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Effects of Aging on the Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Recollection of Memories Encoded by Social Interactions With Persons in the Same and Different Age Groups.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 10;15:743064. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Memories related to ingroup members are remembered more accurately than those related to outgroup members. However, little is known about the age-dependent differences in neural mechanisms underlying the retrieval of memories shared with ingroup or outgroup members that are categorized by age-group membership. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated this issue. Read More

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September 2021

Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO ) prescription and extracellular volume increase: real-world data results from the AlcalUN study.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 26. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Club des Jeunes Néphrologues, Paris, France.

Oral alkalization with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO ) or citrate is prescribed for conditions ranging from metabolic acidosis to nephrolithiasis. While most nephrologists/urologists use this method routinely, extracellular volume (ECV) increase is the main feared adverse event reported for NaHCO . Thus far, no trial has specifically studied this issue in a real-world setting. Read More

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September 2021

Instruments for assisted vaginal birth.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 24;9:CD005455. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Keele University & Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK.

Background: Assisted vaginal births are carried out to expedite birth for the benefit of mothers and babies but are sometimes associated with significant morbidity for both. Various instruments are available, broadly divided into forceps and vacuum cups, and choice may be influenced by clinical circumstances, operator preference, experience and availability.  OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the different instruments in terms of success in achieving a vaginal birth, and the risk of morbidity for mother and baby. Read More

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September 2021

Treatment options for progression or recurrence of glioblastoma: a network meta-analysis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 May 4;5:CD013579. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Oncology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumour that almost inevitably progresses or recurs after first line standard of care. There is no consensus regarding the best treatment/s to offer people upon disease progression or recurrence. For the purposes of this review, progression and recurrence are considered as one entity. Read More

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Persuasive Features of Scientific Explanations: Explanatory Schemata of Physical and Psychosocial Phenomena.

Front Psychol 2021 6;12:644809. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Behavioral Sciences and Leadership Department, United States Military Academy, Highlands, NY, United States.

Explanations are central to understanding the causal relationships between entities within the environment. Instead of examining basic heuristics and schemata that inform the acceptance or rejection of scientific explanations, recent studies have predominantly examined complex explanatory models. In the present study, we examined which essential features of explanatory schemata can account for phenomena that are attributed to domain-specific knowledge. Read More

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September 2021

Evidence and Potential Mechanisms of Jin-Gui Shen-Qi Wan as a Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2021 6;12:699932. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, China.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a subtype of diabetes mellitus characterized by progressive dysfunction of β-cell insulin secretion and insulin resistance. (JGSQW) has for many years been widely used in clinical practice as a treatment for T2DM. However, its effect remains unknown. Read More

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September 2021

Does stammering act as a barrier to exercise and sport in Irish adults who stammer?

J Fluency Disord 2021 Sep 15;70:105880. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Centre for Injury Prevention and Performance, Athletic Therapy and Training, School of Health and Human Performance, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland; Insight SFI Research Centre for Data Analytics, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Purpose: Exercise and sport participation lead to many physical and psychosocial benefits. However, barriers to exercise and sporting participation exist. This study aims to examine if stammering acts as a barrier to exercise and sporting participation in adults. Read More

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September 2021

Risk Perception and Ethnic Background in Construction Workers: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study in a Group of Trainees of a Vocational School in Italy.

Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ 2021 Jan 26;11(1):96-109. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Biomedical, Metabolic and Neural Sciences, University of Modena & Reggio Emilia, 41125 Modena, Italy.

Risk perception can be influenced by cultural background. The study aims to evaluate risk perception, considering different ethnicities of construction workers from vocational schools in Italy. We administered a questionnaire investigating four different dimensions: Perceived behavioral control (PBC), Danger perception (DP), Safety climate (SC), and Attitude towards safe actions (ATSA). Read More

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January 2021

Effect of ε4 allele on levels of apolipoproteins E, J, and D, and redox signature in circulating extracellular vesicles from cognitively impaired with no dementia participants converted to Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimers Dement (Amst) 2021 14;13(1):e12231. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

INRS-Centre Armand-Frappier Santé-Biotechnologie Laval Quebec Canada.

Introduction: The substantial link between apolipoprotein E () ε4 allele and oxidative stress may underlie enhanced Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Here, we studied the impact of ε4 on the level of apolipoproteins with antioxidant activities along with oxidative markers in circulating extracellular vesicles (cEVs) and plasma from cognitively impaired-not demented (CIND) individuals converted to AD (CIND-AD).

Methods: Apolipoproteins E, J, and D and antioxidant response markers were determined in cEVs and plasma using immunoblotting, electrochemical examination, and spectrofluorimetry. Read More

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September 2021

Perceived locus of control for clutter: Reported reasons for clutter in adults with and without hoarding symptoms.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Psychology, Mississippi State University, USA.

Objectives: The goal of the current investigation was to expand on previous work on reasons for saving/discarding in the context of hoarding by examining individuals' perceived locus of control for household clutter.

Methods: Participants were asked to list their perceived reasons for clutter and assign each reason a percentage rating reflecting the extent to which they judged the reason to be responsible for their household clutter.

Results: Lack of time was an almost universally endorsed reason for clutter. Read More

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September 2021

Characteristics and Research Waste Among Randomized Clinical Trials in Gastric Cancer.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Sep 1;4(9):e2124760. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China.

Importance: The results of numerous large randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have changed clinical practice in gastric cancer (GC). However, research waste (ie, unpublished data, inadequate reporting, or avoidable design limitations) is still a major challenge for evidence-based medicine.

Objectives: To determine the characteristics of GC RCTs in the past 20 years and the presence of research waste and to explore potential targets for improvement. Read More

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September 2021

Similar mortality risk in incident cognitive impairment and dementia: Evidence from the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

Background: This study examined the risk of mortality in older adults with newly detected cognitive impairment or dementia.

Methods: Data from the Australian cohort of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial were examined. The ASPREE clinical trial compared daily low-dose aspirin to a placebo and involved 16,703 individuals aged 70 years and over, who were without major cognitive impairment, physical disability, or cardiovascular disease at recruitment. Read More

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September 2021

Cannabinoids for the treatment of dementia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 17;9:CD012820. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Center for Evidence-Based Medicine and Health Care, Catholic University of Croatia, Zagreb, Croatia.

Background: Dementia is a common chronic condition, mainly affecting older adults, characterised by a progressive decline in cognitive and functional abilities. Medical treatments for dementia are limited. Cannabinoids are being investigated for the treatment of dementia. Read More

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September 2021

Happiness and depression in psoriasis: a cross-sectional study in Germany.

Qual Life Res 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Dermatology and Allergy, School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Prior research on the psychological consequences of skin diseases has focused on assessing mental comorbidities. The aim of this study was to investigate subjective well-being in a large sample of individuals affected by psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and to explore the associations with depression and disease-related parameters such as disease severity.

Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from March to June 2019. Read More

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September 2021

Negative self-evaluation induced by acute stress indexed using facial EMG.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2021 Aug 30;133:105402. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linköping University, Sweden.

Maladaptive stress responses are a key feature of several psychiatric disorders, but findings of stress effects on social behavior are inconsistent. Using a within-subject design, we investigated, in 35 healthy participants, the effects of acute stress on psychophysiological and behavioral responses during a simulated online social interaction task. Participants were exposed to established stress and non-stress exposure procedures in two separate sessions. Read More

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The organic diet effect on person perception.

Appetite 2021 Sep 14;168:105696. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.

The organic halo effect describes how individuals tend to ascribe positive attributes such as low-calorie content to organic food. In this contribution, we extend the organic halo effect to the inferences individuals make about organic food consumers regarding basic personality traits. In a first study (N = 608), we tested whether describing a person as a regular (vs. Read More

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September 2021

Treatments for seizures in catamenial (menstrual-related) epilepsy.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 16;9:CD013225. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Health Data Science, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Background: This is an updated version of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2019. Catamenial epilepsy describes worsening seizures in relation to the menstrual cycle and may affect around 40% of women with epilepsy. Vulnerable days of the menstrual cycle for seizures are perimenstrually (C1 pattern), at ovulation (C2 pattern), and during the luteal phase (C3 pattern). Read More

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September 2021

Confidence guides priority between forthcoming tasks.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 15;11(1):18320. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Paris School of Economics and CNRS, Paris, France.

Humans can estimate confidence in their decisions, and there is increasing interest on how this feeling of confidence regulates future behavior. Here, we investigate whether confidence in a perceptual task affects prioritizing future trials of that task, independently of task performance. To do so, we experimentally dissociated confidence from performance. Read More

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September 2021

Lamotrigine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Sep 15;9:CD013575. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan.

Background: Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental disorder with repetitive mania/hypomania as well as depressive episodes, which eventually results in marked impairment in overall functioning and health-related quality of life.  A worldwide prevalence rate of 2.4% has been reported. Read More

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September 2021

Spontaneous state inferences.

J Pers Soc Psychol 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Social Psychology.

Perceivers routinely draw inferences about others from their behavior in an attempt to make sense of the world. Previous research has established that spontaneous inferences include stable characteristics such as traits and a number of variable person-related concepts such as goals, intentions, and motivations. The current research investigated the occurrence of more general spontaneous state inferences. Read More

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September 2021

Cortical Venous Changes on Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging Predict the Cerebral Collateral Circulation as Confirmed by Digital Subtraction Angiography.

Front Neurol 2021 27;12:691430. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Dongguan Hospital, Southern Medical University (Dongguan People's Hospital), Dongguan, China.

Asymmetrical cortical vein sign (ACVS) shown on susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) can reflect regional hypoperfusion. We investigated if ACVS could predict the cerebral collateral circulation (CC) as assessed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in acute ischemic stroke patients with ipsilateral severe stenosis/occlusion of the anterior circulation. Clinical data and imaging data of 62 acute ischemic stroke patients with ipsilateral severe stenosis or occlusion of the anterior circulation confirmed by DSA were collected retrospectively. Read More

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Processing Mandarin Tone 3 Sandhi at the Morphosyntactic Interface: Reduplication and Lexical Compounds.

Front Psychol 2021 26;12:713665. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of East Asian Languages and Cultures, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, United States.

Mandarin tone 3 sandhi is a phonological alternation in which the initial tone 3 (i.e., low tone) syllable changes to a tone 2 (i. Read More

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Exploring barriers and facilitators of physical distancing in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic: a qualitative interview study.

HRB Open Res 2021 20;4:50. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Psychology, National University of Ireland, Galway, Galway, H91 EV56, Ireland.

Physical distancing measures (e.g., keeping a distance of two metres from others, avoiding crowded areas, and reducing the number of close physical contacts) continue to be among the most important preventative measures used to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Read More

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Intensive care unit professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain: social and work-related variables, COVID-19 symptoms, worries, and generalized anxiety levels.

Acute Crit Care 2021 Aug 31;36(3):232-241. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón, Spain.

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 outbreak has been identified as a pandemic and global health emergency. It presents as a severe acute respiratory disease. The rapid dissemination of the disease created challenges for healthcare systems and forced healthcare workers (HCWs) to deal with many clinical and nonclinical stresses. Read More

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The Perception of Esthetic Importance of Craniofacial Elements.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Zuyderland MC, Sittard-Geleen MUMC, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Abstract: The human face is an important human structure, often judged by its esthetics. It serves great purpose, as it is and always has been involved in both cultural matters, such as art, as well as biological matters, such as exhibition of emotion and mate selection. Throughout history, there have been multiple studies on what makes a face attractive. Read More

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September 2021

EXPRESS: Forgetting Tracked by Recognition of Pictures.

Donald Laming

Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2021 Sep 9:17470218211047862. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

University of Cambridge, Department of Psychology 2152.

Thirty-three participants viewed 1000 pictures for 6 s each. Recognition was tested after 10 different intervals of time by mixing 100 of the original 1000 with 100 new pictures. Participants judged each test picture 'Old' or 'New' on a 6-point scale. Read More

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September 2021

Subcutaneous Levodopa Infusion for Parkinson's Disease: 1-Year Data from the Open-Label BeyoND Study.

Mov Disord 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

James J. and Joan A. Gardner Center for Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorders, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Background: Continuous, subcutaneous (SC) levodopa/carbidopa infusion with ND0612 is under development as a treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and motor fluctuations.

Objective: Evaluate 1-year safety data.

Methods: BeyoND is an open-label study evaluating the long-term safety of two ND0612 dosing regimens. Read More

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September 2021

Perceptions of Stalking: Examining Perceivers' Country of Origin, Perpetrator-Target Prior Relationship, and the Mediating Effect of Victim Responsibility.

J Interpers Violence 2021 Sep 7:8862605211042601. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Curtin University, Bentley, WA, Australia.

Research in stalking perceptions has shown certain relational biases, in which people tend to view ex-partner stalkers to be less dangerous than stranger or acquaintance stalkers. These findings are in direct contrast to those of real-life cases whereby ex-partner stalkers pose a greater threat. In addition, although stalking is recognized as a global social problem, most studies have been based on samples drawn from Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic countries. Read More

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September 2021

Body representation among adults with phantom limb pain: Results from a foot identification task.

Eur J Pain 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.

Background: Impaired body representation (i.e. disrupted body awareness or perception) may be a critical, but understudied, factor underlying phantom limb pain (PLP). Read More

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September 2021

Young people's perceptions of accessing a community pharmacy for a chlamydia testing kit: a qualitative study based in North East England.

BMJ Open 2021 09 6;11(9):e052228. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Research Department of Practice and Policy, University College London, School of Pharmacy, London, UK.

Objectives: Chlamydia testing among young people in community pharmacies in North East England has been low compared with other remote settings offering testing for the past few years. To understand why this may be, to maximise service provision, the perceptions of young men and women about pharmacy testing and possible chlamydia treatment were gathered and interpreted.

Design: Indepth, semistructured interviews. Read More

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September 2021