77,934 results match your criteria pathogen host

First finding of Streptococcus phocae infections in mink (Neovison vison).

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 16;139:145-151. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.

Streptococcus phocae infection has been described in salmon, sea otters, and several families of pinnipeds. The pathology of the infected animals has mainly been located in the respiratory tract and reproductive system, and with indications of septicemia. In this study, we report the finding of S. Read More

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Host adaptation to novel pathogen introduction: Predicting conditions that promote evolutionary rescue.

Ecol Lett 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Novel pathogen introduction can have drastic consequences for naive host populations, and outcomes can be difficult to predict. Evolutionary rescue (ER) provides a foundation for understanding whether hosts are driven to extinction or survive via adaptation. Currently, patterns of host population dynamics alongside evidence of adaptation are used to infer ER. Read More

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pMGF505-7R determines pathogenicity of African swine fever virus infection by inhibiting IL-1β and type I IFN production.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009733. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Fundamental Immunology, National African Swine Fever Para-reference Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Biotechnology, Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin, China.

Inflammatory factors and type I interferons (IFNs) are key components of host antiviral innate immune responses, which can be released from the pathogen-infected macrophages. African swine fever virus (ASFV) has developed various strategies to evade host antiviral innate immune responses, including alteration of inflammatory responses and IFNs production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition of inflammatory responses and IFNs production by ASFV-encoded proteins has not been fully understood. Read More

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Divergent metabolism between Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei results in differential sensitivity to metabolic inhibition.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Jul 26;17(7):e1009734. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

The Roslin Institute, Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Animal African Trypanosomiasis (AAT) is a debilitating livestock disease prevalent across sub-Saharan Africa, a main cause of which is the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma congolense. In comparison to the well-studied T. brucei, there is a major paucity of knowledge regarding the biology of T. Read More

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Maize streak virus research in Africa: an end or a crossroad.

Theor Appl Genet 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Crop Production and Landscape Management, Faculty of Agriculture and Resource Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria.

The economic importance of the maize streak virus disease to the African maize production dynamic is to be appreciated now more than ever due to the preponderant influence of a changing climate. Continued dependence on a single major-effect quantitative trait locus (QTL) called Msv1 on Chromosome 1 of Maize (Zea mays L.) is not guaranteed to ensure durable resistance to the causal pathogen. Read More

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Double Labeling Immunofluorescence using Antibodies from the Same Species to Study Host-Pathogen Interactions.

J Vis Exp 2021 Jul 10(173). Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Cell and Molecular Biology of Trypanosomatids, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Bioagents, Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil;

Nowadays, it is possible to find a wide range of molecular tools available to study parasite-host cell interactions. However, some limitations exist to obtain commercial monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies that recognize specific cell structures and proteins in parasites. Besides, there are few commercial antibodies available to label trypanosomatids. Read More

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The deletion of facilitates escape from immune recognition.

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0033621. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology & Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Mammary gland-derived () is an important pathogen causing dairy cow mastitis. Mammary gland mucosal immunity against infectious mainly depends on recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by innate receptors. Stimulator of interferon (IFN) gene (STING) has recently been the dominant mediator in reacting to bacterial intrusion and preventing inflammatory disorders. Read More

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Type II fatty acid synthesis pathway and cyclopropane ring formation are dispensable during systemic infection.

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0022121. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Université de Paris, Institut Cochin, INSERM, CNRS, F-75014 Paris, France.

, a multi-antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacterium, has emerged as a serious nosocomial pathogen. Here, we used a genetic approach to characterize the strategies used by to fulfill its requirements for endogenous fatty acid (FA) synthesis and . The FA synthesis (FASII) pathway is encoded by two operons and two monocistronic genes. Read More

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Sirtuin-dependent reversible lysine acetylation controls the activity of acetyl-Coenzyme A synthetase in .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jul 26:JB0033321. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Posttranslational modifications are mechanisms for rapid control of protein function used by cells from all domains of life. Acetylation of the epsilon amino group () of an active-site lysine of the AMP-forming acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) enzyme is the paradigm for the posttranslational control of the activity of metabolic enzymes. In bacteria, the alluded active-site lysine of Acs enzymes can be modified by a number of different GCN5-type -acetyltransferases (GNATs). Read More

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Elevated Notch ligands in serum are associated with HIV/TB coinfection.

J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis 2021 Aug 27;24:100258. Epub 2021 Jun 27.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Objective: There is a clear need for improved biomarkers to diagnose HIV/TB coinfection. Although numerous tests can identify the existence of both of these microbes within the host, a parallel assessment of the host response to HIV/TB coinfection may prove as useful confirmation in cases where microbiological tests are inconclusive. To this end we assessed the levels of Notch ligands found in serum samples of patients with TB, HIV or HIV/TB coinfection. Read More

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Mutational analysis in international isolates and drug repurposing against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: molecular docking and simulation approach.

Virusdisease 2021 Jul 15:1-13. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Biochemistry, REVA University, Bangalore, Karnataka 560064 India.

The novel SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) is spreading, as the causative pathogen of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). It has infected more than 1.65 billion people all over the world since it was discovered and reported 3. Read More

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Assessment of Evaluation Tools for Integrated Surveillance of Antimicrobial Use and Resistance Based on Selected Case Studies.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:620998. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department for Food Safety, Veterinary Issues and Risk Analysis, Danish Agriculture and Food Council, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Regular evaluation of integrated surveillance for antimicrobial use (AMU) and resistance (AMR) in animals, humans, and the environment is needed to ensure system effectiveness, but the question is how. In this study, six different evaluation tools were assessed after being applied to AMU and AMR surveillance in eight countries: (1) ATLASS: the Assessment Tool for Laboratories and AMR Surveillance Systems developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, (2) ECoSur: Evaluation of Collaboration for Surveillance tool, (3) ISSEP: Integrated Surveillance System Evaluation Project, (4) NEOH: developed by the EU COST Action "Network for Evaluation of One Health," (5) PMP-AMR: The Progressive Management Pathway tool on AMR developed by the FAO, and (6) SURVTOOLS: developed in the FP7-EU project "RISKSUR." Each tool was scored using (i) 11 pre-defined functional aspects (e. Read More

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Structural Basis of Glycan Recognition of Rotavirus.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 8;8:658029. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

National Health Commission Key Laboratory for Medical Virology and Viral Diseases, Beijing, China.

Rotavirus (RV) is an important pathogen causing acute gastroenteritis in young humans and animals. Attachment to the host receptor is a crucial step for the virus infection. The recent advances in illustrating the interactions between RV and glycans promoted our understanding of the host range and epidemiology of RVs. Read More

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Editorial: Bacterial Effectors as Drivers of Human Disease: Models, Methods, Mechanisms.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 8;11:708228. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

MRC Centre for Molecular Bacteriology and Infection, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

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Mixed infection, risk projection, and misdirection: Interactions among pathogens alter links between host resources and disease.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 22;11(14):9599-9609. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior University of Minnesota St. Paul MN USA.

A growing body of literature links resources of hosts to their risk of infectious disease. Yet most hosts encounter multiple pathogens, and projections of disease risk based on resource availability could be fundamentally wrong if they do not account for interactions among pathogens within hosts. Here, we measured infection risk of grass hosts ( ) exposed to three naturally co-occurring viruses either singly or jointly (barley and cereal yellow dwarf viruses [B/CYDVs]: CYDV-RPV, BYDV-PAV, and BYDV-SGV) along experimental gradients of nitrogen and phosphorus supply. Read More

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Enemies make you stronger: Coevolution between fruit fly host and bacterial pathogen increases postinfection survivorship in the host.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 22;11(14):9563-9574. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Biological Sciences Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali Mohali India.

Multiple laboratory studies have evolved hosts against a nonevolving pathogen to address questions about evolution of immune responses. However, an ecologically more relevant scenario is one where hosts and pathogens can coevolve. Such coevolution between the antagonists, depending on the mutual selection pressure and additive variance in the respective populations, can potentially lead to a different pattern of evolution in the hosts compared to a situation where the host evolves against a nonevolving pathogen. Read More

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Geography, Host Genetics, and Cross-Domain Microbial Networks Structure the Skin Microbiota of Fragmented Brazilian Atlantic Forest Frog Populations.

Ecol Evol 2021 Jul 18;11(14):9293-9307. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Michigan Ann Arbor MI USA.

The host-associated microbiome plays a significant role in health. However, the roles of factors such as host genetics and microbial interactions in determining microbiome diversity remain unclear. We examined these factors using amplicon-based sequencing of 175 frog skin swabs collected from a naturally fragmented landscape in southeastern Brazil. Read More

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The Role and Mechanism of Pyroptosis and Potential Therapeutic Targets in Sepsis: A Review.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:711939. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Emergency, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. Recently was been found that pyroptosis is a unique form of proinflammatory programmed death, that is different from apoptosis. A growing number of studies have investigated pyroptosis and its relationship with sepsis, including the mechanisms, role, and relevant targets of pyroptosis in sepsis. Read More

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Vaccine Research and Development: The Past, Present and Future, Including Novel Therapeutic Strategies.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:705360. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

GSK, Siena, Italy.

is one of the most important human pathogens worldwide. Its high antibiotic resistance profile reinforces the need for new interventions like vaccines in addition to new antibiotics. Vaccine development efforts against have failed so far however, the findings from these human clinical and non-clinical studies provide potential insight for such failures. Read More

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Protein Kinase R in Bacterial Infections: Friend or Foe?

Robin Smyth Jim Sun

Front Immunol 2021 8;12:702142. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

The global antimicrobial resistance crisis poses a significant threat to humankind in the coming decades. Challenges associated with the development of novel antibiotics underscore the urgent need to develop alternative treatment strategies to combat bacterial infections. Host-directed therapy is a promising new therapeutic strategy that aims to boost the host immune response to bacteria rather than target the pathogen itself, thereby circumventing the development of antibiotic resistance. Read More

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Grand Challenges in Phage Biology.

Sangryeol Ryu

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:715039. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Food and Animal Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

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Nitrogen Supply and Host-Plant Genotype Modulate the Transcriptomic Profile of .

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:701067. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

IGEPP, INRAE, Institut Agro, Université Rennes 1, Le Rheu, France.

Nitrogen fertilization can affect the susceptibility of to the telluric pathogen . Our previous works highlighted that the influence of nitrogen can strongly vary regarding plant cultivar/pathogen strain combinations, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. The present work aims to explore how nitrogen supply can affect the molecular physiology of through its life epidemiological cycle. Read More

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The Study of the Germination Dynamics of Oospores Highlights the Presence of Phenotypic Synchrony With the Host.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:698586. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie e Ambientali, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

The plant disease onset is a complex event that occurs when the pathogen and the host encounter in a favorable environment. While the plant-pathogen interaction has been much investigated, little attention has been given to the phenological synchrony of the event, especially when both plant and pathogen overwinter, as in the case of grapevines and the downy mildew agent, the oomycete . Oospores allow this obligate parasite to survive grapevine dormancy and, germinating, produce inoculum for primary infections. Read More

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Binding of Plasminogen to Protein Endopeptidase O Facilitates Evasion of Innate Immunity in .

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:694103. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

The Gram-positive bacterial species is an important porcine and human pathogen that causes severe life-threatening diseases associated with high mortality rates. However, the mechanisms by which evades host innate immunity remain elusive, so identifying novel virulence factors involved in immune evasion is crucial to gain control over this threatening pathogen. Our previous work has shown that protein endopeptidase O (SsPepO) is a novel fibronectin-binding protein. Read More

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First Molecular Characterization of -Like Bacteriophages Infecting in a Case of Exudative Epidermitis.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:653501. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute of Nutrition and Food, Kiel, Germany.

Exudative epidermitis (EE), also known as greasy pig disease, is one of the most frequent skin diseases affecting piglets. Zoonotic infections in human occur. EE is primarily caused by virulent strains of (. Read More

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Role of Ayurveda and Yoga-Based lifestyle in the COVID-19 Pandemic - A Narrative Review.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Integrative Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an immense challenge to health care systems around the globe in terms of limited health care facilities and proven medical therapeutics to address the symptoms of the infection. The current health care strategies have primarily focused on either the pathogen on the environmental factors. However, efforts towards strengthening the host immunity are important from public health perspective to prevent the spread of infection and downregulate the potency of the agent. Read More

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Absence of pro-survival A1 has no impact on inflammatory cell survival in vivo during acute lung inflammation and peritonitis.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

The Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research (WEHI), Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Inflammation is a natural defence mechanism of the body to protect against pathogens. It is induced by immune cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils, which are rapidly recruited to the site of infection, mediating host defence. The processes for eliminating inflammatory cells after pathogen clearance are critical in preventing sustained inflammation, which can instigate diverse pathologies. Read More

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Antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD show molecular similarity with pathogenic antigenic determinants and harbors peptides for vaccine development.

Immunobiology 2021 Jul 13;226(5):152091. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Genome & Computational Biology Lab, Department of Biotechnology, Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan, India. Electronic address:

The spike protein of coronavirus is key target for drug development and other pharmacological interventions. In current study, we performed an integrative approach to predict antigenic sites in SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain and found nine potential antigenic sites. The predicted antigenic sites were then assessed for possible molecular similarity with other known antigens in different organisms. Read More

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Wolbachia as translational science: controlling mosquito-borne pathogens.

Trends Parasitol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Mosquitos Vetores: Endossimbiontes e Interação Patógeno-Vetor, Instituto René Rachou - Fiocruz, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

In this review we examine how exploiting the Wolbachia-mosquito relationship has become an increasingly popular strategy for controlling arbovirus transmission. Field deployments of Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes have led to significant decreases in dengue virus incidence via high levels of mosquito population suppression and replacement, emphasizing the success of Wolbachia approaches. Here, we examine how improved knowledge of Wolbachia-host interactions has provided key insight into the mechanisms of the essential phenotypes of pathogen blocking and cytoplasmic incompatibility. Read More

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Molecular characterisation of a new tenuivirus from Festuca sp.

Virus Res 2021 Jul 21:198509. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Julius Kühn Institute (JKI) - Federal Research Centre for Cultivated Plants, Braunschweig, Lower Saxony, Germany. Electronic address:

A novel virus with a quadruple genome of negative-sense, single-stranded (ss) RNA was identified by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) in a grass sample from Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, and tentatively called Festuca stripe-associated virus (FSaV). The genome of FSaV consists of four segments and a total of 16,535 nucleotides (nt) which encode seven open reading frames. FSaV shares highest nt identity (between 72. Read More

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