57 results match your criteria paranoia attributional


A comprehensive meta-analysis of the self-serving bias in schizophrenia spectrum disorders compared to non-clinical subjects.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2021 01 24;120:542-549. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Strasse 62, 50924 Cologne, Germany; Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy, and Psychosomatics, Vivantes Klinikum am Urban and Vivantes Klinikum im Friedrichshain, Academic Hospital Charité, Dieffenbachstrasse 1, 10967 Berlin, Germany.

We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to investigate the self-serving bias SSB in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) to examine its specificity for persecutory delusions, paranoia, and to explore sources of heterogeneity in previous findings. We included 56 studies with n = 2501 patients with SSD and n = 2601 non-clinical controls in the main random-effects model using Hedges' g. Data quality and risk of bias were assessed. Read More

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January 2021

Depression, hostility, attributional biases, and paranoia in schizophrenia and healthy controls: intercorrelations and associations with self-assessment of social functioning.

Psychiatry Res 2020 11 17;293:113388. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, United States; Research Service, Bruce W. Carter VA Medical Center, Miami, FL, United States.

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November 2020

Paranoia, sensitization and social inference: findings from two large-scale, multi-round behavioural experiments.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Mar 11;7(3):191525. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Social and Cultural Neuroscience Research Group, Centre for Neuroimaging Sciences, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology, and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

The sensitization model suggests that paranoia is explained by over-sensitivity to social threat. However, this has been difficult to test experimentally. We report two preregistered social interaction studies that tested (i) whether paranoia predicted overall attribution and peak attribution of harmful intent and (ii) whether anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity and worry predicted the attribution of harmful intent. Read More

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Hostile attribution bias in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders: narrative review of the literature and persisting questions.

J Ment Health 2020 Mar 31:1-18. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Social cognition is often aberrant or impaired in psychotic disorders and related to functional outcomes. In particular, one core social cognitive bias - hostile attribution bias - is proposed to be implicated in paranoia, anxiety, mood disturbances and interpersonal conflict outcomes. However, questions remain about this domain's specificity to psychosis and its relationship to general functional outcomes. Read More

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Inflexible social inference in individuals with subclinical persecutory delusional tendencies.

Schizophr Res 2020 01 5;215:344-351. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Translational Neuromodeling Unit (TNU), Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich & ETH Zurich, Switzerland; Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, UK; Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research, Cologne, Germany.

It has been suspected that abnormalities in social inference (e.g., learning others' intentions) play a key role in the formation of persecutory delusions (PD). Read More

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January 2020

Discrepancies of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem as Predictors of Attributional Bias and Paranoia.

Psychiatry Investig 2019 Mar 7;16(3):185-192. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Department of Psychiatry, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, International St. Mary's Hospital, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The current study aimed to examine the association of implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem and their interaction with paranoia and attributional bias. The relationship of the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with paranoia and attributional bias was examined.

Methods: A total of 128 female college students participated. Read More

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The paranoia as defence model of persecutory delusions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Psychiatry 2018 11 9;5(11):913-929. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

School of Health and Social Care, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: An influential psychological model of persecutory delusions proposed that they are caused by a bias towards holding others responsible for negative events (an externalising attributional bias), preventing the individual from becoming aware of underlying low self-esteem. An early version of the model predicted self-esteem would, therefore, be preserved in people with these delusions, but a later version suggested it would be unstable, and that there would be a discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, with the latter being lower. We did a comprehensive meta-analytical test of the key predictions of this model and assessed the quality of evidence. Read More

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November 2018

Cotard Syndrome.

Front Neurol Neurosci 2018 17;42:23-34. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Laboratory for Cognitive and Neurological Sciences, Département de Médecine, Université de Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

Cotard's syndrome is often described as the delusional belief that one is dead or non-existent. However, Jules Cotard's initial description (1880) of the "delusion of negations" was much richer and also involved delusions and claims of immortality and enormity, feelings of damnation, and illusions of bodily dissolution and transformation. Alternatively conceived as an extreme case of depression, hypochondria, or psychosis, the condition is considered rare and remains poorly understood. Read More

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Monocausal attribution and its relationship with reasoning biases in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 03 18;193:77-82. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Research Group Neurocognition, Department of General Psychiatry, Centre for Psychosocial Medicine, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Aberrant attributional styles are counted to a set of circumscribed cognitive biases that are implicated in the pathogenesis of (paranoid) psychosis. However, evidence for a specific profile (e.g. Read More

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Stress sensitivity in paranoia: poor-me paranoia protects against the unpleasant effects of social stress.

Psychol Med 2017 Dec 5;47(16):2834-2843. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

University of Sheffield,UK.

Background: The attributional theory of paranoia suggests that paranoid beliefs may protect individuals from low self-esteem and distress (Bentall et al. 2001). The current study tested this theory by investigating a hypothesis that paranoid beliefs in combination with low perceived deservedness of persecution (poor-me beliefs) confer protection against the distress caused by social but not activity related stress. Read More

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December 2017

Symptom-related attributional biases in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2017 Jul 19;22(4):263-279. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

a Department of Psychiatry , University of British Columbia , Vancouver , Canada.

Introduction: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed.

Methods: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs. Read More

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[Everyday suspicion: our life is delusional].

Authors:
Zoltán Janka

Orv Hetil 2016 Dec;157(50):1979-1988

Pszichiátriai Klinika, Szegedi Tudományegyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar Szeged, Kálvária sgt. 57., 6720.

Suspicious thinking in given situations can be useful and helps the adaptation as events occurring in the world also corroborate this. Factors participating in the development of paranoia can be listed as psychodynamic (projection), salience attributional, neurobiological (dopamine), impaired perceptual (hearing loss), sociocultural (minority, pseudocommunity), self-esteem (worrying, depression, mania), and cognitive (jump-to-conclusion) mechanisms. Along the spectrum of thinking, from the mild to the severe, enhanced worrying, salience attribution, overvalued concepts, suspicion/mistrust, paranoid ideations, and crystallized delusions may occur with different contents. Read More

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December 2016

Revisiting the validity of measures of social cognitive bias in schizophrenia: Additional results from the Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study.

Br J Clin Psychol 2016 Nov 11;55(4):441-454. Epub 2016 May 11.

Department of Psychololgy and Neuroscience, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: The ongoing Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study is in the process of forming a gold-standard battery of social cognition tests for use in clinical trials. Previous SCOPE phases have not acknowledged key differences between social cognition skills and biases, and psychometric validity analyses might provide important information if tailored to bias-related outcomes. This study aims to validate these measures with such bias-related outcomes. Read More

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November 2016

An investigation of attributional style, theory of mind and executive functioning in acute paranoia and remission.

Psychiatry Res 2015 Mar 17;226(1):84-90. Epub 2014 Dec 17.

Institute of Psychology, Health & Society, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GB, UK.

This study assessed associations between attributional style and ToM measures in patients with paranoid symptoms and non-clinical controls, as well associations between these aspects of social cognition and executive skills. Using a longitudinal design, we further assessed performance on measures following the remission of paranoid symptoms. Patients and controls completed the Internal Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ), ToM tasks, the Stroop, the modified Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and a measure of premorbid IQ at time one. Read More

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The role of experiential avoidance in paranoid delusions: an experience sampling study.

Br J Clin Psychol 2014 Nov 15;53(4):422-32. Epub 2014 May 15.

Clinical Psychology Unit, Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield, UK.

Objectives: The study examined (1) the role of experiential avoidance (EA), conceptualized as intolerance towards aversive mental states, in paranoid delusions and (2) the mechanisms underlying EA.

Design: A 6-day prospective momentary assessment study.

Methods: Paranoid patients (N = 41) were studied using the experience sampling method (ESM), a structured diary technique, assessing psychopathology and current context in daily life. Read More

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November 2014

Social cognition and work performance of persons with schizophrenia in a Chinese population.

Work 2015 ;50(4):629-36

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, China.

Background: Social-cognitive deficits have a significant impact on the community and vocational functioning of persons with schizophrenia.

Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between social-cognitive abilities and vocational functioning in a Chinese population.

Method: We recruited 30 outpatients with schizophrenia to participate. Read More

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December 2016

Attributional style in fist episode of schizophrenia and schizophrenia spectrum disorders with and without paranoid ideation.

Psychiatr Danub 2013 Sep;25 Suppl 2:S329-31

Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia,

In the present study we evaluated attributional style which refers to how individuals explain the causes for positive and negative events in their lives in patients with first episode of schizophrenia with and without paranoid ideation. 43 patients with first episode of psychosis and 37 matched normal controls completed Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) (Combs et al. 2007). Read More

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September 2013

Attributional biases, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis.

Br J Clin Psychol 2013 Nov 22;52(4):408-23. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, and Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Objectives: Attributional biases to externalize blame for negative events (externalizing bias) and to target other people for blame (personalizing bias) may constitute a vulnerability to psychosis. However, most research to date has only examined attributional biases in chronic patients. We examined attributional style, paranoia, and depression in early psychosis patients to assess the primacy of attributional biases in psychosis. Read More

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November 2013

Attributional style in healthy persons: its association with 'theory of mind' skills.

Psychiatry Investig 2013 Mar 8;10(1):34-40. Epub 2013 Feb 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea. ; Section of Affect and Neuroscience, Institute of Behavioural Science in Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Attributional style, especially external personal attribution bias, was found to play a pivotal role in clinical and non-clinical paranoia. The study of the relationship of the tendency to infer/perceive hostility and blame with theory of mind skills has significant theoretical importance as it may provide additional information on how persons process social situations. The aim of this study was whether hostility perception bias and blame bias might be associated with theory of mind skills, neurocognition and emotional factors in healthy persons. Read More

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Social cognition and social functioning in nonclinical paranoia.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2013 27;18(6):531-48. Epub 2013 Feb 27.

a Department of Psychology , University of Texas at Tyler , Tyler , TX , USA.

Introduction: Persons with nonclinical paranoia show many of the same biases as those with clinical paranoia, suggesting that paranoia exists on a continuum. However, little is known about the various social cognitive processes found in paranoia and how these relate to social functioning and social behaviours in general. This study will examine performance on emotion perception and attributional style measures and their relationship to social functioning, social problem solving, and social skill. Read More

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Externalized attributional bias in the Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis population.

Psychiatry Res 2013 Apr 21;206(2-3):200-5. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Orygen Youth Health and Research Centre, Centre for Youth Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Specific externalizing attributional biases appear to be common in early psychosis. They may represent trait risk factors for the later development of a psychotic disorder, yet few studies have investigated this in clinical "at risk" populations. We aimed to investigate one particular bias, the Locus of Control of reinforcement (LOC) in a "Ultra High Risk" (UHR) for psychosis group. Read More

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Attributional style among youth at clinical risk for psychosis.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2013 Feb 5;7(1):84-8. Epub 2012 Mar 5.

School of Social Work, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Aim: A biased attributional style, in which negative events are attributed to external and personal causes, is associated with paranoid delusions in schizophrenia. It is not known whether this biased attributional style also characterizes individuals at clinical risk for psychosis or if it is associated with their emergent paranoia.

Methods: Thirty-three clinical high-risk patients and 15 age- and gender-similar controls were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire for externalizing and personalizing attributional biases and for potential correlates with suspiciousness and other symptoms. Read More

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February 2013

Specificity of jumping to conclusions and attributional biases: a comparison between patients with schizophrenia, depression, and anorexia nervosa.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2012 May 9;17(3):262-86. Epub 2012 Jan 9.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, and Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Medical University Hospital, Tübingen, Germany.

Introduction: The knowledge of the specificity of cognitive biases in psychiatric disorders is important in order to develop disorder-specific cognitive models and therapies. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the specificity of jumping to conclusions (JTC) and attributional biases (AB) for patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: Twenty patients with paranoid schizophrenia were compared with patients with depression (n=20) and with anorexia nervosa (n=15) and nonclinical controls (n=55). Read More

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Association between locus of control in childhood and psychotic symptoms in early adolescence: results from a large birth cohort.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2011 Sep 28;16(5):385-402. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

The Academic Unit of Psychiatry, University of Bristol, UK.

INTRODUCTION. Specific attributional styles have been demonstrated in individuals with psychotic disorders and are implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. We aimed to examine the association between locus of control (LOC) assessed in childhood and psychotic symptoms reported in early adolescence. Read More

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September 2011

Paranoid explanations of experience: a novel experimental study.

Behav Cogn Psychother 2011 Jan 17;39(1):21-34. Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK.

Background: Paranoia is a common experience in the non-clinical population. We use a novel experimental methodology to investigate paranoid ideas in individuals without a history of mental illness.

Aims: We aimed to determine whether this paradigm could elicit unfounded paranoid thoughts and whether these thoughts could be predicted by factors from a cognitive model. Read More

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January 2011

Are you looking at me? Paranoid psychosis in pre-existing social phobia.

Ir J Psychol Med 2010 Jun;27(2):86-89

St James's Hospital,Dublin 8,Ireland.

Objectives: Three patients presenting with a first episode of psychosis each had a past history of social phobia. We sought to explore the literature on the co-occurrence of these disorders and investigate three hypotheses to explain this: (1) the chance co-occurrence of two illnesses with distinct aetiologies; (2) two clinical presentations reflecting different points on the same spectrum of illness; and (3) two distinct disorders representing different end points resulting from the same aetiology.

Method: A literature review of Embase, PubMed and Psych Lit was performed. Read More

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Attributional biases in paranoia: the development and validation of the Achievement and Relationships Attributions Task (ARAT).

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2009 Mar;14(2):87-109

Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University College London, UK.

Introduction: Attributional biases, in particular a tendency to blame other people for negative events, have been reported among people with persecutory delusions and in people in the general population with subclinical paranoia. However, existing attribution measures have some shortcomings. The present study therefore describes the development and validation of a new attribution measure: the Achievement and Relationships Attributions Task (ARAT). Read More

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Perceptions of hostility by persons with and without persecutory delusions.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2009 Jan;14(1):30-52

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75799, USA.

Introduction: Current models of paranoia propose that ambiguous situations, in which cues regarding the intentions of others are lacking, may be perceived as hostile by persons with persecutory delusions (PD). Thus, a social-cognitive bias for the perception of hostility may be present. In this study, the Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire (AIHQ) was used to present situations that are ambiguous regarding the intentions of others. Read More

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January 2009

Understanding attributional biases, emotions and self-esteem in 'poor me' paranoia: findings from an early psychosis sample.

Br J Clin Psychol 2009 Jun 2;48(Pt 2):141-62. Epub 2008 Dec 2.

Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London, London, UK.

Objectives: Trower and Chadwick's (1995) theory of two types of paranoia ('poor me' and 'bad me') provides a framework for understanding the seemingly contradictory evidence on persecutory delusions. Paranoia has been argued to defend against low self-esteem, but people with persecutory delusions report high levels of emotional distress and, in some instances, low self-worth. The current study investigates attributions and emotions in a sample of people with early psychosis who have persecutory delusions. Read More

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Reasoning anomalies associated with delusions in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2010 Mar 11;36(2):321-30. Epub 2008 Jul 11.

Macquarie Centre for Cognitive Science, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia.

Deluded people differ from nondeluded controls on attributional style questionnaires and probabilistic-reasoning and theory-of-mind (ToM) tasks. No study to date has examined the relations between these 3 reasoning anomalies in the same individuals so as to evaluate their functional independence and potentially inform theories of delusion formation. We did so in 35 schizophrenic patients with a history of delusions, 30 of whom were currently deluded, and 34 healthy controls. Read More

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