968,101 results match your criteria papers

Crucial Music Components Needed for Speech Perception Enhancement of Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Audiol Neurootol 2021 Apr 20:1-25. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Research Institute of Hearing Enhancement, Yonsei University Wonju College of Medicine, Wonju, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although many clinicians have attempted music training for the hearing-impaired children, no specific effects have yet been reported for individual music components. This paper seeks to discover specific music components that help in improving speech perception of children with cochlear implants (CI) and to identify the effective training periods and methods needed for each component.

Method: While assessing 5 electronic databases, that is, ScienceDirect, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science, 1,638 articles were found initially. Read More

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The adaptation and investigation of cone-beam CT reconstruction algorithms for horizontal rotation fixed-gantry scans of rabbits.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

ACRF Image X Institute, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, AUSTRALIA.

Fixed-gantry radiation therapy has been proposed as a low-cost alternative to the conventional rotating-gantry radiation therapy, that may help meet the rising global treatment demand. Fixed-gantry systems require gravitational motion compensated reconstruction algorithms to produce cone-beam CT (CBCT) images of sufficient quality for image guidance. The aim of this work was to adapt and investigate five CBCT reconstruction algorithms for fixed-gantry cone-beam CT images. Read More

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System understanding as a scientific foundation in radioactive waste disposal, legacy site and decommissioning programmes.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.


Ongoing national programmes and International forums have in recent decades developed and enhanced methods and strategies in how to address the characterisation of potentially suitable sites for radioactive waste repositories. Siting processes, site selection and site investigation programmes have been conducted for near surface and geological repositories and plans for construction are in progress or have already been implemented. Lessons learned from these national and international programmes are available and results are published. Read More

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Pigs Don't Fly and You Cannot Expect Absolutely Safe COVID-19 Vaccines (But You Should Expect a Fair Compensation).

Eur J Health Law 2021 Apr 19:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Faculty of Law, University of Macau 59193 Macau China.

This paper focuses on the COVID-19 vaccines authorised for use in the European Union, and explores the mechanisms in place to control vaccine safety and to compensate injured patients, mainly in the context of European law. Based on these considerations, the paper concludes that the refusal by some potential vaccinees to take the vaccine based on safety concerns is ungrounded and an indication of unrealistic expectations, but that in order to build public trust proper compensation mechanisms should be in place. Read More

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Effect of sample thinning on strains and lattice rotations measured from Transmission Kikuchi diffraction in the SEM.

Ultramicroscopy 2021 Apr 9;225:113267. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH, United Kingdom.

Cross correlation based high angular resolution EBSD (or HR-EBSD) has been developed for measurement of elastic strains, lattice rotations (and estimating GND density). Recent advances in Transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), especially the on-axis geometry allows the possibility of acquiring patterns at higher spatial resolution. However, some controversy remains as to whether stresses/strains measured after the sample thinning process are still representative of the bulk sample. Read More

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Impact of geology and anthropogenic activities over the water quality with emphasis on fluoride in water scarce Lalitpur district of Bundelkhand region, India.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 5;279:130496. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Groundwater Department WAPCOS, New Delhi, India.

The Bundelkhand region of India is suffering from acute water scarcity, raising concern over the potability in the region. Therefore, to develop a baseline data set of groundwater quality, sampling was carried out from the 110 existing shallow hand pumps and tube wells covering the Lalitpur district. Groundwater samples were investigated for hydro-geochemical and isotopic signatures (δO and δH) to understand the driving factors leading to water quality and its contamination in the region. Read More

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A strategy to determine the fate of active chemical compounds in soil; applied to antimicrobially active substances.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 7;279:130495. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen University & Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB, Wageningen, the Netherland.

Data on the fate of chemical substances in the environment after e.g. manure application is mandatory input for risk assessment in perspective of a more circular biobased economy. Read More

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Removal of humic acid and Cr(Ⅵ) from water using ZnO-30N-zeolite.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 5;279:130491. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

College of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Quanzhou Normal University, Quanzhou, 362000, China.

The mutual influence of humic acid and Cr(Ⅵ) on water purification using ZnO-30N-zeolite was investigated in the laboratory. The removal of humic acid by ZnO-30N-zeolite with both pollutants present reached 90% in 5 min. With humic acid alone, more than one day was required to reach the same level of removal. Read More

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Earthworm casts restrained the accumulation and phytotoxicity of soil glyphosate to cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) plants.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 14;279:130571. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, 571101, China. Electronic address:

The heavy use of glyphosate during the cultivation of glyphosate-resistant crops, would trigger the so called "pseudo-persistent" glyphosate in soil, thereby threatening agricultural environment, crop production, and human health through food safety. Such that, there is pressing need for the development of strategies for the effective management of glyphosate contamination in soil to promote cleaner agricultural production. In this study, as witnessed via characterizing the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of glyphosate to cowpea plants in soils applied with or without earthworm casts (EWCs), EWCs could significantly facilitate glyphosate desorption from soil, thus enhance its bioaccessibility, nonetheless, sharply decreased rather than increased the accumulation of glyphosate in cowpea plants via reducing the residue pool of glyphosate in the soil. Read More

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Comprehensive characterization of tire and road wear particles in highway tunnel road dust by use of size and density fractionation.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 8;279:130530. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department Analytical Chemistry, Permoserstrasse 15, 04318, Leipzig, Germany.

Tire and road wear particles (TRWPs) are a major component of non-exhaust traffic emissions, but knowledge about their physico-chemical properties is limited. Road dust of a highway tunnel was fractionated by size and density, and fractions were analyzed for TRWPs, metals, seven tire tread indicator chemicals (benzothiazoles, 6-PPD and DPG) and effects in in-vitro bioassays. TRWP content in tunnel dust was very high (11-12%). Read More

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Combined effect of silver ion and pyrite on AMD formation generated by chalcopyrite bio-dissolution.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 9;279:130516. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China; Key Lab of Biohydrometallurgy of Ministry of Education, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Chalcopyrite is a crucial contributor causing acid mine drainage (AMD). Silver and pyrite are commonly co-existed with chalcopyrite, and can significantly affect the copper release from chalcopyrite bio-dissolution process. However, the combined effect of them on chalcopyrite bio-dissolution has not been illustrated up to now. Read More

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Use of selected NSAIDs in Guangzhou and other cities in the world as identified by wastewater analysis.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 9;279:130529. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Higher Education Mega Center, Panyu District, Guangzhou, 510006, China; The Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou, 510006, China; The Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Eco-Remediation of Guangdong Regular Higher Education Institutions, Guangzhou, 510006, China. Electronic address:

The mass load of pharmaceuticals in the municipal wastewater based on wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is a good indication of population consumption in the catchment. After successful application of illicit drugs' estimation, this method holds the potential to measure the geographical and temporal consumption of prescription medicines. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen (ACM), diclofenac (DCF), ibuprofen (IBU) and naproxen (NPX), in two wastewater treatment plants in Guangzhou City, China and compared the spatial and temporal consumption variation of them. Read More

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Associations of urinary bisphenol A and its alternatives bisphenol S and F concentrations with depressive symptoms among adults.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 14;279:130573. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, The College of Public Health of Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong, 266071, China; Municipal Centre of Disease Control and Prevention of Qingdao, Qingdao Institute of Prevention Medicine, Qingdao, Shandong, 266034, China. Electronic address:

Background: Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), as substitutes for bisphenol A (BPA), are synthetic compounds detected increasingly frequently in plastics and resins. BPA, BPS, and BPF are endocrine disruptors with unclear effects on depressive symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the effects of these compounds on depressive symptoms in adults. Read More

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Enhanced heavy metal leaching from sewage sludge through anaerobic fermentation and air-assisted ultrasonication.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 12;279:130548. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Marmara University, 34722, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Interest in using stabilized sewage sludge in agriculture is mainly to benefit from its nutrient content, soil conditioning properties, and water holding capacity. Therefore, sludge management practice needs to be directed from treatment liability towards the recovery of chemical assets embedded in sludge. In this study, anaerobic fermentation process integrated with a new treatment method; i. Read More

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Green and simple approach for low-cost bioproducts preparation and CO capture.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 15;279:130512. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Faculty of Engineering, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD, UK.

This study has demonstrated, for the first time, a simple, fast and flexible microwave processing method for the simultaneous preparation of bio-products (bio-oil, bio-gas and biochar) using a methodology that avoids any form of catalyst or chemical activation. The dielectric properties of biomass and physicochemical characterisation such as TGA, elemental and proximate analysis, XRD, SEM/EDX and textural properties, showed that 8 kJ g of microwave energy can produce superior biochars for applications in CO capture. The maximum CO uptake capacity for biochar produced was 2. Read More

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Measurement of multixenobiotic resistance activity in enchytraeids as a tool in soil ecotoxicology.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 12;279:130549. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

University of Osijek, Department of Biology, Cara Hadrijana 8A, HR-31000, Osijek, Croatia. Electronic address:

The multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) mechanism is the first defense line against xenobiotics. Enchytraeids, a model organism in soil ecotoxicology, are often exposed to various xenobiotics, some of which may influence MXR activity. Since MXR activity has not been studied in these organisms, the aim of this paper was to establish a methodology for the implementation of the dye assay in enchytraeids. Read More

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A predictive processing framework of tool use.

Michiel van Elk

Cortex 2021 Mar 27;139:211-221. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Institute of Psychology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

In this paper I introduce the theory of predictive processing as a unifying conceptual framework to account for the human ability to use and innovate tools. I explain the basic concepts of predictive processing and illustrate how this framework accounts for the development of tool use in young infants and for findings in the neuropsychological and neuroscientific literature. Then, I argue that the predictive processing model needs to be complemented with a functional-evolutionary perspective, according to which the developmental and neurocognitive mechanisms should be understood in relation to the adaptive function that tools subserve. Read More

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Fluorescent and colorimetric dual-mode detection of tetracycline in wastewater based on heteroatoms-doped reduced state carbon dots.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 9;283:117109. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

College of Environment and Resources, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105, Hunan Province, China. Electronic address:

A large amount of tetracycline (TC) persists in water, soil, food, and feed due to the overuse of antibiotics, causing serious environmental problems such as damage to ecosystems and posing risks to human health. Thus, there is an urgent need to find a method to detect TC that is practical, rapid, sensitive, and offers ready visualization of TC levels so that adequate remediation measures can be immediately implemented. Herein, we report a fluorescent and colorimetric dual-mode nanosensor for the detection of TC based on reduced state carbon dots (r-CDs). Read More

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Effects of plant growth regulator and chelating agent on the phytoextraction of heavy metals by Pfaffia glomerata and on the soil microbial community.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 15;283:117159. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510650, China; Southern Marine Science and Engineering Guangdong Laboratory (Guangzhou), Guangzhou, 511458, China. Electronic address:

Pfaffia glomerata is a candidate for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil, but phytoremediation efficiency requires enhancement. In this study, we evaluated how application of DA-6, EDTA, or CA affected the growth and heavy metal accumulation of P. glomerata and soil microorganisms. Read More

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Synergistic utilization of diverse industrial wastes for reutilization in steel production and their geopolymerization potential.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 17;126:728-736. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Trenchless Technology Center (TTC), Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272, USA.

Recycling wastes back into a manufacturing process, or into a separate product, is an important challenge. The primary aim of this work was to combine wastes from the steel industry, the galvanizing industry and the pulp and paper industry to form two new useful products. The steel industry generates the wastes red dust, mill scale, blast oxygen furnace slag and iron ore fines. Read More

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Closing nutrient loops in a maize rotation. Catch crops to reduce nutrient leaching and increase biogas production by anaerobic co-digestion with dairy manure.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 17;126:719-727. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

GIRO, Institute of Agrifood Research and Technology (IRTA), Torre Marimon, 08140 - Caldes de Montbui, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. Electronic address:

Three catch crop species, ryegrass, forage rape and black oat, were grown between successive rotations of maize to reduce nitrogen leaching due to maize fertilization with digested dairy manure. Catch crops showed a high nutrient uptake, but with a wide range, depending on the year and the specie. Ensiling was shown to be a feasible storing method increasing catch crop methane production per hectare between 14-36% compared with fresh catch crop. Read More

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Drivers of successful implementation of integrated care for multi-morbidity: Mechanisms identified in 17 case studies from 8 European countries.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Feb 3;277:113728. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR, Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper provides a deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying implementation strategies for integrated care. As part of the SELFIE project, 17 integrated care programmes addressing multi-morbidity from eight European countries were selected and studied. Data was extracted from 'thick descriptions' of the 17 programmes and analysed both inductively and deductively using implementation theory. Read More

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February 2021

Restored riverine wetlands in a headwater stream can simultaneously behave as sinks of NO and hotspots of CH production.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 14;284:117114. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Watershed Geographic Sciences, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Wetlands can improve water quality, but they are also recognized as important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as nitrous oxide (NO) and methane (CH). Emissions of these gases from wetland ecosystems, especially those in headwaters, are poorly understood. Here, we determined monthly concentrations of dissolved NO and CH in a headwater stream of the Taihu Lake basin of China that contains both wetland and non-wetland reaches. Read More

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Arsenic (III) removal by mechanochemically sulfidated microscale zero valent iron under anoxic and oxic conditions.

Water Res 2021 Apr 8;198:117132. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

College of Environment, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China. Electronic address:

The interaction of As(III) with micron-sized, mechanochemically sulfidated zero-valent iron (S-mZVI) has been studied under both anoxic and oxic conditions. The As(III) removal capacity varied with the increase of S/Fe molar ratio under anoxic conditions, while it continuously decreased under oxic conditions. A series of sequential extractions, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy analyses were used to investigate As(III) removal mechanisms. Read More

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Directing photocatalytic pathway to exceedingly high antibacterial activity in water by functionalizing holey ultrathin nanosheets of graphitic carbon nitride.

Water Res 2021 Apr 8;198:117125. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016, China; University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 United States. Electronic address:

Metal-free polymeric carbon nitride (CN) photocatalysts offer attractive technological advantages over the conventional transition metal oxides or sulfides -based photocatalysts in water disinfection, but their antimicrobial activities are limited by their rapid charge carrier recombination and low specific surface areas. By controlling photocatalytic pathways, we obtained in amino-rich holey ultrathin g-CN nanosheets (AHUCN) a highly efficient inactivation rate against E-coli, which is the highest among the monolithic g-CN and exceeds the antibacterial performance of the most of the previously reported g-CN-based photocatalysts. Both the experiments and theoretical calculations demonstrated that the high photocatalytic disinfection performance of AHUCN was derived from the synergistic advantages of their unique holey ultrathin structure and the amino - rich surface in controlling the charge separation and transfer, and most importantly in increasing the photo-production of the dominant antibacterial species, HO. Read More

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Exponential quasi-synchronization of coupled delayed memristive neural networks via intermittent event-triggered control.

Neural Netw 2021 Feb 16;141:98-106. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Automation, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China; Key Laboratory of Image Processing and Intelligent Control of Education Ministry of China, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

Firstly, an intermittent event-triggered control (IETC), as a combination of intermittent control and event-triggered control, is proposed. Then, the quasi-synchronization problem of coupled memristive neural networks with time-varying delays (CDMNN) is discussed under this IETC. To include more of the existing work, aperiodic intermittent control and event-triggered control with combined measurement errors are adopted in the IETC. Read More

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February 2021

Frequency selectivity in the modulation domain estimated using forward masking: Effects of masker modulation depth and masker-signal delay.

Hear Res 2021 Apr 9;405:108244. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Cambridge Hearing Group, Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EB, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The threshold for detecting amplitude modulation (AM) of a sinusoidal or noise carrier is elevated when the signal AM is preceded by masker AM applied to the same carrier. This effect, called AM forward masking, shows selectivity in the AM domain, consistent with the existence of a modulation filter bank (MFB). In this paper we explore the effect of two factors that can influence AM forward masking, using an 8-kHz sinusoidal carrier and a range of masker AM frequencies, f, both below and above the signal AM frequency, f, of 40 Hz. Read More

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Mothers as perpetrators and bystanders of child sexual abuse.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Apr 17;117:105068. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychotherapy, University Hospital Ulm, Germany; Center for Child Protection in Medicine in Baden-Württemberg, Germany.

Background: In research and literature, little attention has been paid to the role of women, especially mothers, in child sexual abuse.

Objective: In order to estimate prevalences on mothers as perpetrators and bystanders, data was collected in a German nationwide representative survey.

Participants And Setting: A total of 2,531 participants (53. Read More

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Preparation of Al-Si alloys with silicon cutting waste from diamond wire sawing process.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 17;290:112548. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang, 110819, PR China. Electronic address:

Large amounts of silicon cutting waste (SCW) are generated during Si wafers producing process. In this paper, SCW was mixed with Al powder to prepare Al-Si alloys by a one-step smelting process in corundum crucibles. The influences of smelting temperature (1000 °C, 1200 °C and 1500 °C) on the products of each zone (surface layer zone, loose granular zone and blocky products zone) were investigated. Read More

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Residue analytical method for the determination of trifluoroacetic acid and difluoroacetic acid in plant matrices by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS).

J Chromatogr A 2021 Mar 22;1646:462096. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Sciex, Darmstadt, Germany; Horváth Csaba Memorial Laboratory, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary. Electronic address:

In the past years, the technology for trace residue analysis of plant protection compounds in plant and animal matrices, soil, and water has gradually changed to meet changing regulatory demands. Generally, from the '70s to the '90s of the last century, the active compounds and only a few major metabolites had to be determined in a typical "residue definition". Step by step and within the framework of product safety assessments of the enforcement of residues in dietary matrices and in the environment, further metabolites have come into the authorities focus. Read More

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