172,037 results match your criteria parasite

On the reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in urban areas.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Mar 26;293:109408. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Parasite & Health Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

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Hand eczema and temporal variation of Staphylococcus aureus clonal complexes: A prospective observational study.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, 2400 Copenhagen NV, Denmark.

Background: Hand eczema (HE) is frequently colonized with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus); however, its role in the pathogenesis of HE is poorly understood.

Objective: To investigate temporal variation of S. Read More

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Patterns of infection in a native and an invasive crayfish across the UK.

J Invertebr Pathol 2021 Apr 17:107595. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, LSb 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Invasive crayfish and the introduction of non-native diseases pose a significant risk for the conservation of endangered, white-clawed crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Continued pollution of waterways is also of concern for native species and may be linked with crayfish disease dynamics. We explore whether crayfish species or environmental quality are predictors of infection presence and prevalence in native A. Read More

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Advances in research on echinococcoses epidemiology in China.

Acta Trop 2021 Apr 17:105921. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, China; Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, Shanghai, China; WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China; National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Echinococcoses are serious zoonotic diseases in China's vast, western and north-western pastoral areas that has one of the highest prevalence in the world. The two most common forms, cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), are co-epidemic in some areas causing a grave threat to people's health and economic development. Echinococcus spp. Read More

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High prevalence of intestinal parasite infestations among stunted and control children aged 2 to 5 years old in two neighborhoods of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 20;15(4):e0009333. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Unité de Bactériologie Expérimentale, Institut Pasteur de Madagascar, Antananarivo, Madagascar.

Background: This study aimed to compare the prevalence of intestinal parasite infestations (IPIs) in stunted children, compared to control children, in Ankasina and Andranomanalina Isotry (two disadvantaged neighborhoods of Antananarivo, Madagascar), to characterize associated risk factors and to compare IPI detection by real-time PCR and standard microscopy techniques.

Methodology/principal Findings: Fecal samples were collected from a total of 410 children (171 stunted and 239 control) aged 2-5 years. A single stool sample per subject was examined by simple merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIF), Kato-Katz smear and real-time PCR techniques. Read More

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Serious adverse reactions associated with ivermectin: A systematic pharmacovigilance study in sub-Saharan Africa and in the rest of the World.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 20;15(4):e0009354. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

TransVIHMI, Université Montpellier, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), INSERM, Montpellier, France.

Background: Ivermectin is known to cause severe encephalopathies in subjects infected with loiasis, an endemic parasite in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In addition, case reports have described ivermectin-related serious adverse drug reactions (sADRs) such as toxidermias, hepatic and renal disorders. The aim of this study was to identify suspected sADRs reported after ivermectin administration in VigiBase, the World Health Organization's global individual case safety reports database and analyze their frequency relative to the frequency of these events after other antinematodal drugs reported in SSA and other areas of the world (ROW). Read More

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Two New Species of Chiggers (Trombidiformes: Trombiculidae) From Brazil.

J Med Entomol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville, MD,USA.

Chigger mites are parasites of terrestrial vertebrates, including humans. Here, we describe two new species belonging to the American genera Colicus Brennan and Parasecia Loomis. Both species were described on the base of museum specimens originated from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, Colicus barrosbattestiae n. Read More

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Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy as a tool for evaluating lateral flow assays.

Anal Methods 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemistry, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.

Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are immunochromatographic point-of-care devices that have greatly impacted disease diagnosis through their rapid, inexpensive, and easy-to-use form factor. While LFAs have been successful as field-deployable tools, they have a relatively poor limit of detection when compared to more complex methods. Moreover, most design and manufacturing optimization is achieved through time- and resource-intensive brute-force optimization. Read More

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Microbial evolution and transitions along the parasite-mutualist continuum.

Nat Rev Microbiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Virtually all plants and animals, including humans, are home to symbiotic microorganisms. Symbiotic interactions can be neutral, harmful or have beneficial effects on the host organism. However, growing evidence suggests that microbial symbionts can evolve rapidly, resulting in drastic transitions along the parasite-mutualist continuum. Read More

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Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of two types of H-pyrophosphatases in the scuticociliate parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 19;11(1):8519. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Microbiology and Parasitology, Institute of Research on Chemical and Biological Analysis (IAQBUS), University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Proton-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatases (H-PPases) are an ancient family of membrane bound enzymes that couple pyrophosphate (PPi) hydrolysis to H translocation across membranes. In this study, we conducted a molecular characterization of two isoenzymes (PdVP1 and PdVP2) located in respectively the alveolar sacs and in the membranes of the intracellular vacuoles of a scuticociliate parasite (Philasterides dicentrarchi) of farmed turbot. We analyzed the genetic expression of the isoenzymes after administration of antiparasitic drugs and after infection in the host. Read More

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The , a massive transposon carrying meiotic drive genes.

Genome Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Systematic Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Uppsala University, 752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.

The genomes of eukaryotes are full of parasitic sequences known as transposable elements (TEs). Here, we report the discovery of a putative giant tyrosine-recombinase-mobilized DNA transposon, , from the model fungus Previously, we described a large genomic feature called the block which is notable due to the presence of meiotic drive genes of the gene family. The block ranges from 110 kb to 247 kb and can be present in at least four different genomic locations within , despite what is an otherwise highly conserved genome structure. Read More

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metacyclic promastigotes impair phagosome properties in inflammatory monocytes.

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

INRS - Centre Armand-Frappier Santé Biotechnologie, Université du Québec, Laval, QC, Canada

Leishmaniasis, a debilitating disease with clinical manifestations ranging from self-healing ulcers to life-threatening visceral pathologies, is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus. These professional vacuolar pathogens are transmitted by infected sand flies to mammalian hosts as metacyclic promastigotes and are rapidly internalized by various phagocyte populations. Classical monocytes are among the first myeloid cells to migrate to infection sites. Read More

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Towards chemical validation of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase as a drug target.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

NovAliX, Biology Department, Illkirch Cedex, France

Neglected tropical diseases caused by kinetoplastid parasites (, and spp.) place a significant health and economic burden on developing nations worldwide. Current therapies are largely out-dated, inadequate and facing mounting drug resistance from the causative parasites. Read More

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Pharmacogene sequencing of a Gabonese population with severe malaria reveals multiple novel variants with putative relevance for antimalarial treatment.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Malaria remains one of the most deadly diseases in Africa, particularly for children. While successful in reducing morbidity and mortality, antimalarial treatments are also a major cause of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Host genetic variation in genes involved in drug disposition or toxicity constitutes an important determinant of ADR risk and can prime for parasite drug resistance. Read More

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A chimeric vaccine combined with adjuvant system induces immunogenicity and protection against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Laboratório de Imunopatologia, Núcleo de Pesquisas em Ciências Biológicas (NUPEB), Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT), Salvador, Brazil. Electronic address:

In Brazil, canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health problem due to its alarming growth. The high prevalence of infected dogs reinforces the need for a vaccine for use in prophylactic vaccination campaigns. In the present study, we evaluate the immunogenicity and protection of the best dose of Chimera A selected through the screening of cytokines production important in disease. Read More

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Contamination of fresh produce sold on the Italian market with Cyclospora cayetanensis and Echinococcus multilocularis.

Food Microbiol 2021 Sep 18;98:103792. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Agriculture, Food, Natural Resources and Engineering, University of Foggia, Via Napoli 25, 71121, Foggia, Italy.

To investigate the presence of Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Echinococcus spp. in fresh produce sold in Italy, 324 locally produced 'ready-to-eat' (RTE) mixed-salad packages belonging to three brands and 324 berries packages (blueberries and blackberries imported from Peru and Mexico, respectively, and raspberries grown in Italy) were purchased at retail. Nine individual packages from each of the six types of fresh produce were collected monthly for one year, and with the same produce pooled, this resulted in a total of 72 pools for the whole year. Read More

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September 2021

Mitochondrial genome of (Monogenea: Diplectanidae), a parasite of Pacific white snook .

J Helminthol 2021 Apr 20;95:e21. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., Mazatlán82112, Sinaloa, Mexico.

We report the nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Rhabdosynochus viridisi - the first for this genus - achieved by combining shotgun sequencing of genomic and cDNA libraries prepared using low-input protocols. This integration of genomic information leads us to correct the annotation of the gene features. The mitochondrial genome consists of 13,863 bp. Read More

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From 30 million to zero malaria cases in China: lessons learned for China-Africa collaboration in malaria elimination.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Apr 20;10(1):51. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research, WHO Collaborating Centre for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Science and Technology, Shanghai, 200025, People's Republic of China.

Malaria was once one of the most serious public health problems in China, with more than 30 million malaria cases annually before 1949. However, the disease burden has sharply declined and the epidemic areas has shrunken after the implementation of an integrated malaria control and elimination strategy, especially since 2000. Till now, China has successfully scaled up its efforts to become malaria-free and is currently being evaluated for malaria-free certification by the WHO. Read More

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Roles of three putative salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) prostaglandin E synthases in physiology and host-parasite interactions.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Apr 19;14(1):206. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, SLCR-Sea Lice Research Centre, University of Bergen, P. box 7803, 5020, Bergen, Norway.

Background: The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is a parasite of salmonid fish. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exhibit only a limited and ineffective immune response when infested with this parasite. Prostaglandins (PGs) have many biological functions in both invertebrates and vertebrates, one of which is the regulation of immune responses. Read More

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Influence of the host on three sub-Arctic annual facultative root hemiparasites: I. Growth, mineral accumulation and above-lground dry-matter partitioning.

W E Seel M C Press

New Phytol 1993 Sep;125(1):131-138

Department of Environmental Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Growth, mineral accumulation and above-ground dry-matter partitioning were measured in three sub-Arctic annual facultative root hemiparasites, Rhinanthus minor L., Euphrasia frigida L. and Melampyrum sylvaticum L. Read More

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September 1993

Resistance of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] to Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke, a parasitic angiosperm.

New Phytol 1993 Oct;125(2):405-412

Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Bristol, AFRC Institute of Arable Crops Research, Long Ashton Research Station, Bristol BS18 9AF, UK.

An in vitro growth system was used to investigate the expression of resistance of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties B301 and 58-57 to the angiosperm parasite Striga gesnerioides (Willd. Read More

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October 1993

Nitrogen relations of the sorghum-Striga hermonthica host-parasite association: germination, attachment and early growth.

I Cechin M C Press

New Phytol 1993 Aug;124(4):681-687

Department of Environmental Biology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Ml3 9PL, UK.

The probability of the parasitic angiosperm Striga hermonthica achieving a successful union with its sorghum host is in part dependent on the concentration of ammonium nitrate in the growth medium. Germination rates were higher with 1 mM than with 3 mM ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate did not influence either the stability of active components of host root exudate, or their perception by the parasite's seed. Read More

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Structure and function of the interfaces in biotrophic symbioses as they relate to nutrient transport.

S E Smith F A Smith

New Phytol 1990 Jan;114(1):1-38

Departments of Botany, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia, 5001.

In this review we compare the structure and function of the interfaces between symbionts in biotrophic associations. The emphasis is on biotrophic fungal parasites and on mycorrhizas, although necrotrophic parasitic associations and the Rhizobium/legume symbiosis are mentioned briefly. We take as a starting point the observations that in the parasitic associations nutrient transport is polarized towards the parasite, whereas in mutualistic associations it is bidirectional. Read More

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January 1990

The control of weeds through fungi; principles and prospects.

S Hasan P G Ayres

New Phytol 1990 Jun;115(2):201-222

Division of Biological Sciences, Institute of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Lancaster, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4YQ, U.K.

The biocontrol of weeds by the introduction of exotic fungi (the classical method) has proved successful, most notably in the control of skeleton weed (Chondrilla juncea) in the wheat belt of Australia by the introduced rust, Puccinia chondrillina. There is now increasing interest in an alternative, inundative, method of weed control in which the target is controlled by a massive inoculation with a host-specific indigenous fungal pathogen. It is proposed that through an increased understanding of host - parasite interactions, in particular the enzymes and toxins that fungi use to disrupt the structure and function of weeds, screening of naturally occurring pathogens can be made more efficient. Read More

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New Phytol 1986 Jan;102(1):113-122

Microbiology Department, School of Agriculture, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

Zoospores of Pythium graminicola Subramanian and P. arrhenomanes Drechs., which characteristically infect the Gramineae, differed from spores of P. Read More

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January 1986

Nitrogen and carbon dynamics of a foliar biotrophic fungal parasite in fertilized Douglas-fir.

New Phytol 2004 Jul;163(1):139-147

Plant Pathology Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706 USA.

•  We investigated the nutritional dynamics of Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii and the impact of nitrogen (N) fertilization of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the production of P. gaeumannii fungal fruiting bodies. Emergence of P. Read More

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Empirical evidence of spatial thresholds to control invasion of fungal parasites and saprotrophs.

New Phytol 2004 Jul;163(1):125-132

Epidemiology and Modelling Group, Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA, UK.

•  The ability to forecast invasion of harmful and beneficial organisms is becoming increasingly important in agricultural and horticultural production systems as well as in natural plant communities. •  In this paper we examine the spread of a fungus through a population of discrete sites on a lattice, using replicable, yet stochastically variable experimental microcosms. •  We combine epidemiological concepts to summarise fungal growth dynamics with percolation theory to derive and test the following hypotheses: first fungal invasion into a population of susceptible sites on a lattice can be stopped by a threshold proportion of randomly removed sites; second random removal of susceptible sites from a population introduces a shield which can prevent invasion of unprotected sites; and third the rate at which a susceptible population is invaded reduces with increasing number of randomly protected sites. Read More

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Rust haustoria: nutrient uptake and beyond.

New Phytol 2003 Jul 8;159(1):93-100. Epub 2003 Apr 8.

Universität Konstanz, Fachbereich Biologie, Lehrstuhl Phytopathologie, Universitätsstr. 10, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

Haustoria are morphological features of an extremely successful class of plant parasites, the obligate biotrophs. The broad phylogenetic spectrum of organisms producing haustoria suggests that these structures have arisen many times in the course of evolution and represent specific adaptations of these organisms to the close interaction with their respective host plants. This close interaction and the fact that these structures cannot be produced in vitro have hampered an analysis of the roles of haustoria in biotrophy for many decades. Read More

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Novel sources of resistance to Striga hermonthica in Tripsacum dactyloides, a wild relative of maize.

New Phytol 2003 Dec;160(3):557-568

Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

•  The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica lowers cereal yield in small-holder farms in Africa. Complete resistance in maize to S. hermonthica infection has not been identified. Read More

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December 2003

Colonization of plant roots by egg-parasitic and nematode-trapping fungi.

New Phytol 2002 May;154(2):491-499

Departamento de Ciencias Ambientales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado Correos 99, ES-03080 Alicante, Spain.

•  The ability of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and the nematode egg parasite Verticillium chlamydosporium to colonize barley (Hordeum vulgare) and tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) roots was examined, together with capability of the fungi to induce cell wall modifications in root cells. •  Chemotropism was studied using an agar plate technique. Root colonization was investigated with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, while compounds involved in fungus-plant interactions were studied histochemically. Read More

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