3,219 results match your criteria passive systemic

MiR-154-5p-MCP1 Axis Regulates Allergic Inflammation by Mediating Cellular Interactions.

Front Immunol 2021 31;12:663726. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Biochemistry, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.

In a previous study, we have demonstrated that p62, a selective receptor of autophagy, can regulate allergic inflammation. In the present study, microRNA array analysis showed that miR-154-5p was increased by antigen (DNP-HSA) in a p62-dependent manner in rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL2H3). NF-kB directly increased the expression of miR-154-5p. Read More

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Successful pulsed methylprednisolone and convalescent plasma treatment in a case of a renal transplant recipient with COVID-19 positive pneumonia: a case report.

Pan Afr Med J 2021 16;38:273. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital, Health Sciences University, Erzurum, Turkey.

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) is a deadly disease that was first seen in Wuhan, China, and primarily affects the respiratory system, but also has different systemic involvements. It has caused 89 million cases and 1.9 million deaths worldwide. Read More

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Chrysin Inhibits Pseudo-allergic Reaction by Suppressing Mitochondrial STAT3 Activation MAS-Related GPR Family Member X2.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 8;69(23):6569-6577. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Chrysin, one of the most pharmacologically active natural flavonoids, has been extracted from various plants. Mast cells are an important part of innate immunity-mediating anaphylaxis. Pseudo-allergic reactions are currently believed to be associated with the MAS-related GPR family member X2 (MrgX2). Read More

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The murine neonatal Fc receptor is required for transport of immunization-induced specific IgG to the gut and protection against disease but does not affect disease susceptibility.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 7:IAI0027421. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.

The pathology associated with disease is caused in large part by TcdB, an intracellular bacterial toxin that inactivates small GTPases. Despite causing an enteric disease, anti-toxin IgG is a clear correlate of protection against infection-associated pathology. Immunization with TcdB-based immunogens or passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies specific for the TcdB carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) confers protection following infection. Read More

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Safranal Alleviated OVA-Induced Asthma Model and Inhibits Mast Cell Activation.

Front Immunol 2021 20;12:585595. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: Asthma is a chronic and recurring airway disease, which related to mast cell activation. Many compounds derived from Chinese herbal medicine has promising effects on stabilizing mast cells and decreasing inflammatory mediator production. Safranal, one of the active compounds from , shows many anti-inflammatory properties. Read More

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Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic evaluation of nasal liposome and nanoparticle based rivastigmine formulations in acute and chronic models of Alzheimer's disease.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka, 576104, India.

With the increasing aging population and progressive nature of the disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses to be an oncoming epidemic with limited therapeutic strategies. It is characterized by memory loss, behavioral instability, impaired cognitive function, predominantly, cognitive inability manifested due to the accumulation of β-amyloid, with malfunctioned cholinergic system. Rivastigmine, a reversible dual cholinesterase inhibitor, is a more tolerable and widely used choice of drug for AD. Read More

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PCSK9 Biology and Its Role in Atherothrombosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 30;22(11). Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, Turin University, I-10043 Orbassano TO, Italy.

It is now about 20 years since the first case of a gain-of-function mutation involving the as-yet-unknown actor in cholesterol homeostasis, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), was described. It was soon clear that this protein would have been of huge scientific and clinical value as a therapeutic strategy for dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) management. Indeed, PCSK9 is a serine protease belonging to the proprotein convertase family, mainly produced by the liver, and essential for metabolism of LDL particles by inhibiting LDL receptor (LDLR) recirculation to the cell surface with the consequent upregulation of LDLR-dependent LDL-C levels. Read More

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Trends in Managing Cardiac and Orthopaedic Device-Associated Infections by Using Therapeutic Biomaterials.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 May 12;13(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials of National Research Council (IPCB-CNR), 80125 Naples, Italy.

Over the years, there has been an increasing number of cardiac and orthopaedic implanted medical devices, which has caused an increased incidence of device-associated infections. The surfaces of these indwelling devices are preferred sites for the development of biofilms that are potentially lethal for patients. Device-related infections form a large proportion of hospital-acquired infections and have a bearing on both morbidity and mortality. Read More

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Application of a PBPK model to elucidate the changes of systemic and liver exposures for rosuvastatin, carotegrast, and bromfenac followed by OATP inhibition in monkeys.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Drug Metabolism, Gilead Sciences Inc., Foster City, CA, USA.

The impact of organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) inhibition on systemic and liver exposures of three OATP substrates was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys. A monkey physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was constructed to describe the exposure changes followed by OATP functional attenuation. Rosuvastatin, bromfenac, and carotegrast were administered as a single intravenous cassette dose (0. Read More

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Optimizing investigation of suspected allergy to polyethylene glycols.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 27. Epub 2021 May 27.

Allergy Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital at Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Background: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are polymers of varying molecular weight (MW) used widely as excipients in drugs and products, including the mRNA vaccines against COVID-19. Allergy to PEGs is very rare. Skin testing and graded challenge carries a high risk of inducing systemic reactions. Read More

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Sirtuin 6 is a negative regulator of FcεRI signaling and anaphylactic responses.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Binding IgE to a cognate allergen causes aggregation of Fcε receptor I (FcεRI) in mast cells, resulting in activation of receptor-associated Src family tyrosine kinases, including Lyn and Syk. Protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type C (PTPRC), also known as CD45, has emerged as a positive regulator of FcεRI signaling by dephosphorylation of the inhibitory tyrosine of Lyn.

Objective: Sirtuin 6 (Sirt6), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, exhibits an anti-inflammatory property. Read More

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The Evidence Base for Prevention of Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Through Vaccination.

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract 2021 Jul;37(2):341-353

Veterinary Medicine Teaching and Research Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, 18830 Road 112, Tulare, CA 93274, USA.

Pili and cytotoxins are important virulence factors and antigens for Moraxella spp. Local and systemic immunity may play a role in the body's response to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). No evidence exists that eliminating the carrier state for IBK is possible or beneficial. Read More

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Analysis methods for measuring passive auditory fNIRS responses generated by a block-design paradigm.

Neurophotonics 2021 Apr 22;8(2):025008. Epub 2021 May 22.

Macquarie University, Macquarie University Hearing & Department of Linguistics, Australian Hearing Hub, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an increasingly popular tool in auditory research, but the range of analysis procedures employed across studies may complicate the interpretation of data. We aim to assess the impact of different analysis procedures on the morphology, detection, and lateralization of auditory responses in fNIRS. Specifically, we determine whether averaging or generalized linear model (GLM)-based analysis generates different experimental conclusions when applied to a block-protocol design. Read More

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Cytomegalovirus-Associated Hemolytic Anemia in an Infant Born to a Mother with Lupus.

Neonatology 2021 May 25:1-5. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

A 31-day-old infant was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit due to shock and anemia. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and direct antiglobulin test (DAT)-positive hemolytic anemia. The perinatal course of this infant and the mother was uneventful. Read More

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Evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective ability of a pili subunit, SBP2', of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.

Res Vet Sci 2021 Jul 14;137:201-207. Epub 2021 May 14.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; Key Lab of Animal Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210095, China; OIE Reference Lab for Swine Streptococcosis, Nanjing 210095, China; MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that leads to huge economic losses in the swine industry. Because of the enormous genetic and phenotypic diversity within S. suis, it is necessary to develop effective vaccines to control this zoonotic pathogen. Read More

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The Nexus of cfDNA and Nuclease Biology.

Trends Genet 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Centre for Novostics, Hong Kong Science Park, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China; Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China; State Key Laboratory in Translational Oncology and Department of Chemical Pathology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR, China. Electronic address:

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a widely used noninvasive biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of multiple disease states. Emerging evidence suggests that cfDNA might not just be passive waste products of cell death but could have a physiological and pathological function in inflammation and autoimmunity. The balance of cfDNA generation and clearance may thus be vital in health and disease. Read More

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The relationship between conventional clinical assessments and momentary assessments of symptoms and functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jun 15;232:11-27. Epub 2021 May 15.

Center of Excellence for Psychosocial and Systemic Research, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Symptoms and functioning are critical dimensions in those with schizophrenia and are typically measured using validated conventional clinical assessments. Researchers and clinicians have begun to use real-time digital methods, such as ecological momentary assessment (EMA), to assess symptoms and functioning in the moment and outside of traditional hospital and laboratory settings, which may yield more naturalistic data. Although digital methods have advantages, it is unclear whether these momentary assessments capture core aspects of symptoms and functioning. Read More

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The effect of Melissa officinalis L. extract on learning and memory: Involvement of hippocampal expression of nitric oxide synthase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in diabetic rats.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Aug 15;276:114210. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, PO BOX19395-3697, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Diabetes is a systemic disease, which can cause synaptic defects in the hippocampus. Hippocampus plays a crucial role in learning and memory. Melissa officinalis L. Read More

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The SHREAD gene therapy platform for paracrine delivery improves tumor localization and intratumoral effects of a clinical antibody.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 May;118(21)

Department of Biochemistry, University of Zürich, 8057 Zürich, Switzerland;

The goal of cancer-drug delivery is to achieve high levels of therapeutics within tumors with minimal systemic exposure that could cause toxicity. Producing biologics directly in situ where they diffuse and act locally is an attractive alternative to direct administration of recombinant therapeutics, as secretion by the tumor itself provides high local concentrations that act in a paracrine fashion continuously over an extended duration (paracrine delivery). We have engineered a SHielded, REtargeted ADenovirus (SHREAD) gene therapy platform that targets specific cells based on chosen surface markers and converts them into biofactories secreting therapeutics. Read More

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An Ex vivo Mast Cell Degranulation Assay using Crude Peritoneal Exudate Cells and Natural Antigen Stimulation.

J Vis Exp 2021 04 27(170). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University;

Mast cell stabilizers are an essential part of allergy medication. Passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) is an animal assay widely used for investigating the effect of a pharmacological agent of interest on mast cells in vivo. As the anaphylactic symptoms are primarily attributed to exocytosis of the granules from mast cells, it is conceived that the agent to cause amelioration of the symptoms has a mast cell stabilizing activity. Read More

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Shared inflammatory pathways and therapeutic strategies in COVID-19 and cancer immunotherapy.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 05;9(5)

Clinical Research Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington, USA

COVID-19, the syndrome caused by the infection with SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, is characterized, in its severe form, by interstitial diffuse pneumonitis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). ARDS and systemic manifestations of COVID-19 are mainly due to an exaggerated immune response triggered by the viral infection. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS), an inflammatory syndrome characterized by elevated levels of circulating cytokines, and endothelial dysfunction are systemic manifestations of COVID-19. Read More

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Antibody semorinemab reduces tau pathology in a transgenic mouse model and engages tau in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(593)

Department of Pathology, Genentech Inc., San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Tau has become an attractive alternative target for passive immunotherapy efforts for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The anatomical distribution and extent of tau pathology correlate with disease course and severity better than other disease markers to date. We describe here the generation, preclinical characterization, and phase 1 clinical characterization of semorinemab, a humanized anti-tau monoclonal antibody with an immunoglobulin G4 (igG4) isotype backbone. Read More

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GlcNAc is a mast-cell chromatin-remodeling oncometabolite that promotes systemic mastocytosis aggressiveness.

Blood 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille - Inserm U1068, CNRS UMR7258, Aix-Marseille Université, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a KIT-driven hematopoietic neoplasm characterized by the excessive accumulation of neoplastic mast cells (MCs) in various organs and, mainly, the bone marrow (BM). Multiple genetic and epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the onset and severity of SM. However, little is known to date about the metabolic underpinnings underlying SM aggressiveness, which has thus far impeded the development of strategies to leverage metabolic dependencies when existing KIT-targeted treatments fail. Read More

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An independent indicator of erectile dysfunction is C-reactive protein/albumin ratio.

Andrologia 2021 May 10:e14073. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Urology, Van Training and Research Hospital, Edremit, Turkey.

Research has found that, instead of passive lipid-accumulated vascular damage, atherosclerosis which is the primary cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) can be seen as an active inflammatory cycle and that inflammation has a central role in the entire atherosclerotic process. As an inflammatory marker, serum C-reactive protein (CRP)/albumin ratio (CAR) may link to ED and ED severity. The CAR, demographic features and other criteria of 198 patients with ED who visited our outpatient clinic during March 2019-April 2020 were prospectively evaluated. Read More

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Active Microneedle Administration of Plant Virus Nanoparticles for Cancer Vaccination Improves Immunotherapeutic Efficacy.

ACS Appl Nano Mater 2020 Aug 7;3(8):8037-8051. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Department of Radiology, UC San Diego Health, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California 92093, United States.

The solid tumor microenvironment (TME) poses a significant structural and biochemical barrier to immunotherapeutic agents. To address the limitations of tumor penetration and distribution, and to enhance antitumor efficacy of immunotherapeutics, we present here an autonomous active microneedle (MN) system for the direct intratumoral (IT) delivery of a potent immunoadjuvant, cowpea mosaic virus nanoparticles (CPMV) . In this active delivery system, magnesium (Mg) microparticles embedded into active MNs react with the interstitial fluid in the TME, generating a propulsive force to drive the nanoparticle payload into the tumor. Read More

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Safety Monitoring of the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 Vaccine - United States, March-April 2021.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 7;70(18):680-684. Epub 2021 May 7.

CDC COVID-19 Response Team.

On February 27, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for Janssen (Ad.26.COV2. Read More

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Antibody-dependent passive protection of mucosal surfaces.

Jiri Mestecky

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 May 3:1-4. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Extensive experiments performed mostly in a variety of animal models convincingly demonstrated the protective effect of polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies administered by the mucosal route. Because of the independence of the mucosal and systemic compartments of the immune system, antibodies from the circulation are not effectively transported in sufficient quantities into external secretions. Nevertheless, local application of antibodies of the desired specificity to mucosal membranes of the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and female genital tracts protected experimental animals from the subsequent challenge by corresponding viral or bacterial pathogens. Read More

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Surveillance for West Nile virus disease - United States, 2009-2018.

Am J Transplant 2021 05;21(5):1959-1974

Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Problem/condition: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) in the family Flaviviridae and is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the contiguous United States. An estimated 70%-80% of WNV infections are asymptomatic. Symptomatic persons usually develop an acute systemic febrile illness. Read More

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Organic Cation Transporter 1 an Intestinal Uptake Transporter: Fact or Fiction?

Front Pharmacol 2021 14;12:648388. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rostock University Medical Center, Rostock, Germany.

Intestinal transporter proteins are known to affect the pharmacokinetics and in turn the efficacy and safety of many orally administered drugs in a clinically relevant manner. This knowledge is especially well-established for intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporters such as P-gp and BCRP. In contrast to this, information about intestinal uptake carriers is much more limited although many hydrophilic or ionic drugs are not expected to undergo passive diffusion but probably require specific uptake transporters. Read More

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Pharmacokinetics-based identification of pseudoaldosterogenic compounds originating from Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots (Gancao) after dosing LianhuaQingwen capsule.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Graduate School, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, 301617, China.

LianhuaQingwen capsule, prepared from an herbal combination, is officially recommended as treatment for COVID-19 in China. Of the serial pharmacokinetic investigations we designed to facilitate identifying LianhuaQingwen compounds that are likely to be therapeutically important, the current investigation focused on the component Glycyrrhiza uralensis roots (Gancao). Besides its function in COVID-19 treatment, Gancao is able to induce pseudoaldosteronism by inhibiting renal 11β-HSD2. Read More

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