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Impaired global efficiency in boys with conduct disorder and high callous unemotional traits.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Apr 29;138:560-568. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Medical Psychological Center, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center on Psychiatry and Psychology, Changsha, China; Medical Psychological Institute of Central South University, Changsha, China; National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Callous unemotional (CU) traits differentiate subtypes of conduct disorder (CD). It has been suggested that CU traits may be related to topographical irregularities that hinder information integration. To date, there is limited evidence of whether CU traits may be associated with abnormal brain topology. Read More

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Quality of life in multiple sclerosis is dominated by fatigue, disability and self-efficacy.

J Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 9;426:117437. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, University of Leeds, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: Quality of life in multiple sclerosis (MS) reflects complex relationships between symptoms (fatigue, spasticity pain, and bladder or vision dysfunction), disability, health perceptions, and self-efficacy.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a self-report questionnaire pack of patient reported outcome measures was collected from 5695 people with MS (pwMS) alongside clinical data from their neurologists. Each patient reported outcome measure was converted to interval-scaled estimates following fit to the Rasch model. Read More

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In-vitro evaluation of antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of novel pyridine, quinoxaline and s-triazine derivatives.

Environ Res 2021 May 12:111320. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Chemistry, Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry Laboratories, Yogi Vemana University, Kadapa-516005, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Cholinesterase enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) cause hydrolysis of acetylcholine (ACh), a neurotransmitter responsible for the cognitive functions of the brain such as acquiring knowledge and comprehension. Therefore, inhibition of these enzymes is an effective process to curb the progressive and fatal neurological Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein, we explored the potential inhibitory activities of various pyridine, quinoxaline, and triazine derivatives (3a-k, 6a-j and 11a-h) against AChE and BuChE enzymes by following the modified Ellman's method. Read More

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Immunoinformatics and Pepscan strategies on the path of a peptide-based serological diagnosis of COVID19.

J Immunol Methods 2021 May 12:113071. Epub 2021 May 12.

Unidad de Química Medicinal, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas 1051, Venezuela. Electronic address:

Several diagnostic tools have been developed for clinical and epidemiological assays. RT-PCR and antigen detection tests are more useful for diagnosis of acute disease, while antibody tests allow the estimation of exposure in the population. Currently, there is an urgent need for the development of diagnostic tests for COVID-19 that can be used for large-scale epidemiological sampling. Read More

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Formalizing the use of training methods in developing a career path.

J Community Psychol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Psychology, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

Coaching methods are aimed at motivating people to achieve career or social skills. Therewith, coaching acts only as an additional form of career development for persons engaged in certain professions. The novelty of the study lies in the need to apply coaching methods not only during the period of active career implementation, but also during its interruption. Read More

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Student Engagement in Adolescence: A Scoping Review of Longitudinal Studies 2010-2020.

J Res Adolesc 2021 Jun;31(2):256-272

University of Helsinki.

We systematically mapped and analyzed the longitudinal research on adolescent student engagement published during 2010-2020. A total of 104 studies of 104,304 adolescents met inclusion criteria. Studies were mainly conducted in North America (43%) or Europe (34%). Read More

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Spring 2020 COVID-19 Surge: Prospective Relations between Demographic Factors, Personality Traits, Social Cognitions and Guideline Adherence, Mask Wearing, and Symptoms in a U.S. Sample.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Psychology, Wayne State University, 5057 Woodward Ave., 7th Floor, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Background: To date, much of the research on individual difference correlates of coronavirus guideline adherence is cross-sectional, leaving prospective associations between these factors unaddressed. Additionally, investigations of prospective predictors of mask-wearing, COVID-19 symptoms, and viral testing remain wanting.

Purpose: The present study examined prospective relations between demographic factors, personality traits, social cognitions and guideline adherence, mask-wearing, symptoms, and viral testing in a U. Read More

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Functional group-induced p-doping of MoS2 by titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide physisorption.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Lushan Road No 2, CHINA.

P-type doping is of critical importance for the realization of certain high performance electrical and optoelectronic devices based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ). The charge transfer doping is a feasible strategy for tuning the conductance properties via facile treatment. In this work, the electrical properties of few-layer MoS 2 were modulated with titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactato) dihydroxide molecules (denoted as TALH) via physisorption. Read More

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Processing and characterization of thermoplastic corn starch-based film/paper composites containing microcrystalline cellulose.

J Sci Food Agric 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Key Laboratory of Eco-textiles, Ministry of Education, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China.

Background: Different thermoplastic starch (TPS) films were prepared with or without the addition of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained via melt-extrusion method, then hot-press method was used to produce environmentally friendly TPS-based film/paper composites to replace petroleum-based materials.

Results: The paper-plastic composites exhibited good interfacial adhesion from the SEM images. It was seen that 5wt. Read More

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Deep learning in histopathology: the path to the clinic.

Nat Med 2021 May 14;27(5):775-784. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Machine learning techniques have great potential to improve medical diagnostics, offering ways to improve accuracy, reproducibility and speed, and to ease workloads for clinicians. In the field of histopathology, deep learning algorithms have been developed that perform similarly to trained pathologists for tasks such as tumor detection and grading. However, despite these promising results, very few algorithms have reached clinical implementation, challenging the balance between hope and hype for these new techniques. Read More

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Fungus-mediated green synthesis of nano-silver using Aspergillus sydowii and its antifungal/antiproliferative activities.

Sci Rep 2021 May 14;11(1):10356. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Oral Implantology, Hospital of Stomatology, Jilin University, Changchun, 130021, China.

Due to the increasing demand for eco-friendly, cost-effective and safe technologies, biosynthetic metal nanoparticles have attracted worldwide attention. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extracellularly biosynthesized using the culture supernatants of Aspergillus sydowii. During synthesis, color change was preliminarily judge of the generation of AgNPs, and the UV absorption peak at 420 nm further confirms the production of AgNPs. Read More

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CMV, MHC-E, and the quest for an unconventional AIDS vaccine.

Authors:
Bruce D Walker

Sci Immunol 2021 May;6(59)

Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT and Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Email:

In the evolutionary battle between virus and host, a genetic alteration in cytomegalovirus caused by an inversion-deletion event during tissue culture passage opens an unconventional path toward an HIV vaccine (see the related Research Articles by Malouli , Yang , and Verweij ). Read More

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The structure of an infectious immature flavivirus redefines viral architecture and maturation.

Sci Adv 2021 May 14;7(20). Epub 2021 May 14.

Australian Infectious Diseases Research Centre, School of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Flaviviruses are the cause of severe human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses use a potent fusion machinery to enter target cells that needs to be restrained during viral assembly and egress. A molecular chaperone, premembrane (prM) maintains the virus particles in an immature, fusion-incompetent state until they exit the cell. Read More

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Educational level and colorectal cancer risk: the mediating roles of lifestyle and dietary factors.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University Department of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Experimental Research, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: The association between the educational level and colorectal cancer risk was controversial in developed countries and evidence was limited in Chinese population. This study aimed to investigate the association between the educational level and colorectal cancer risk in Guangdong Province, China.

Methods: From July 2010 to April 2019, 2502 newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients and 2538 sex- and age-matched controls were recruited in this case-control study. Read More

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Network reorganization during verbal fluency test in fronto-temporal epilepsy: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 May 8;138:541-549. Epub 2021 May 8.

Professional Master Program in Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Electronic address:

This is the first study to use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate how the lateralization of the epileptogenic zone affects the reconfiguration of task-related network patterns. Eleven left fronto-temporal epilepsy (L-FTE) and 11 right fronto-temporal epilepsy (R-FTE), as well as 22 age- and gender-matched controls, were enrolled. Signals from 52-channel fNIRS were recorded while the subject was undertaking verbal fluency tasks (VFTs), which included categorical (CFT) and letter (LFT) fluency tasks. Read More

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Cysteine proteases: Battling pathogenic parasitic protozoans with omnipresent enzymes.

Microbiol Res 2021 May 6;249:126784. Epub 2021 May 6.

Amity Institute of Biotechnology, Amity University Rajasthan, Kant Kalwar, NH-11C, Jaipur-Delhi Highway, Jaipur, India. Electronic address:

Millions of people worldwide lie at the risk of parasitic protozoic infections that kill over a million people each year. The rising inefficacy of conventional therapeutics to combat these diseases, mainly due to the development of drug resistance to a handful of available licensed options contributes substantially to the rising burden of these ailments. Cysteine proteases are omnipresent enzymes that are critically implicated in the pathogenesis of protozoic infections. Read More

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Understanding the mechanisms of groundwater recharge and flow in periglacial environments: New insights from the Ledo-Paniselian aquifer in Belgium.

J Contam Hydrol 2021 May 4;241:103819. Epub 2021 May 4.

Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S8, B-9000 Gent, Belgium.

The Ledo-Paniselian aquifer in Belgium has been proposed to offer unique opportunities to study groundwater recharge and flow in periglacial conditions during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), due to its location in the permanent permafrost area, south of the ice sheet at that time. A palaeoclimatic record had been set up previously for this aquifer, consisting of major ion chemistry, stable isotopes, radiocarbon and noble gases. In this paper, methane data have been used to further refine the paleoclimatic model, along with revisiting in detail the set of chemical data, focusing on the area where groundwaters, recharged around the LGM, are known to occur. Read More

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Effect of Internet use for searching information on vaccination on the uptake of human papillomavirus vaccine in France: A path-analysis approach.

Prev Med 2021 May 11:106615. Epub 2021 May 11.

INSERM CIC 1417, F-CRIN, I REIVAC, Assistance Publique- Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Cochin, Paris, France; Université de Paris, Faculté de médecine Paris Descartes, Paris, France.

Internet is a popular source of information regarding vaccination. This study aimed to determine whether there is a negative association between Internet use among French vaccine-hesitant mothers and HPV vaccine uptake by their daughters, and to gain insight into the pathways that would link Internet use to the lack of HPV vaccine uptake. We conducted a pooled cross-sectional analysis across the 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018 Vaccinoscopie® Survey. Read More

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Being treated fairly in groups is important, but not sufficient: The role of distinctive treatment in groups, and its implications for mental health.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251871. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Psychology, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

Organizations and other groups often recognize the importance of members treating each other in a fair (dignified, unbiased) manner. This type of treatment is key to fostering individuals' sense of belonging in the group. However, while a sense of belonging is important, individuals also need to be shown that they have some distinct value to the group-enabling them to not only "fit in" but also "stand out. Read More

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Evaluating changes in workplace culture: Effectiveness of a caregiver-friendly workplace program in a public post-secondary educational institution.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0250978. Epub 2021 May 14.

Offord Center for Child Health Study, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Workplace experience, defined as the evaluation of the work environment and performance, and a characteristic of workplace culture, can influence an employee's work-life balance. Most carer-employees, who combine paid full-time work and informal caregiving responsibilities, struggle to maintain a healthy work-life balance. Caregiver-Friendly Workplace Programs are designed to improve the work experience, and ultimately, the work-life balance of carer-employees. Read More

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Prominent Blasts in Primary Cutaneous CD4+ Small/Medium T-Cell Lymphoproliferative Disorder. A Reconsideration of Diagnostic Criteria.

Am J Dermatopathol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Dermatology, St John's Institute of Dermatology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Consultant Dermatologist, HCA UK, London, United Kingdom; Department of Dermatology, The Princess Margaret Hospital, Windsor, Berkshire, United Kingdom; Consultant Dermatopathologist, LD Path, London, United Kingdom; and Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Instituto Português de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisboa, Portugal.

Abstract: Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PCSM-LPD), recently downgraded from a T-cell lymphoma, is a poorly characterized histopathological entity. Presenting as a solitary lesion that often grows rapidly, it may raise suspicion for a cutaneous B-cell lymphoma. However, classically, the dermal lymphoid proliferation is predominantly CD4+ with a follicular T-helper profile and a smaller B-cell fraction. Read More

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Navigating the COVID-19 Crisis to Sustain Community-Based Malaria Interventions in Cambodia.

Glob Health Sci Pract 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Provincial Health Department, Preah Vihear Province, Ministry of Health of Cambodia, Preah Vihear, Cambodia.

Cambodia has made impressive progress in reducing malaria trends and, in 2018, reported no malaria-related deaths for the first time. However, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic presents a potential challenge to the country's goal for malaria elimination by 2025. The path toward malaria elimination depends on sustained interventions to prevent rapid resurgence, which can quickly set back any gains achieved. Read More

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Line Graph Neural Networks for Link Prediction.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 May 14;PP. Epub 2021 May 14.

We consider the graph link prediction task, which is a classic graph analytical problem with many real-world applications. With the advances of deep learning, current link prediction methods commonly compute features from subgraphs centered at two neighboring nodes and use the features to predict the label of the link between these two nodes. In this formalism, a link prediction problem is converted to a graph classification task. Read More

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Superoxide Dismutase in Extender Improves the in vitro Quality and in vivo Fertility of Cryopreserved Water Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Spermatozoa.

Cryo Letters 2020 Jul-Aug;41(4):194-201

Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) as an antioxidant in semen extender may be used for the cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa and in vivo fertility.

Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of SOD (SOD1, 100 IU/mL; SOD2, 200 IU/mL; SOD3, 300 IU/mL) and control (0.0) in Tris citric acid extender on in vitro quality and in vivo fertility of cryopreserved water buffalo bull spermatozoa. Read More

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Alpha-tocopheryl Succinate in Extender Improves the Post Thaw Quality of Water Buffalo Spermatozoa.

Cryo Letters 2020 May-Jun;41(3):145-153

Animal Reproduction Laboratory, Animal Sciences Institute, National Agricultural Research Center, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Alpha-tocopheryl succinate, a major chain-splitting antioxidant, is the most effective form of vitamin E and may be used in the semen extender for cryopreservation of buffalo spermatozoa.

Objective: To use different concentrations of alpha-tocopheryl succinate (T1, 0.3 mM, T2, 0. Read More

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Magneto-optical effects in a high-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonator with a large Verdet constant.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2509-2512

We have studied magneto-optical effects in an optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator (WGMR) manufactured from a Faraday-rotator material with, to the best of our knowledge, the record quality factor ($Q = 1.45 \times {10^8}$) achieved for such materials. We have experimentally measured the eigenfrequencies' deviation amplitude under the application of an external magnetic field and demonstrated the polarization plane declination over the light path. Read More

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High-efficiency conversion from waveguide mode to an on-chip beam using a metamaterial engineered Bragg deflector.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2409-2412

Diffraction gratings that redirect light propagating in a channel waveguide to an on-chip slab are emerging as important building blocks in integrated photonics. Such distributed Bragg deflectors enable precise shaping of slab confined beams for a variety of applications, including wavelength multiplexing, optical phased array feeding, and coupling interfaces for on-chip point-to-point communications. However, these deflectors suffer from significant losses caused by off-chip radiation. Read More

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Characterizing microring resonators using optical frequency domain reflectometry.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2400-2403

A novel, to the best of our knowledge, method to extract optical microring resonators' loss characteristics is proposed and demonstrated using optical frequency domain reflectometry (OFDR). Compared with the traditional optical transmission measurement method, the spatial-resolved backscattering optical signals obtained from the OFDR can clearly show the resonance mode's increased optical path length due to its circulation inside the resonator. By further processing the backscattered optical signals, loaded $Q$-factors of several resonators can be accurately determined. Read More

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Isochronous space-time wave packets.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2260-2263

The group delay incurred by an optical wave packet depends on its path length. Therefore, when a wave packet is obliquely incident on a planar homogeneous slab, the group delay upon traversing it inevitably increases with the angle of incidence. Here, we confirm the existence of isochronous "space-time" (ST) wave packets: pulsed beams whose spatiotemporal structure enables them to traverse the layer with a fixed group delay over a wide span of incident angles. Read More

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Rising and Sinking in Resonance: Mass Distribution Critically Affects Buoyancy-Driven Spheres via Rotational Dynamics.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(17):174502

Physics of Fluids Group and Max Planck Center Twente, J. M. Burgers Centre for Fluid Dynamics, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, Netherlands.

We present experimental results for spherical particles rising and settling in a still fluid. Imposing a well-controlled center of mass offset enables us to vary the rotational dynamics selectively by introducing an intrinsic rotational timescale to the problem. Results are highly sensitive even to small degrees of offset, rendering this a practically relevant parameter by itself. Read More

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