3,930,245 results match your criteria pathological stimuli

Lung donation following SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Am J Transplant 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA.

There have been over 177 million cases of COVID-19 worldwide, many of whom could be organ donors. Concomitantly, there is an anticipated increase in the need for donor lungs due to expanding indications. Given that the respiratory tract is most commonly affected by COVID-19, there is an urgent need to develop donor assessment criteria while demonstrating safety and "efficacy" of lung donation following COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Cytomorphological spectrum of cysticercosis: a study of 26 cases.

Cytopathology 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department Of Pathology, Atal Bihari Vajpayi Institute Of Medical Sciences & Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Background: Cysticercosis is a systemic parasitic disease caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium. It is the most common parasitic disease worldwide. Fine needle aspiration cytology plays an important role in prompt recognition of this disease. Read More

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Single-port robotic inguinal lymph node dissection: A safe and feasible option for penile cancer.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 16;38:101633. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Urology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Introduction: Inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) is essential to the accurate staging of advanced penile cancer and in determining prognosis. Open ILND is associated with significant morbidity. The robotic-assisted approach has been described with comparable nodal yield with the advantage of decreased postoperative complications when studied with the multiport robotic platform. Read More

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Perforated Meckel's diverticulum in omphalocele in a newborn: A case report of an uncommon presentation from northern Tanzania.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Jul 27;85:106246. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, Faculty of Medicine, P O Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania; Department of Pediatrics, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, P O Box 3010, Moshi, Tanzania.

Introduction And Importance: The concurrent existence of Omphalocele and Meckel's diverticulum is not unheard of but is relatively uncommon. A few cases of their coexistence have been reported. Due to the uncommon dual presentation, it is easy to delay or even miss the diagnosis, delaying management. Read More

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Drug-related demyelinating syndromes: understanding risk factors, pathophysiological mechanisms and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 21;55:103146. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Departamento de Radiologia e Oncologia, Hospital das Clinicas HCFMUSP, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Some drugs and medications can precipitate immune system deregulations, which might be confused with recurrent demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO), exacerbations of an existing disease, neoplastic lesions or other conditions. In this narrative review we describe some of the most relevant drugs and medications associated with iatrogenic demyelination. The anthelminthic agent levamisole is a frequent cocaine adulterant and can precipitate an exacerbated immune response attacking the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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A glypican-1-targeted antibody-drug conjugate exhibits potent tumor growth inhibition in glypican-1-positive pancreatic cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Neoplasia 2021 Jul 28;23(9):939-950. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Nankoku, Kochi, Japan; Institute for Biomedical Sciences Molecular Pathophysiology, Iwate Medical University, Yahaba, Iwate, Japan; Division of Allergy and Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, Yahaba, Iwate, Japan. Electronic address:

An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) is a promising therapeutic modality because selective and effective delivery of an anti-cancer drug is achieved by drug-conjugated antibody-targeting cancer antigen. Glypican 1 (GPC1) is highly expressed in malignant tumors, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Herein, we describe the usefulness of GPC1-targeting ADC. Read More

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Enhanced biogas production from Lantana camara via bioaugmentation of cellulolytic bacteria.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 24;340:125652. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Environmental Studies, Siksha -Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal, 731235, India. Electronic address:

A study was designed to isolate cellulolytic bacteria from termite-gut and soil, optimizing their cellulase production to enhance biogas generation, using Lantana camara as a substrate. Out of 57 bacteria screened, two isolates DSB1 and DSB12, showed significant cellulolytic activity. 16S rRNA based methods identified these isolates as Microbacterium sp. Read More

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Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

J Autoimmun 2021 Jul 28;123:102710. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Hepatology, University Clinic for Visceral Surgery and Medicine, Inselspital, Department of Biomedical Research, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The development of autoimmune diseases has been reported after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 could also trigger auto-immunity, as it has been described with other vaccines. An aberrant immune response induced by molecular mimicry and bystander activation, especially in predisposed individuals, is a potential mechanism. Read More

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Cutaneous involvement in anti-HMGCR positive necrotizing myopathy.

J Autoimmun 2021 Jul 28;123:102691. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, University Hospital and, University of Bern, CH-3010, Bern, Switzerland; Medical Center Monbijou (MZM), CH-3011, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Objective: Anti-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) positive immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) is a rare disease. It is induced by exogenous substances, most often by statins. Little is known about cutaneous manifestations of HMGCR positive IMNM and about HMGCR antibody positivity in other diseases. Read More

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NFAT indicates nucleocytoplasmic damped oscillation via its feedback modulator.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 28;571:201-209. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Divison of Molecular and Vascular Biology, Institute of Resource Development and Analysis, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan. Electronic address:

Cell signaling and the following gene regulation are tightly regulated to keep homeostasis. NF-κB is a famous key transcription factor for inflammatory cell regulations that obtain a closed feedback loop with IκB. Similarly, we show here, NFAT is also tightly regulated via its downstream target, down syndrome critical region (DSCR)-1. Read More

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Evaluation of the oncolytic property of recombinant Newcastle disease virus strain R2B in 4T1 and B16-F10 cells in-vitro.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 25;139:159-165. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Recombinant DNA Lab, Division of Veterinary Biotechnology, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly 243 122, India. Electronic address:

Recombinant Newcastle disease virus vectors have gained a lot of interest for its oncolytic virus therapy and cancer immune therapeutic properties due to its selective replication to high titers in cancer cells. The aim of this study was to find out the oncolytic effects of mesogenic recombinant NDV strain R2B-GFP on murine mammary tumor cell line 4T1 and murine melanoma cell line B16-F10. The anti-tumor effects of R2B-GFP virus were studied via expression of virus transgene GFP in cancer cells, evaluating its cytotoxicity and cell migration efficacies by MTT and wound healing assays respectively. Read More

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ZNF326 promotes colorectal cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

Pathol Res Pract 2021 Jul 22;225:153554. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, College of Basic Medical Science, and the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China. Electronic address:

Zinc-finger protein 326 (ZNF326) activity has been reported in different tumors, but its expression and possible mechanism of action in colorectal cancer are not known. In this study, we applied immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of ZNF326 in colorectal tissues. Next, we used a ZNF326 expression plasmid and small interfering (si) RNA-ZNF326 (siZNF326) to transfect colorectal cancer cell lines in order to determine the effect of ZNF326 on cell migration and as well as its potential role in promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Read More

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White matter microstructural associates of apathy-avolition in schizophrenia.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Jul 22;142:110-116. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Interdisciplinary Neuroscience Research Program, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Apathy is present at the onset in nearly half the patients with schizophrenia. Current therapies lack the efficiency to improve apathy in patients. The presence of apathy is also associated with poorer outcomes. Read More

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Considerable interlaboratory variation in PD-L1 positivity in a nationwide cohort of non-small cell lung cancer patients.

Lung Cancer 2021 Jul 22;159:117-126. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX, Utrecht, the Netherlands; University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Immunohistochemical expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is used as a predictive biomarker for prescription of immunotherapy to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Accurate assessment of PD-L1 expression is therefore crucial. In this study, the extent of interlaboratory variation in PD-L1 positivity in the Netherlands was assessed, using real-world clinical pathology data. Read More

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Short carboxyl terminal parathyroid hormone peptides modulate human parathyroid hormone signaling in mouse osteoblasts.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jul 28;572:15-19. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic Rochester, 200 First Street Southwest, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Novel human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) peptides of unknown biological activity have recently been identified in the serum of subjects with normal renal function, chronic renal failure, and end-stage renal disease through the application of liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

Purpose: of experiments: To determine the bioactivity of these peptides, we synthesized hPTH28-84, hPTH38-84, and hPTH45-84 peptides by solid phase peptide synthesis and tested their bioactivity in MC3T3-E1 mouse osteoblasts, either individually or together with the native hormone, hPTH1-84, by assessing the accumulation of 3´,5´-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the induction of alkaline phosphatase activity.

Results: Increasing doses of hPTH1-84 (1-100 nM) increased the accumulation of cAMP and alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts. Read More

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Should temozolomide be used on the basis of O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase status in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Cancer Treat Rev 2021 Jul 22;99:102261. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

IEO, European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Temozolomide (TEM) is an active treatment in metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Patients affected by glioblastoma multiforme or advanced melanoma treated with TEM who have deficiency of O-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) have a better responses and survival. However, the predictive role of MGMT in patients with NETs treated with TEM is still debated. Read More

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Qingyangshen mitigates amyloid-β and Tau aggregate defects involving PPARα-TFEB activation in transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.

Phytomedicine 2021 Jul 12;91:153648. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Mr. & Mrs. Ko Chi-Ming Centre for Parkinson's Disease Research, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Deposition of amyloid β plaques (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is the key pathological hallmark of AD. Accumulating evidence suggest that impairment of autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) plays key roles in AD pathology. Read More

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Excessive and pathological Internet use - Risk-behavior or psychopathology?

Addict Behav 2021 Jul 9;123:107045. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

National Centre for Suicide Research and Prevention of Mental Ill-Health (NASP), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Pathological Internet use (but only with respect to gaming) is classified as mental disorder in the ICD-11. However, there is a large group of adolescents showing excessive Internet use, which may rather be considered adolescent risk-behavior. The aim was to test whether pathological and excessive Internet use should be considered as "psychopathology" or "risk-behavior". Read More

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Dystrophin and metalloproteinase 9 in myocardial ischemia: A post-mortem immunohistochemical study.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 25;53:101948. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, via Consolare Valeria, 1, 98125 Messina, Italy.

The presented study evaluated the expression of dystrophin and MMP-9 in cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) in order to analyze the characteristics and the chronology of their expression, providing evidence on the possible role in post-mortem diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. The expression of these proteins was also compared to C5b-9 complex and fibronectin expression to evaluate any differences. Two groups of CAD-related SCD, respectively group 1 with gross and/or histological evidence and group 2 with no specific histological signs of myocardial ischemia, were used. Read More

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Reactive astrocytes contribute to epileptogenesis in patients with cavernous angioma.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul 26;176:106732. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Pathology, Brain Research Institute, Niigata University, Japan.

Objective: Patients with cavernous angioma (CA) often suffer from severe epilepsy, and surgical resection is often performed to attenuate these epileptic seizures. Several studies have suggested that surgical removal of the surrounding hemosiderin-pigmented tissues adjacent to CA achieves better seizure control than restricted lesionectomy. Pathological examination of the resected foci reveals not only hemosiderin pigmentation but also various degrees of inflammatory change, such as hemosiderin-laden macrophages, gliosis and fibrosis. Read More

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Age affects white matter microstructure and episodic memory across the older adult lifespan.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 4;106:282-291. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Diffusion imaging studies have observed age-related degradation of white matter that contributes to cognitive deficits separately in younger-old (ages 65-89) and oldest-old (ages 90+) adults. But it remains unclear whether these age effects are magnified in advanced age groups, which may reflect disease-related pathology. Here, we tested whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure followed linear or nonlinear patterns across the entire older adult lifespan (65-98 years), these patterns were influenced by oldest-old adults at increased risk of dementia (cognitive impairment no dementia, CIND), and they explained age effects on episodic memory. Read More

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Altered microstructural pattern of white matter in Cushing's disease identified by automated fiber quantification.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Jul 24;31:102770. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, PR China. Electronic address:

A growing body of evidence suggests that altered brain structure plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of neuropsychological abnormalities induced by hypercortisolism in patients with Cushing's disease. While most studies mainly focus on gray matter, white matter structure has been largely overlooked. In the current study, we conducted a cross-sectional diffusion tensor imaging study on 58 patients with Cushing's disease and 54 matched healthy individuals to profile the microstructural pattern using automated fiber quantification and investigate its association with neuroendocrine and neuropsychological deficits. Read More

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Recent advances in, and challenges of, anti-angiogenesis agents for tumor chemotherapy based on vascular normalization.

Drug Discov Today 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Pharmacy, Health Science Center, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710061, China. Electronic address:

A major problem associated with cancer treatment is resistance-prone chemotherapeutic drugs. An increasing number of studies have documented that the occurrence of resistance tends to be associated with abnormal blood vessels. In 2001, Jain proposed the vascular normalization theory, which was recently applied to the drug-resistant treatment of tumors in the clinic. Read More

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Anti-atopic effect of Viola yedoensis ethanol extract against 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin dysfunction.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jul 28:114474. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

National Engineering Research Center for Modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine- Hakka Medical Resources Branch, School of Pharmacy, Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, 341000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Viola yedoensis Makiho (VY, Violaceae) is a well-known medicinal herb in Chinese medicine, which is traditionally used to treat inflammation-related disorders, including allergic skin reactions. Although studies have uncovered its anti-inflammatory effects and corresponding bioactive constituents, the exact mechanism of action is still unclear in treating allergic skin reactions.

Objective: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by severe pruritus, dry, edema and inflamed skin. Read More

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Pathology-pain relationships in different osteoarthritis animal model phenotypes: it matters what you measure, when you measure, and how you got there.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Raymond Purves Bone and Joint Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute, University of Sydney Faculty of Medicine and Health, At Royal North Shore Hospital, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine whether osteoarthritis (OA) pain characteristics and mechanistic pathways in pre-clinical models are phenotype-specific.

Design: Male 11-week-old C57BL6 mice had unilateral medial-meniscal-destabilization (DMM) or antigen-induced-arthritis (AIA), versus sham-surgery/immunised-controls (Sham/Im-CT). Pain-behaviour (allodynia, mechanical- and thermal-hyperalgesia, hindlimb static weight-bearing, stride-length) and lumbar dorsal-root-ganglia (DRG) gene-expression were measured at baseline, day-3, week-1/-2/-4/-8/-16, and pain-behaviour:gene-expression:joint-pathology associations investigated. Read More

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Whole-genome characterization and comparative genomics of a novel freshwater cyanobacteria species: Pseudanabaena punensis.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Jul 28:107272. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Institute of Genomics for Crop Abiotic Stress Tolerance, Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Cyanobacteria are emerging as a potential source of novel, beneficial bioactive compounds. However, some cyanobacteria species can harm water quality and public health through the production of toxins. Therefore, surveying the occurrence and generating genomic resources of cyanobacteria producing harmful compounds could help develop the control methods necessary to manage their growth and limit the release contaminants into the water bodies. Read More

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The effect of N-acetylcysteine and working memory training on glutamate concentrations in the dACC and rACC in regular cocaine users - a randomized proof of concept study.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 28:136146. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Addiction, Development, and Psychopathology (ADAPT) lab, Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Current treatments for cocaine use disorder (CUD) are not very effective and better treatments are needed. This study investigates the effectiveness of a combined intervention that targets the assumed underlying glutamate pathology in cocaine users. To this end, the combined effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM) training on glutamate concentrations in the dorsal and rostral ACC were investigated in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled design. Read More

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Inhibition of serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinases by GSK650394 reduced infarct size in early cerebral ischemia-reperfusion with decreased BBB disruption.

Neurosci Lett 2021 Jul 28:136143. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 675 Hoes Lane West, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA.

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of the most important pathological changes following cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. We tested whether inhibition of the serum and glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) would decrease BBB disruption and contribute to decreasing infarct size in the first few hours of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion within the thrombolysis therapy time window. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), an SGK1 inhibitor GSK650394, or vehicle was administered into the lateral ventricle of rats. Read More

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