Free Radic Biol Med 2019 05 5;135:182-197. Epub 2019 Mar 5.
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, 1 Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, USA; Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, 134 Research Park Drive, Columbia, MO 65211, USA. Electronic address:
Vascular endothelial cells line the inner surface of the entire cardiovascular system as a single layer and are involved in an impressive array of functions, ranging from the regulation of vascular tone in resistance arteries and arterioles, modulation of microvascular barrier function in capillaries and postcapillary venules, and control of proinflammatory and prothrombotic processes, which occur in all segments of the vascular tree but can be especially prominent in postcapillary venules. When tissues are subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R), the endothelium of resistance arteries and arterioles, capillaries, and postcapillary venules become dysfunctional, resulting in impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilator and enhanced endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor responses along with increased vulnerability to thrombus formation, enhanced fluid filtration and protein extravasation, and increased blood-to-interstitium trafficking of leukocytes in these functionally distinct segments of the microcirculation. The number of capillaries open to flow upon reperfusion also declines as a result of I/R, which impairs nutritive perfusion. Read More