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Stapedial Reflex: A Possible Novel Biomarker of Early Bulbar Involvement in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 Apr 13:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

ENT Unit, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.

Background And Aim: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular progressive disorder, characterized by limb and bulbar muscle wasting and weakness. 30% of patients present a bulbar onset, while 70% a spinal outbreak, although most of them develop bulbar impairment later on. Due to the lack of an early biomarker of bulbar involvement, we chose to evaluate the role of stapedial reflex (SR) in order to predict preclinical bulbar impairment in ALS. Read More

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Deep CNN-Based CAD System for COVID-19 Detection Using Multiple Lung CT Scans.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Computer Engineering, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz, IR.

Background: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the imminent collapse of healthcare systems following the excessive consumption of financial, hospital, and medicinal resources, the WHO changed the alert level on the COVID-19 pandemic from high to very high. Meanwhile, the world began to favor less expensive and more precise COVID-19 detection methods.

Objective: Machine vision-based COVID-19 detection methods especially Deep learning as a diagnostic technique in the early stages of the disease have found great importance during the pandemic. Read More

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Immediate effects of myofascial release on neuromechanical characteristics in female and male patients with low back pain and healthy controls as assessed by tensiomyography. A controlled matched-pair study.

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon) 2021 Apr 5;84:105351. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Malaga, Malaga, Spain. Electronic address:

Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a major health issue in most industrialised countries. Lumbodorsal fascia has been advocated as a potential source of pain in the lumbopelvic region. Myofascial release constitutes a manual therapeutic approach focussing on the restoration of altered soft tissue function. Read More

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Comparisons of basic Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD) and Ligand Facilitated Target Removal (LFTR).

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Apr 10:105835. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Firma Biopharmacon, Engelbrektsgatan 5, Gothenburg 41127, Sweden. Electronic address:

In the well-known model for basic Target-Mediated Drug Disposition (TMDD), drug binds to the target and the resulting drug-target complex is removed by a first order process, leading to loss of both drug and target. In the present note we study what happens when, instead, drug is returned to the free drug pool so that it can a new target molecule. What results is a mechanism in which the drug, here referred to as the ligand, facilitates the removal of the target,and then returns to the free ligand pool. Read More

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Resample aggregating improves the generalizability of Connectome Predictive Modelling.

Neuroimage 2021 Apr 10:118044. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University; Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale School of Medicine; Department of Neurosurgery, Yale School of Medicine.

It is a long-standing goal of neuroimaging to produce reliable, generalizable models of brain behavior relationships. More recently, data driven predictive models have become popular. However, overfitting is a common problem with statistical models, which impedes model generalization. Read More

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The prognostic impact of daytime and seasonality of radiotherapy on head and neck cancer.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.

Background: The potential impact of daytime and season of radiotherapy application on prognosis is unclear. This was analyzed in a retrospective cohort of patients who were diagnosed with non-metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy.

Materials And Methods: Patient and tumor characteristics, treatment parameters and outcome until last follow-up or death were obtained. Read More

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Wetting Dynamics of a Lipid Monolayer.

Langmuir 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.

Direct measurement and control of the dynamic wetting properties of a lipid-coated water-air interface over a wide range of surface tension variations have many important applications. However, the wetting dynamics of the interface near its partial-to-complete wetting transition has not been fully understood. Here, we report a systematic study of the wetting dynamics of a lipid-coated water-air interface around a thin glass fiber of diameter 1-5 μm and length 100-300 μm. Read More

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Furosemide clearance in very preterm neonates early in life: a pilot study using scavenged samples.

Pediatr Int 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan.

Background: Furosemide is an off-label drug frequently used as a diuretic in neonates with oliguria and/or edema. Its clearance in preterm neonates is lower than in term neonates or children. We aimed herein to clarify furosemide clearance (CL) in very preterm (VP) neonates (< 28 weeks gestation) within the first two weeks of life and identify the factors predictive of the PK parameters, such as CL. Read More

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Effect of aromatherapy on autonomic nervous system regulation with treadmill exercise-induced stress among adolescents.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(4):e0249795. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatric Emergency, Changhua Christian Children Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan.

Introduction: Stress is a major health issue in adolescents owing to the important transitions experienced during this period. Aromatherapy is an effective method for the reduction of stress in adolescents.

Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine the effect of aromatherapy on the regulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) along with stress relief and to explore the effect of aromatherapy on adolescents with different levels of stress. Read More

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Diagnostic Performance of FibroTouch Ultrasound Attenuation Parameter and Liver Stiffness Measurement in Assessing Hepatic Steatosis and Fibrosis in Patients With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Apr 13;12(4):e00323. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Introduction: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound attenuation parameter (UAP) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroTouch for diagnosis of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Methods: We recruited 237 patients undergoing FibroTouch and liver biopsy within 2 weeks. The pathological findings of liver biopsy were scored by Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network, and the diagnostic accuracy of UAP for steatosis and LSM for fibrosis was evaluated by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). Read More

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Accuracy of quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging for differentiating benign and malignant pancreatic lesions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: A variety of imaging techniques can be used to evaluate diffusion characteristics to differentiate malignant and benign pancreatic lesions. The diagnostic performance of diffusion parameters has not been systematic assessed.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the diagnostic efficacy of quantitative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for pancreatic lesions. Read More

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Meta-analysis of the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on hepatic fibrosis in patients with T2DM complicated with NAFLD.

Hepatol Res 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Graduate School of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: This study aimed to analyze the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on the indexes of liver fibrosis in patients with T2DM complicated with NAFLD, and also to observe the effects on liver enzymes and liver fat.

Material And Methods: This meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.3 statistical software. Read More

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The "breech progression angle": a new feasible and reliable transperineal ultrasound parameter for the fetal breech descent in the birth canal.

Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility and reliability of transperineal ultrasound in the assessment of breech descent in the birth canal, by measuring the "breech progression angle".

Methods: We recruited pregnant women with singleton pregnancies and fetuses in breech presentation between 34 and 41 weeks' gestation. We acquired transperineal ultrasound images in the midsagittal view for each woman twice by an operator and once by another. Read More

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Musculomandibular morphology in individuals with different vertical skeletal growth patterns: an MRI and cone beam computed tomography study.

Stomatologija 2020 ;22(4):99-106

Department of Orthodontics, Institute of Stomatology, Riga Stradins University, 20 Dzirciema Street, Riga, LV 1007, Latvia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the volumetric and crossectional parameters of masseter and medial pterygoid muscles in the relation with mandibular skeletal morphology in individuals with different underlying growth patterns in the vertical dimension.

Material And Methods: The study originally involved 76 individuals with definite clinical and radiological criteria: 31 skeletal Class III and 26 skeletal Class II patients before the orthognathic surgery and 20 skeletal class I (normal) individuals with complaints of wisdom teeth and associated medical problems. On the basis of cephalometric measurement of the mandibular plane and sella-nasion (MP-SN), the study sample was categorised according to the vertical facial dimension in 3 different growth pattern subgroups: 19 subjects with horizontal growth pattern, 25 subjects with vertical growth pattern and 33 subjects with neutral growth pattern. Read More

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January 2020

Pathological coagulation parameters in as many as 54 patients with autoimmune acquired factor XIII deficiency due to anti-factor XIII autoantibodies.

Haemophilia 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular Patho-Biochemistry and Patho-Biology, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan.

Introduction: Autoimmune factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency (AiF13D) due to anti-FXIII autoantibodies is an extremely rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder that mostly occurs in the elderly. The number of patients diagnosed with AiF13D has been increasing in Japan, probably because of the nationwide survey on AiF13D supported by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.

Aim: To explore the pathologic characteristics of coagulation parameters in AiF13D. Read More

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Microenvironmental regulation of tumour immunity and response to immunotherapy.

J Pathol 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Genentech, South San Francisco, California, 94080, USA.

The confluence of immunology and oncology has led to a lot of uncertainty and questions about relevant biomarkers. Despite the complexity of the tumour microenvironment most clinical studies have relied on a single-parameter immunohistochemical assay to prospectively select patients for checkpoint inhibitor therapy; the results of this strategy have been highly variable and often less than optimal. While great efforts have been made to identify additional or alternative biomarkers, pathologists, drug developers and clinicians alike have faced technical, logistical and regulatory challenges on how to implement them successfully. Read More

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A neural network-based method for modeling PM 2.5 measurements obtained from the surface particulate matter network.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 12;193(5):261. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

NASRDA-Center for Basic Space Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria.

Air pollution is a global problem; hence, many countries devoted lots of resources towards its study and possible eradication. The major parameter indicator for air quality is the particulate matter (PM). These particles, especially PM, are injurious to health either under high concentration levels or after a long-term exposure. Read More

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Multiscale modeling of glioma pseudopalisades: contributions from the tumor microenvironment.

J Math Biol 2021 Apr 12;82(6):49. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

TU Kaiserslautern, Felix-Klein-Zentrum für Mathematik, Paul-Ehrlich-Street 31, 67663, Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Gliomas are primary brain tumors with a high invasive potential and infiltrative spread. Among them, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) exhibits microvascular hyperplasia and pronounced necrosis triggered by hypoxia. Histological samples showing garland-like hypercellular structures (so-called pseudopalisades) centered around the occlusion site of a capillary are typical for GBM and hint on poor prognosis of patient survival. Read More

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Direct reconstruction of anatomical change in low-dose lung nodule surveillance.

J Med Imaging (Bellingham) 2021 Mar 9;8(2):023503. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Johns Hopkins University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

In sequential imaging studies, there exists rich information from past studies that can be used in prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) as a form of improved regularization to yield higher-quality images in subsequent studies. PIBR methods, such as reconstruction of difference (RoD), have demonstrated great improvements in the image quality of subsequent anatomy reconstruction even when CT data are acquired at very low-exposure settings. However, to effectively use information from past studies, two major elements are required: (1) registration, usually deformable, must be applied between the current and prior scans. Read More

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Containing the COVID-19 pandemic with drones - Feasibility of a drone enabled back-up transport system.

Transp Policy (Oxf) 2021 Jun 3;106:141-152. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Operations, Energy, and Environmental Management, Universitaet Klagenfurt, Universitätsstraße 65 - 67, 9020, Klagenfurt, Austria.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly altered common social and economic patterns as governments all over the world have been forced to take drastic measures to counter the spread of the disease. Among them, quarantine, the closure of borders, and social distancing are the ones that have affected transportation systems most severely. With the clear need to avoid all unnecessary direct human contact, an increased interest in contactless transportation and delivery modes emerged. Read More

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Genetic drift from the out-of-Africa bottleneck leads to biased estimation of genetic architecture and selection.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Statistical Sciences, School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Fry Building, Bristol, BS8 1UG, UK.

Most complex traits evolved in the ancestors of all modern humans and have been under negative or balancing selection to maintain the distribution of phenotypes observed today. Yet all large studies mapping genomes to complex traits occur in populations that have experienced the Out-of-Africa bottleneck. Does this bottleneck affect the way we characterise complex traits? We demonstrate using the 1000 Genomes dataset and hypothetical complex traits that genetic drift can strongly affect the joint distribution of effect size and SNP frequency, and that the bias can be positive or negative depending on subtle details. Read More

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Defining values for controlled attenuation parameter and liver stiffness in youth without liver disease.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Health Sciences, Public University of Navarra, Navarrabiomed-IdiSNA, Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra (CHN), Pamplona, Spain.

Background: We aimed to determine the reference values to define an age-specific normal range of controlled attenuation parameter (CAP, a measure of liver steatosis) and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) values assessed by ultrasound-based transient elastography in adolescents without underlying liver disease.

Methods: A total of 462 participants were included in this cross-sectional study using data from NHANES 2017-2018. LSM and CAP were carried out using the FibroScan® M-probe. Read More

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The quantitative comparison between high wall shear stress and high strain in the formation of paraclinoid aneurysms.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7947. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University, International St. Mary's Hospital, Simgokro 100gil 25, Seo-gu, Incheon, Korea.

In the hemodynamic study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has shown that high wall shear stress (WSS) is an important parameter in cerebral aneurysm formation. However, CFD analysis is not more realistic than fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis given its lack of considering the involvement of vascular structures. To investigate the relationship between the hemodynamic parameters and the aneurysm formation, the locations of high WSS and high strain were extracted from the CFD and FSI analyses, respectively. Read More

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Application of DBN and GWO-SVM in analog circuit fault diagnosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7969. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Xidian University, No. 2 Taibai South Road, Xi'an, 710071, China.

For large-scale integrated electronic equipment, the complex operating mechanisms make fault detection very difficult. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify analog circuit faults in a timely manner. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method based on the deep belief network (DBN) and restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) optimized by the gray wolf optimization (GWO) algorithm. Read More

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An anisotropic pore-network model to estimate the shale gas permeability.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7902. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

State Key Laboratory of Hydro-Science and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

The permeability of shale is a significant and important design parameter for shale gas extraction. The shale gas permeability is usually obtained based on Darcy flow using standard laboratory permeability tests done on core samples, that do not account for different transport mechanisms at high pressures and anisotropic effects in shales due to nano-scale pore structure. In this study, the permeability of shale is predicted using a pore network model. Read More

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Micafungin population PK analysis in plasma and peritoneal fluid in septic patients with intra-abdominal infections: a prospective cohort study.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Service des Réanimations, Pôle Anesthésie Réanimation Douleur Urgence, CHU Nîmes, Nîmes, France.

To describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of micafungin in plasma and peritoneal fluid in septic patients with intra-abdominal infections. Twelve patients with secondary peritonitis in septic shock receiving 100 mg micafungin once daily were included. Total micafungin plasma and peritoneal fluid were subject to a population pharmacokinetic analysis using Pmetrics®. Read More

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[Safety and efficiency of epithelium-off accelerated corneal cross-linking for progressive keratoconus in pediatric patients].

J Fr Ophtalmol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Service d'ophtalmologie, Pavillon C, hôpital Edouard-Herriot, 5, place d'Arsonval, 69003 Lyon, France; Faculté de médecine Lyon Sud, Charles-Mérieux, rue du Grand-Revoyet, 69006 Oullins, France.

In adults, the management of keratoconus has evolved in recent years to achieve a well-codified treatment algorithm. The technique of cross-linking (CXL) has allowed us to stabilize the progression of keratoconus and has been largely developed. It is very effective, with few postoperative complications. Read More

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Feasibility and advantages of endoscope-assisted parotidectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 Aug 19. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

School of Stomatology, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University & Shandong Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

The object of this paper was to explore the feasibility and advantages of endoscope-assisted parotid tumour resection. Three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane) were used to search for all related randomised controlled trials or controlled trials (up to November 2019). The key parameters for assessment included 'Endoscope', 'Endoscopes', 'Cancer of Parotid', and 'Parotid Cancer'. Read More

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Ion Mobility-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (IM-HRMS) for the Analysis of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs): Database Compilation and Application to Urine Samples.

Anal Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Toxicological Centre, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS)-derived collision cross section (CCS) values can serve as a valuable additional identification parameter within the analysis of compounds of emerging concern (CEC) in human matrices. This study introduces the first comprehensive database of CCS values of 148 CECs and their metabolites including bisphenols, alternative plasticizers (AP), organophosphate flame retardants (OP), perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFAS), and others. A total of 311 ions were included in the database, whereby the CCS values for 113 compounds are reported for the first time. Read More

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Role of pH in the synthesis and growth of gold nanoparticles using L-Asparagine: A combined experimental and simulation study.

J Phys Condens Matter 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, 50099 Mainz, Mainz, 55128, GERMANY.

The use of biomolecules as capping and reducing agents in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles constitutes a promising framework to achieve desired functional properties with minimal toxicity. The system's complexity and the large number of variables involved represent a challenge for theoretical and experimental investigations aiming at devising precise synthesis protocols. In this work, we use L-Asparagine (Asn), an amino acid building block of large biomolecular systems, to synthesise gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in aqueous solution at controlled pH. Read More

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