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Functional heterogeneity of mammalian IFITM proteins against HIV-1.

J Virol 2021 Jun 23:JVI0043921. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Centre International de Recherche en Infectiologie (CIRI), University of Lyon, Inserm, U1111, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, CNRS, UMR5308, ENS de Lyon, Lyon, France.

IFITMs are a family of interferon-inducible proteins that inhibit a broad range of viruses by interfering with viral to cellular membrane fusion. The antiviral activity of IFITMs is highly regulated by several post-translational modifications and by a number of protein domains that modulate steady-state protein levels, trafficking and antiviral effectiveness. Taking advantage of the natural diversity existing among IFITMs of different animal species, we have compared twenty-one IFITMs for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 at two steps: during virus entry into cells (target cell protection) and during the production of novel virion particles (negative imprinting of virion particles' infectivity). Read More

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Effect of carbohydrate-restricted dietary interventions on LDL particle size and number in adults in the context of weight loss or weight maintenance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

School of Health and Exercise Sciences, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: LDL particle size and number (LDL-P) are emerging lipid risk factors. Nonsystematic reviews have suggested that diets lower in carbohydrates and higher in fats may result in increased LDL particle size when compared with higher-carbohydrate diets.

Objectives: This study aimed to systematically review available evidence and conduct meta-analyses of studies addressing the association of carbohydrate restriction with LDL particle size and LDL-P. Read More

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4f-π Molecular Hybrid Exhibiting Rich Conductive Phases and Slow Relaxation of Magnetization.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki-Aza-Aoba, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8578, Japan.

Cooperation between single-molecule magnets and electrical conductivity holds promise for preparing high-density magnetic devices; however, there are only a few reports so far. Here we report a 4f-π-based molecular hybrid, -(ET)Dy(NCS)(KCl) () (ET = bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene, NCS = thiocyanate), which undergoes slow relaxation of the magnetization and electrical conductivity. Unlike common ET-based conductive salts, K ions were intercalated into ET layers and coordinated with ET radicals. Read More

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Yoga therapy to reduce fatigue in cancer: effects of reminder e-mails and long-term efficacy.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Interdisciplinary Center, Palliative Medicine, University Hospital Würzburg, Josef-Schneider-Str. 11, B1, 97080, Würzburg, Germany.

Objective: To examine the efficacy of reminder e-mails to continue yoga therapy on practice frequency and fatigue in cancer patients and long-term effects of yoga on fatigue, depression, and quality of life.

Methodology: One hundred two cancer patients who completed an 8-week yoga therapy were randomly allocated to two groups: reminder (N = 51) vs. no-reminder group (N = 51). Read More

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The anatomical distribution of non-melanoma skin cancer: A retrospective cohort study of 22 303 Australian cases.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are the most common skin cancers worldwide with research establishing that ultraviolet (UV) radiation influences occurrence. However, recent studies about NMSC tumour frequencies suggested high NMSC predilections in low UV-exposed skin regions.

Methods: The 'Human Surface Anatomy Labeling System' was used to define 100 skin regions to map NMSC locations excised at Flinders Medical Centre (FMC) between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2017. Read More

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Associations Between Parental Psychopathic Traits, Parenting, and Adolescent Callous-Unemotional Traits.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., callousness, low empathy, shallow affect) have been conceptualized as a downward extension of the interpersonal and affective components of adult psychopathy and are associated with stable and severe antisocial behavior. Read More

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Microbial exposures in moisture-damaged schools and associations with respiratory symptoms in students: A multi-country environmental exposure study.

Indoor Air 2021 Jun 21. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Environmental Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Moisture-damaged buildings are associated with respiratory symptoms and underlying diseases among building occupants, but the causative agent(s) remain a mystery. We first identified specific fungal and bacterial taxa in classrooms with moisture damage in Finnish and Dutch primary schools. We then investigated associations of the identified moisture damage indicators with respiratory symptoms in more than 2700 students. Read More

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The impact of propagule pressure on whole community invasions in biomethane-producing communities.

iScience 2021 Jun 28;24(6):102659. Epub 2021 May 28.

Environment and Sustainability Institute, Penryn Campus, University of Exeter, Penryn, UK.

Microbes can invade as whole communities, but the ecology of whole community invasions is poorly understood. Here, we investigate how invader propagule pressure (the number of invading organisms) affects the composition and function of invaded laboratory methanogenic communities. An invading community was equally successful at establishing itself in a resident community regardless of propagule pressure, which varied between 0. Read More

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Faecal sludge containment characteristics and their implications on safe desludging in unplanned settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 18;295:112924. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Water Resources Engineering, College of Engineering and Technology, University of Dar es Salaam, P. O. Box 35131, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

In unplanned urban settlements, where onsite sanitation systems are the norm, desludging of faecal sludge (FS) containments is a necessity because of the lack of land space to enable new construction. Poorly designed toilet facilities however may jeopardize the progress towards attainment of safely managed sanitation. This study examined FS characteristics and containment design and their effect on safe desludging with a case of two selected unplanned settlements of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Read More

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Akinetic mutism reversed by inferior parietal lobule repetitive theta burst stimulation: Can we restore default mode network function for therapeutic benefit?

Brain Behav 2021 Jun 17:e02180. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Centre for Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery, Prince of Wales Private Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation is a noninvasive treatment used to modulate cortical excitability. Its use over the last two decades has expanded, ranging from psychiatric disorders to traumatic brain injury and poststroke rehabilitation.

Objectives: We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient who presented in a decreased state of consciousness due to a right frontal glioblastoma, wherein his state was not improved by a successful surgery and could not be explained by any other condition. Read More

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Studies on the role of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in K562 cell proliferation and signaling.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jun 18. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Biophysics, School of Medicine, Marmara University, Başıbüyük Health Campus, Basic Medical Sciences Building, Maltepe, 34854, Istanbul, Turkey.

The results we obtained from this study gave information about the determination of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nACh) expression in human erythroleukemia cells, as well as whether it has a role in calcium release and cell proliferation in the presence of nicotinic agonist, antagonists. Determining the roles of α7 nicotinic receptors in erythroleukemia cells will also contribute to leukemia-related signal transduction studies. This study is primarily to determine the role of nicotinic agonists and antagonists in cell proliferation, α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression, and calcium release. Read More

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Cardiovascular disease risk and pathophysiology in South Asians: can longitudinal multi-omics shed light?

Wellcome Open Res 2020 20;5:255. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in South Asia, with rapidly increasing prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and hyperlipidemia over the last two decades. Atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) affects South Asians earlier in life and at lower body weights, which is not fully explained by differential burden of conventional risk factors. Heart failure (HF) is a complex clinical syndrome of heterogeneous structural phenotypes including two major clinical subtypes, HF with preserved (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Read More

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Behavioral Factors Mediating the Impact of Educational Attainment on Incident Heart Failure - A Mediation Analysis.

Circ J 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Cardiology Department, First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University.

Background: To examine the association of low educational attainment with incident heart failure (HF) and explore potential behavioral mediators of the causal pathway.Methods and Results:A total of 12,109 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) were included. Educational attainment was measured at baseline, and the risk of HF across educational attainment groups was assessed by Cox proportional hazards models. Read More

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Stroke Risks in Adult Survivors of Preterm Birth: National Cohort and Cosibling Study.

Stroke 2021 Jun 17:STROKEAHA120033797. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Departments of Family Medicine and Community Health and of Population Health Science and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY (C.C., J.S., K.S.).

Background And Purpose: Clinicians will increasingly encounter adult patients who were born preterm and will need to understand their long-term sequelae. Adult survivors of preterm birth have been reported to have increased risks of hypertension and other stroke risk factors. However, their stroke risks have seldom been examined and the findings are discrepant, possibly due to small sample sizes, insufficient follow-up, or survivor bias. Read More

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Jurors' Gender and Their Fear of False Child Sexual Abuse Accusations Are Related to Their Belief in Child Victims' Allegations.

J Child Sex Abus 2021 Jun 15:1-19. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

The University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

We developed the first Fear of False Accusations scale, measuring the public's fear of personally being the target of untrue child sexual abuse allegations despite no actual wrongdoing as well as the fear of false allegations being a common problem in society. The scale was statistically reliable within a diverse sample of 964 participants. Several months later, in an ostensibly unrelated mock trial experiment, a subset of the participants assumed the role of mock juror and considered a criminal case involving an accusation of child sexual abuse. Read More

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Host and gut microbial tryptophan metabolism and type 2 diabetes: an integrative analysis of host genetics, diet, gut microbiome and circulating metabolites in cohort studies.

Gut 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Objective: Tryptophan can be catabolised to various metabolites through host kynurenine and microbial indole pathways. We aimed to examine relationships of host and microbial tryptophan metabolites with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D), host genetics, diet and gut microbiota.

Method: We analysed associations between circulating levels of 11 tryptophan metabolites and incident T2D in 9180 participants of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds from five cohorts. Read More

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Associations of word memory, verbal fluency, processing speed and crystallised cognitive ability with one-legged balance performance in mid and later life.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CLOSER, Social Research Institute, UCL, London, UK.

Background: Cognitive integration of sensory input and motor output plays an important role in balance. Despite this, it is not clear if specific cognitive processes are associated with balance and how these associations change with age. We examined longitudinal associations of word memory, verbal fluency, search speed and reading ability with repeated measures of one-legged balance performance. Read More

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Respiratory Co-Infections: Modulators of SARS-CoV-2 Patients' Clinical Sub-Phenotype.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:653399. Epub 2021 May 28.

Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, India.

Co-infection with ancillary pathogens is a significant modulator of morbidity and mortality in infectious diseases. There have been limited reports of co-infections accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infections, albeit lacking India specific study. The present study has made an effort toward elucidating the prevalence, diversity and characterization of co-infecting respiratory pathogens in the nasopharyngeal tract of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. Read More

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extract reverses anxiety and seizure behavior in adult zebrafish through GABAergic neurotransmission: an study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jun 14:1-14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Faculty of Philosophy Dom Aureliano Matos, State University of Ceará, Limoeiro do Norte, Ceará, Brasil.

are reported in the literature for presenting neuroprotective and anxiolytic effects in animal models. has few scientific reports on its pharmacological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of the ethanol extract from the leaves of (EtFoCl) and its possible mechanism of GABAergic action in adult zebrafish. Read More

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Stem cell-based therapy for hirschsprung disease, do we have the guts to treat?

Gene Ther 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Haematology, UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, WC1E 6DD, United Kingdom.

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital anomaly of the colon that results from failure of enteric nervous system formation, leading to a constricted dysfunctional segment of the colon with variable lengths, and necessitating surgical intervention. The underlying pathophysiology includes a defect in neural crest cells migration, proliferation and differentiation, which are partially explained by identified genetic and epigenetic alterations. Despite the high success rate of the curative surgeries, they are associated with significant adverse outcomes such as enterocolitis, fecal soiling, and chronic constipation. Read More

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Population history of Brazilian south and southeast shellmound builders inferred through dental morphology.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The Southeast and South Coast of Brazil was inhabited during most of the Holocene by shellmound builders. Although there are cultural differences in the archaeological record between regions, it is still debatable how these differences may relate to different population histories. Here, we contribute to this discussion by exploring dental morphological affinities between several regional series. Read More

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A randomized controlled trial comparing non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and fusion protein inhibitors singly and in combination on the histopathology of bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252455. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Dept. of Pathology, Microbiology & Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has substantial morbidity in young calves, and closely parallels human RSV in infants. We performed a randomized controlled trial in five to six-week-old Holstein calves (Bos taurus). comparing fusion protein inhibitor (FPI) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) singly and in combination at three and five days after experimental BRSV infection. Read More

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Separation of Photochemical and Non-Photochemical Diurnal In-Stream Attenuation of Micropollutants.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Center for Applied Geoscience, University of Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstraße 94-96, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

For a better process understanding of in-stream attenuation of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), quantitative comparisons between field studies under different environmental conditions and controlled laboratory experiments are important to separate different processes. However, this is hampered by the challenge to transfer kinetics from the laboratory to different field conditions due to the lack of good quantitative measures to account for different boundary conditions. For phototransformation, in situ light conditions in a river are difficult to determine because light is reduced, for instance, by absorption, scattering on suspended particles, and shading effects. Read More

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Nanoplastics Identification in Complex Environmental Matrices: Strategies for Polystyrene and Polypropylene.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Géosciences, CNRS/Université Rennes 1, UMR 6118, F35000 Rennes, France.

Identification of nanoplastics in complex environmental matrices remains a challenge. Despite the increase in nanoplastics studies, there is a lack of studies dedicated to nanoplastics detection, partially explained by their carbon-based structure, their wide variety of composition, and their low environmental concentrations compared to the natural organic matter. Here, pyrolysis coupled to a GCMS instrumental setup provided a relevant analytical response for polypropylene and polystyrene nanoplastic suspensions. Read More

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DYRK1A phosphorylates MEF2D and decreases its transcriptional activity.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

NHC Key Laboratory of Otorhinolaryngology, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D) is predominantly expressed in the nucleus and associated with cell growth, differentiation, survival and apoptosis. Previous studies verified that phosphorylation at different amino acids determined MEF2's transcriptional activity which was essential in regulating downstream target genes expression. What regulates phosphorylation of MEF2D and affects its function has not been fully elucidated. Read More

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Children's Developing Ability to Resolve Disagreements by Integrating Perspectives.

Child Dev 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of California, San Diego.

Children live in a world where disagreement is commonplace. Although disagreement can sometimes be explained by differences in people's reliability, disagreement may also indicate that the referent elicits multiple perspectives. The present studies (total N = 129, 5- to 12-year-old ethnically diverse U. Read More

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Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus availability on the early growth of two congeneric pairs of savanna and forest species.

Braz J Biol 2021 4;82:e235573. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Federal University of São Carlos, Department of Botany, São Carlos, SP, Brasil.

In the tropical region, savannas and seasonal forests, both highly diverse biomes, occur side by side, under the same climate. If so, that mosaic cannot be explained solely by climatic variables, but also by fire, water availability and soil status. Nutrient availability in the soil, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, has been postulated to explain the abrupt transitions between savannas and seasonal forests in tropical regions. Read More

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Tidally modified western boundary current drives interbasin exchange between the Sea of Okhotsk and the North Pacific.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 8;11(1):12037. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Application Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, 236-0001, Japan.

The interbasin exchange between the Sea of Okhotsk and the North Pacific governs the intermediate water ventilation and fertilization of the nutrient-rich subpolar Pacific, and thus has an enormous influence on the North Pacific. However, the mechanism of this exchange is puzzling; current studies have not explained how the western boundary current (WBC) of the subarctic North Pacific intrudes only partially into the Sea of Okhotsk. High-resolution models often exhibit unrealistically small exchanges, as the WBC overshoots passing by deep straits and does not induce exchange flows. Read More

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Food Insecurity Partially Mediates the Association Between Drug Use and Depressive Symptoms among Men who have Sex with Men in Los Angeles, California.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Jun 9:1-26. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Epidemiology, Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles.

Objective: To understand the relationship between drug use, food insecurity (FI), and mental health among men who have sex with men (MSM).

Design: Cohort study (2014-2019) with at least one follow-up.

Setting: Visits at 6-month intervals included self-assessment for FI and depressive symptoms. Read More

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Impact of sex and ε4 on age-related cerebral perfusion trajectories in cognitively asymptomatic middle-aged and older adults: A longitudinal study.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 2021 Jun 8:271678X211021313. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Wisconsin Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA.

Cerebral hypoperfusion is thought to contribute to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease, but the natural trajectory of cerebral perfusion in cognitively healthy adults has not been well-studied. This longitudinal study is consisted of 950 participants (40-89 years), who were cognitively unimpaired at their first visit. We investigated the age-related changes in cerebral perfusion, and their associations with genotype, biological sex, and cardiometabolic measurements. Read More

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