, in their children.

Aim: This study aimed to perform pathway analysis of pacifier use by children whose mothers were hearing impaired or had normal hearing.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 116 Brazilian mothers (29 hearing impaired and 87 with normal hearing). Read More

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December 2020

Spinal cord stimulation for spinal cord injury patients with paralysis: To regain walking and dignity.

Tzu Chi Med J 2021 Jan-Mar;33(1):29-33. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien, Taiwan.

Spinal cord injury (SCI) usually leads to disconnection between traversing neuronal pathway. The impairment of neural circuitry and its ascending and descending pathway usually leave severe SCI patients with both motor disability and loss of sensory function. In addition to poor quality of life, SCI patients not only have disabling respiratory function, urinary retention, impaired sexual function, autonomic dysregulation but also medical refractory neuropathic pain in the long term. Read More

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Persistent long-term platelet activation and endothelial perturbation in women with Takotsubo syndrome.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 12;136:111259. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Centro Cardiologico Monzino I.R.C.C.S., Milan, Italy.

Background: Takotsubo (TTS) syndrome is an acute cardiac condition characterized by transient and reversible left ventricle dysfunction that mainly affects postmenopausal women. Catecholamine burst is the most accredited mechanism underpinning TTS onset and leading to endothelial dysfunction and platelet activation. Even if the use of low dose acetylsalycilic acid (ASA) in this clinical setting is based on both clinical presentation and unfavorable long-term prognosis, its efficacy has been recently challenged. Read More

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Novel Advances in Modifying BMPR2 Signaling in PAH.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Dec 23;12(1). Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Division Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is a disease of the pulmonary arteries, that is characterized by progressive narrowing of the pulmonary arterial lumen and increased pulmonary vascular resistance, ultimately leading to right ventricular dysfunction, heart failure and premature death. Current treatments mainly target pulmonary vasodilation and leave the progressive vascular remodeling unchecked resulting in persistent high morbidity and mortality in PAH even with treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Read More

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December 2020

Intention to response, emergency preparedness and intention to leave among nurses during COVID-19.

Nurs Open 2020 11 1;7(6):1867-1875. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Nursing Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Aim: To comprehensively assess the current level and identify associated factors of intention to response and emergency preparedness of clinical nurses during COVID-19 outbreak.

Design: A cross-sectional study was designed.

Methods: Demographic and characteristic questionnaire, intention to response scale, emergency preparedness scale and a self-designed questionnaire related to effects of events and intention to leave were used in this study. Read More

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November 2020

Altered metabolism of mothers of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: a case control study.

BMC Pediatr 2020 12 14;20(1):557. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th St, Troy, NY, 12180, USA.

Background: Previous research studies have demonstrated abnormalities in the metabolism of mothers of young children with autism.

Methods: Metabolic analysis was performed on blood samples from 30 mothers of young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD-M) and from 29 mothers of young typically-developing children (TD-M). Targeted metabolic analysis focusing on the folate one-carbon metabolism (FOCM) and the transsulfuration pathway (TS) as well as broad metabolic analysis were performed. Read More

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December 2020

ncDRMarker: a computational method for identifying non-coding RNA signatures of drug resistance based on heterogeneous network.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(21):1395

College of Bioinformatics Science and Technology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Drug resistance is the primary cause of failure in the treatment of cancer. Identifying signatures of chemoresistance will help to overcome this problem. Current drug resistance studies focus on protein-coding genes and ignore non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), rendering it a challenging task to systematically identify ncRNAs involved in drug resistance. Read More

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November 2020

Fractals and Surrealism: A Pathway towards Rescuing Early Career Scientists' Creativity, and thus Scientific Discovery.

Angela Stevenson

Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci 2021 Jan;25(1):113-123

GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research, Kiel, Germany.

Artistic technique and scientific discovery are superficially contradictory, but are unified at their core as products of creativity. I have always embraced both disciplines, but at some point during my academic journey, I lost my imagination and ability to dream creatively. For over a decade, I have remained passionate about perfecting a way to retrieve this intrinsic component of myself, and nurture it in my students and peers. Read More

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January 2021

Involvement un-enabled? An ethnographic study of the challenges and potentials of involving relatives in the acute ambulatory clinical pathway.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Nov 26;20(1):1086. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department. of Occupational Medicine, University Research Clinic, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Gl. Landevej 61, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Involving a patient's relatives is a complex endeavour, especially in emergency departments (EDs). Generally, relatives are recognized as vital partners in health care, but in-depth knowledge on how these family involvement processes take place in the everyday practices of EDs is sparse. The aim of this study is to explore the practice of involving relatives in the acute ambulatory clinical pathway in the ED, as seen from the perspectives of patients and relatives. Read More

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November 2020

Is patient navigation a solution to the problem of "leaving no one behind"? A scoping review of evidence from low-income countries.

Health Policy Plan 2021 Mar;36(1):101-116

Institute for Research on Sustainable Development, CEPED (IRD-Université de Paris), Université de Paris, ERL INSERM SAGESUD, 45 Rue des Saints-Pères, Paris 75006, France.

Patient navigation interventions, which are designed to enable patients excluded from health systems to overcome the barriers they face in accessing care, have multiplied in high-income countries since the 1990s. However, in low-income countries (LICs), indigents are generally excluded from health policies despite the international paradigm of universal health coverage (UHC). Fee exemption interventions have demonstrated their limits and it is now necessary to act on other dimensions of access to healthcare. Read More

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Novel Quantitative Analysis Using Optical Imaging (VELscope) and Spectroscopy (Raman) Techniques for Oral Cancer Detection.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816, USA.

In this study, we developed a novel quantitative analysis method to enhance the detection capability for oral cancer screening. We combined two different optical techniques, a light-based detection technique (visually enhanced lesion scope) and a vibrational spectroscopic technique (Raman spectroscopy). Thirty-five oral cancer patients who went through surgery were enrolled. Read More

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November 2020

Endothelial cell senescence: A machine learning-based meta-analysis of transcriptomic studies.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 01 12;65:101213. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Numerous systemic vascular dysfunction that leads to age-related diseases is highly associated with endothelial cell (EC) senescence; thus, identifying consensus features of EC senescence is crucial in understanding the mechanisms and identifying potential therapeutic targets. Here, by utilizing a total of 8 screened studies from different origins of ECs, we have successfully obtained common features in both gene and pathway level via sophisticated machine learning algorithms. A total of 400 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were newly discovered with meta-analysis when compared to the usage of individual studies. Read More

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January 2021

Protective role of fermented mulberry leave extract in LPS‑induced inflammation and autophagy of RAW264.7 macrophage cells.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Dec 6;22(6):4685-4695. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Biomaterials Science, College of Natural Resources and Life Science/Life and Industry Convergence Research Institute, Pusan National University, Miryang 50463, Republic of Korea.

Mulberry leaves have antioxidant activity and anti‑inflammatory effects in several types of cells. However, the efficacy of mulberry leaves fermented with Cordyceps militaris remains unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether the ethanol extracts of mulberry leaves fermented with C. Read More

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December 2020

ER-to-Golgi Transport in HeLa Cells Displays High Resilience to Ca and Energy Stresses.

Cells 2020 10 17;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Gottfried Schatz Research Center, Medical University of Graz, Neue Stiftingtalstraße 6/6, 8010 Graz, Austria.

One third of all human proteins are either transmembrane or soluble secretory proteins that first target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). These proteins subsequently leave the ER and enter the Golgi apparatus via ER-Golgi intermediate vesicular structures. Live-cell imaging of cargos fused to fluorescent proteins (FPs) enables the high-resolution visualization and characterization of secretory transport processes. Read More

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October 2020

Time to revisit the skills and competencies required to work in rural general hospitals.

PLoS One 2020 8;15(10):e0240211. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, Gilbert Bain Hospital, Lerwick, Shetland, United Kingdom.

Objectives: To determine the structure and demographic of medical teams working in Rural General Hospitals (RGHs) in Scotland, and to gain insight into their experiences and determine their opinions on a remote and rural medical training pathway.

Design: Structured face-to-face interviews. Interviews were partially anonymised, and underwent thematic analysis. Read More

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December 2020

The effects of unexpected changes in demand on the performance of emergency departments.

Health Econ 2020 12 25;29(12):1744-1763. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Health Organisation, Policy and Economics (HOPE) Group, Centre for Primary Care & Health Services Research, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Crowding in emergency departments (EDs) is increasing in many health systems. Previous studies of the relationship between crowding and care quality are limited by the use of data from single hospitals, a focus on particular patient groups, a focus on a narrow set of quality measures, and use of crowding measures which induce bias from unobserved hospital and patient characteristics. Using data from 139 hospitals covering all major EDss in England, we measure crowding using quasi-exogenous variation in the volume of EDs attendances and examine its impacts on indicators of performance across the entire EDs care pathway. Read More

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December 2020

Computational prediction and analysis of histone H3k27me1-associated miRNAs.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2021 01 15;1869(1):140539. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Key Laboratory of Intelligent Computing and Information Processing of Ministry of Education and Hunan Key Laboratory for Computation and Simulation in Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105, China. Electronic address:

The mono-methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me1) plays key roles in the cellular processes. The H3K27me1 interacts with the DNA sequence of the miRNAs and regulates the transcription of miRNAs. Therefore, biological roles of the H3K27me1 are closely related to the downstream miRNAs. Read More

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January 2021