210,235 results match your criteria pathological mechanism


The life cycle of polyploid giant cancer cell and dormancy in cancer: opportunities for novel therapeutic interventions.

Semin Cancer Biol 2021 Oct 17. Epub 2021 Oct 17.

Departments of Gynecologic Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Recent data suggest that most genotoxic agents in cancer therapy can lead to shock of genome and increase in cell size, which leads whole genome duplication or multiplication, formation of polyploid giant cancer cells, activation of an early embryonic program, and dedifferentiation of somatic cells. This process is achieved via the giant cell life cycle, a recently proposed mechanism for malignant transformation of somatic cells. Increase in both cell size and ploidy allows cells to completely or partially restructures the genome and develop into a blastocyst-like structure, similar to that observed in blastomere-stage embryogenesis. Read More

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October 2021

Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) promotes aortic endothelial inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis through the NLRP3/caspase-1/IL-1β axis.

FASEB J 2021 Nov;35(11):e21942

Department of Neurology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Pathophysiological similarities between chronic infections and atherosclerosis triggered interests between these conditions. The seroepidemiological study showed that Helicobacter pylori strains that express cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), an oncoprotein and a major virulence factor, was positively correlated with atherosclerosis and related clinical events. Read More

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November 2021

FERM domain-containing protein 6 exerts a tumor-inhibiting role in thyroid cancer by antagonizing oncogenic YAP1.

Biofactors 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

The emerging role of FERM domain-containing protein 6 (FRMD6) in cancer progression has been revealed in several malignancies. However, its relevance on thyroid cancer is not well understood. This work evaluated the possible role and mechanism of FRMD6 in thyroid cancer. Read More

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October 2021

Chromosome Region Maintenance 1 (XPO1/CRM1) as an Anticancer Target and Discovery of Its Inhibitor.

J Med Chem 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is a major nuclear export receptor protein and contributes to cell homeostasis by mediating the transport of cargo from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. CRM1 is a therapeutic target comprised of several tumor types, including osteosarcoma, multiple myeloma, gliomas, and pancreatic cancer. In the past decade, dozens of CRM1 inhibitors have been discovered and developed, including KPT-330, which received FDA approval for multiple myeloma (MM) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Read More

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October 2021

[State of corneal nerve fibers in systemic amyloidosis].

Vestn Oftalmol 2021 ;137(5. Vyp. 2):231-237

Institute of Biomedical Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.

The term systemic amyloidosis unites a group of diseases with a single pathogenetic mechanism involving diffuse deposition of a pathological fibrillar protein (amyloid) in the intercellular space of various organs. Among the systemic forms of amyloidosis, light chain amyloidosis (AL-amyloidosis) occurs most often in clinical practice, while transthyretin amyloidosis (TTR-amyloidosis) is its most common hereditary form. Laser corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) allows for and non-invasive assessment of the state of corneal nerve fibers (CNF). Read More

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January 2021

[Association of polymorphic markers rs7947461 of the TRIM21 gene and rs33996649 of the PTPN22 gene with the risk of developing exogenous dry eye syndrome].

Vestn Oftalmol 2021 ;137(5. Vyp. 2):217-223

Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia.

In this age of technological advancement, an increasing number of people is being exposed to external risk factors of damaging their ocular surface (wearing contact lenses, electromagnetic radiation from computers, mobile devices, etc.). However, the presence of external factors does not lead to a 100% risk of developing the dry eye disease (DED). Read More

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January 2021

Metabolomic Analysis Reveals the Adaptation in the P. przewalskii to Se-Deprived Environment.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, No. 59 Middle Section of Avenue, District, Mianyang, 621010, China.

The Procapra przewalskii inhabits in a selenium (Se)-deprived environment in long-term, but they have no pathological manifestations due to the Se deprivation. This study aimed to reveal the underlying adaptation induced by Se deprivation. In the analysis, a total of 93 significantly changed metabolites were identified in positive and negative ion modes, including 46 upregulated and 47 downregulated compounds in the Se-deprived group. Read More

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October 2021

Reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide as mediators in plant hypersensitive response and stomatal closure.

Plant Signal Behav 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Plant Pathology, College of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Crop Integrated Pest Management, Key Laboratory of Biology and Sustainable Management of Plant Diseases and Pests of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, School of Plant Protection, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) have attracted considerable interest from plant pathologists since they regulate plant defenses via the hypersensitive response (HR) and stomatal closure. Here, we introduce the regulatory mechanisms of NO and ROS bursts and discuss the role of such bursts in HR and stomatal closure. It showed that epidermal sections of leaves respond to pathogens by the rapid and intense production of intracellular ROS and NO. Read More

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October 2021

Generation of False-Positive SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Results with Testing Conditions outside Manufacturer Recommendations: A Scientific Approach to Pandemic Misinformation.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Oct 20:e0068321. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Nova Scotia Health (NSH), Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Antigen-based rapid diagnostics tests (Ag-RDTs) are useful tools for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection. However, misleading demonstrations of the Abbott Panbio coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Ag-RDT on social media claimed that SARS-CoV-2 antigen could be detected in municipal water and food products. To offer a scientific rebuttal to pandemic misinformation and disinformation, this study explored the impact of using the Panbio SARS-CoV-2 assay with conditions falling outside manufacturer recommendations. Read More

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October 2021

CircGFRA1 facilitates the malignant progression of HER-2-positive breast cancer via acting as a sponge of miR-1228 and enhancing AIFM2 expression.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Breast Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

CircRNAs (circular RNA) are reported to regulate onset and progress multiple cancers. Nonetheless, the function along with the underlying mechanisms of circRNAs in HER-2-positive breast cancer (BC) remains unclear. CircRNA microarrays were performed to elucidate expression profiles of HER-2-positive BC cells. Read More

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October 2021

MNSFβ regulates placental development by conjugating IGF2BP2 to enhance trophoblast cell invasiveness.

Cell Prolif 2021 Oct 20:e13145. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

State Key Laboratory of Stem Cell and Reproductive Biology, Institute of Zoology, Institute for Stem Cell and Regeneration, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: Success in pregnancy in mammals predominantly depends on a well-developed placenta. The differentiation of invasive trophoblasts is a fundamental process of placentation, the abnormalities of which are tightly associated with pregnancy disorders including preeclampsia (PE). Monoclonal nonspecific suppressor factor beta (MNSFβ) is an immunosuppressive factor. Read More

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October 2021

Oxygen and Steroids Affect the Regulatory Role of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-C on Surfactant Secretion by Type II Cells.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Darby Children's Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States.

Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptors Natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and NRP-C are all highly expressed in alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC2s) in the late gestation ovine fetal lung and are dramatically decreased postnatally. However, of all the components, NPR-C stimulation inhibits ANP-mediated surfactant secretion. Since alveolar oxygen increases dramatically after birth, and steroids are administered to mothers antenatally to enhance surfactant lung maturity, we investigated the effects of O concentration and steroids on NPR-C-mediated surfactant secretion in AEC2s. Read More

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October 2021

A mechanistic view of long noncoding RNAs in cancer.

Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA 2021 Oct 19:e1699. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of a wide range of biological processes in normal and disease states. In particular, lncRNAs have garnered significant interest as novel players in the molecular pathology of cancer, spurring efforts to define the functions, and elucidate the mechanisms through which cancer-associated lncRNAs operate. In this review, we discuss the prevalent mechanisms employed by lncRNAs, with a critical assessment of the methodologies used to determine each molecular function. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison of myeloid neoplasms with non-classic 3q26.2/MECOM vs classic inv(3)/t(3;3) rearrangements reveals diverse clinicopathologic features, genetic profiles and molecular mechanisms of MECOM activation.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

MECOM rearrangements are recurrent in myeloid neoplasms and associated with poor prognosis. However, only inv(3)(q21q26.2) and t(3;3)(q21;q26. Read More

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October 2021

Toward the unity of pathological and exertional fatigue: A predictive processing model.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Immunopsychiatry Research Group, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Fatigue is a common experience in both health and disease. Yet, pathological (i.e. Read More

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October 2021

Inhibition of lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1-3 deteriorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by inducing oxidative stress.

J Neuroinflammation 2021 Oct 19;18(1):240. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Convergence Korean Medical Science, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Background: Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPARs) are G-protein-coupled receptors involved in many physiological functions in the central nervous system. However, the role of the LPARs in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been clearly defined yet.

Methods: Here, we investigated the roles of LPARs in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptides-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Read More

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October 2021

High-altitude hypoxia exacerbates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis by upregulating Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes.

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):7985-7994

Research Center for High Altitude Medicine, Key Laboratory for High Altitude Medicine, Ministry of Education, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinghai, 810001, China.

High altitude hypoxia (HAH) involves the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) and gastrointestinal erosions. However, the mechanism of effects of HAH in colitis remains controversial. This study reports the immunomodulation mediated by HAH to enhancing the severity of UC in the mice model. Read More

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December 2021

ADAMTS-13-regulated nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 signaling inhibits ferroptosis to ameliorate cisplatin-induced acute kidney injuy.

Bioengineered 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Department of General Surgery, The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Liuzhou, China.

ADAMTS-13 plays an important role in acute kidney injury (AKI), but the mechanism of cisplatin (CP) induced AKI remains unclear. Ferroptosis is increased in CP-induced AKI, and ADAMTS13 levels are associated with ferritin expression. In this article, we will explore the relationship between the three. Read More

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October 2021

Comparison of novel machine vision spinal image guidance system with existing 3D fluoroscopy-based navigation system: a randomized prospective study.

Spine J 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Epworth Hospital, Richmond, Melbourne, Australia.

Background Context: The use of spinal image guidance systems (IGS) has increased patient safety, accuracy, operative efficiency, and reduced revision rates in pedicle screw placement procedures. Traditional intraoperative 3D fluoroscopy or CT imaging produces potentially harmful ionizing radiation and increases operative time to register the patient. An IGS, FLASH Navigation, uses machine vision through high resolution stereoscopic cameras and structured visible light to build a 3D topographical map of the patient's bony surface anatomy enabling navigation use without ionizing radiation. Read More

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October 2021

Integrated molecular biology and metabonomics approach to understand the mechanism underlying reduction of insulin resistance by corn silk decoction.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Oct 16:114756. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Heilongjiang Academy of Chinese Medicine Sciences, No.72 Xiang'an Street, Xiangfang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Corn silk is composed of the style and stigma of Zea maysL. Its medical value was first reported in "Southern Yunnan Materia Medica" in the Ming Dynasty. It was considered to be a heat-clearing and diuretic drug. Read More

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October 2021

Sestrin2 in atherosclerosis.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Oct 16. Epub 2021 Oct 16.

Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Key Lab for Arteriosclerology of Hunan Province, International Joint Laboratory for Arteriosclerotic Disease Research of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang, China, 421001. Electronic address:

Atherosclerosis (AS) is the pathological basis of numerous lethal diseases, such as myocardial infarction, heart failure, and stroke. As we know, almost twenty million people worldwide die of the arterial diseases annually. Sestrin2 is a stress-inducing protein, which serves as a guardian by activating AMPK, inhibiting mTOR, and maintaining redox balance beneath various stress environments. Read More

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October 2021

The important role of mechanical microenvironment on macrophages dysfunction during keloid pathogenesis.

Exp Dermatol 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Tissue Engineering, 639 Zhi Zao Ju Road, Shanghai, 200011, People's Republic of China.

Keloid is considered as a tumor-like skin disease with multiple etiologies including immunological factors and mechanical microenvironment. Macrophages are plastic and diverse immune cells that play a critical role in maintaining tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells, debris, pathogens and repairing tissues after inflammation. The imbalance of M1/M2 macrophages and disturbances in macrophage functions can steer the progression of chronic inflammation and lead to the development of pathological fibrosis in keloid disease. Read More

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October 2021

Role of SIRT1 and Progesterone Resistance in Normal and Abnormal Endometrium.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wake Forest Baptist Health, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Context: Progesterone resistance, a known pathologic condition associated with a reduced cellular response to progesterone and heightened estrogen responses, appears to have a normal physiologic role in mammalian reproduction. The molecular mechanism responsible for progesterone resistance in normal and abnormal endometrium remains unclear.

Objective: To examine the roles of Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) in normal endometrium as well as endometrium associated with infertility and endometriosis, as an epigenetic modulator associated with progesterone resistance. Read More

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October 2021

Establishment and characterization of NCC-UPS3-C1: a novel patient-derived cell line of undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma.

Hum Cell 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Division of Rare Cancer Research, National Cancer Center Research Institute, 5-1-1 Tsukiji, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, 104-0045, Japan.

Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS), previously termed malignant fibrous histiocytoma, is one of the most aggressive sarcomas with no identifiable line of differentiation. Although the molecular mechanism of oncogenesis in UPS has not been clarified, radiation exposure is considered to be a risk factor in the development of UPS. In the treatment of UPS, surgical treatment remains the most important modality. Read More

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October 2021

Zebrafish an experimental model of Huntington's disease: molecular aspects, therapeutic targets and current challenges.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Pharmacology, ISF College of Pharmacy, Moga, Punjab, 142001, India.

Huntington disease (HD) is a lethal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease whose exact causative mechanism is still unknown. It can transform from one generation to another generation. The CAG triplet expansion on polyglutamine (PolyQ) tract on Huntingtin protein primarily contributes in HD pathogenesis. Read More

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October 2021

The role of carbonic anhydrase III and autophagy in type 2 diabetes with cardio-cerebrovascular disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Geriatrics Department and National Clinical Research Center for Aging and Medicine, Huashan Hospital, and Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200040, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases among the elderly people. The T2DM increases the risk of cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCD), and the main pathological change of the CCD is atherosclerosis (AS). Meanwhile, the carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are involved in the formation and progression of plaques in AS. Read More

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October 2021

Sarcopenia in pulmonary diseases is associated with elevated sarcoplasmic reticulum stress and myonuclear disorganization.

Histochem Cell Biol 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Al-Qassimi Hospital, 27272, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with age-related muscle loss or sarcopenia. However, the exact molecular mechanism of muscle loss in COPD remains elusive. We investigated the association of chronic dysregulation of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein homeostasis (a condition called SR stress) and myonuclear disorganization with sarcopenia in patients with COPD. Read More

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October 2021

In premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis, lower bone formation rate is associated with higher body fat and higher IGF-1.

Osteoporos Int 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Medicine, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians & Surgeons, NY, New York, USA.

We examined serum IGF-1 in premenopausal IOP, finding relationships that were opposite to those expected: higher IGF-1 was associated with lower bone formation and higher body fat, and lower BMD response to teriparatide. These paradoxical relationships between serum IGF-1, bone, and fat may contribute to the mechanism of idiopathic osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

Introduction: Premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis (IOP) have marked deficits in bone microarchitecture but variable bone remodeling. Read More

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October 2021

USP10 Promotes Fibronectin Recycling, Secretion, and Organization.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Oct;62(13):15

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States.

Purpose: Integrins play a central role in myofibroblast pathological adhesion, over-contraction, and TGFβ activation. Previously, we demonstrated that after corneal wounding, αv integrins are protected from intracellular degradation by upregulation of the deubiquitinase USP10, leading to cell-surface integrin accumulation. Because integrins bind to and internalize extracellular matrix (ECM), we tested whether extracellular fibronectin (FN) accumulation can result from an increase in integrin and matrix recycling in primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs). Read More

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October 2021