9,465 results match your criteria paper considers

Scission energies of surfactant wormlike micelles loaded with nonpolar additives.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 6;604:757-766. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Química Inorgánica Analítica y Química Física, Buenos Aires, Argentina; CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química de los Materiales, Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: The previously observed effects of nonpolar additives on the scission energy and rheological properties of surfactant wormlike micelles can be explained in terms of the spatial distribution of the additive within the micelles. The dependence of the scission energy with the molecular organization of the system can be analyzed with a molecular theory capable of describing the thermodynamics and structure of the micelles.

Theory: A new theoretical method to determine the scission energy of surfactant wormlike micelles is introduced. Read More

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Interdisciplinary research: shaping the healthcare of the future.

Future Healthc J 2021 Jul;8(2):e218-e223

University of Leeds Schools of Computing and Medicine, Leeds, UK.

The hospitals of the future will be shaped by scientific and technical advances made across a wide range of disciplines because complex problems in healthcare cannot be addressed successfully by a single discipline. This paper considers how interdisciplinary research is being promoted and the prospects for developing stronger and deeper collaborations between medicine, health and other disciplines, drawing on case studies from mathematics, physics and engineering. The anticipated impact of greater interdisciplinarity on clinical training and the provision of care is also reviewed. Read More

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Problems and promises: How to tell the story of a Genome Wide Association Study?

Catherine Heeney

Stud Hist Philos Sci 2021 Jul 17;89:1-10. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Old Medical School, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, EH8 9AG, UK. Electronic address:

The promise of treatments for common complex diseases (CCDs) is understood as an important force driving large scale genetics research over the last few decades. This paper considers the phenomenon of the Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) via one high profile example, the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC). The WTCCC despite not fulfilling promises of new health interventions is still understood as an important step towards tackling CCDs clinically. Read More

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Federated Compressed Learning Edge Computing Framework with Ensuring Data Privacy for PM2.5 Prediction in Smart City Sensing Applications.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 4;21(13). Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Asia University, Taichung City 413, Taiwan.

The sparse data in PM2.5 air quality monitoring systems is frequently happened on large-scale smart city sensing applications, which is collected via massive sensors. Moreover, it could be affected by inefficient node deployment, insufficient communication, and fragmented records, which is the main challenge of the high-resolution prediction system. Read More

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Recurrent neural network pruning using dynamical systems and iterative fine-tuning.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 8;143:475-488. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Information Technologies Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece. Electronic address:

Network pruning techniques are widely employed to reduce the memory requirements and increase the inference speed of neural networks. This work proposes a novel RNN pruning method that considers the RNN weight matrices as collections of time-evolving signals. Such signals that represent weight vectors can be modelled using Linear Dynamical Systems (LDSs). Read More

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Modeling the -max capacity of transportation networks: a single-level mathematical programming formulation.

Transportation (Amst) 2021 Jul 14:1-33. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Network capacity, defined as the largest sum of origin-destination (O-D) flows that can be accommodated by the network based on link performance function and traffic equilibrium assignment, is a critical indicator of network-wide performance assessment in transportation planning and management. The typical modeling rationale of estimating network capacity is to formulate it as a mathematical programming (MP), and there are two main approaches: single-level MP formulation and bi-level programming (BLP) formulation. Although single-level MP is readily solvable, it treats the transportation network as a physical network without considering level of service (LOS). Read More

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Event-based adaptive fuzzy control design for nonstrict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems with state constraints.

ISA Trans 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

College of Intelligent Systems Science and Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, 150001, China; Key laboratory of Intelligent Technology and Application of Marine Equipment (Harbin Engineering University), Ministry of Education, Harbin, 150001, China.

This article considers the issue of event-triggered adaptive fuzzy control for state-constrained nonstrict-feedback nonlinear time-delay systems. The adverse effect of time-delay is effectively overcome by choosing the approximate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. The fuzzy logic systems are utilized to address unknown dynamics. Read More

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A critical review of the possible adverse effects of biochar in the soil environment.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 7;796:148756. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Agrochemistry, Soil Science, Microbiology and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno, Czech Republic; Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Environmental Protection, Faculty of Chemistry, Brno University of Technology, Purkynova 118, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic.

Biochar has received extensive attention because of its multi-functionality for agricultural and environmental applications. Despite its many benefits, there are concerns related to the long-term safety and implications of its application, mainly because the mechanisms affecting soil and organism health are poorly quantified and understood. This work reviews 259 sources and summarises existing knowledge on biochar's adverse effects on soil from a multiangle perspective, including the physicochemical changes in soil, reduced efficiency of agrochemicals, potentially toxic substances in biochar, and effects on soil biota. Read More

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Assessing the impact of expert knowledge on ICH M7 (Q)SAR predictions. Is expert review still needed?

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Jul 14;125:105006. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Silver Spring, MD, 20993, USA. Electronic address:

The ICH M7 (R1) guideline recommends the use of complementary (Q)SAR models to assess the mutagenic potential of drug impurities as a state-of-the-art, high-throughput alternative to empirical testing. Additionally, it includes a provision for the application of expert knowledge to increase prediction confidence and resolve conflicting calls. Expert knowledge, which considers structural analogs and mechanisms of activity, has been valuable when models return an indeterminate (equivocal) result or no prediction (out-of-domain). Read More

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Molecular self-organization of wood lignin-carbohydrate matrix.

Planta 2021 Jul 16;254(2):30. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

N. Laverov Federal Center for Integrated Arctic Research of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Northern Dvina Embankment, 23, Arkhangelsk, 163000, Russia.

Main Conclusion: The analysis of the state of research on the chemical composition, functional nature and structure of the main components of the lignin-carbohydrate matrix allows considering the wood substance as a thermodynamically self-organizing nanobiocomposite system. Features of biosynthesis of the wood matrix main biopolymers, the formation of their functional nature and structure determine the complex hierarchical organization of cell walls. The supramolecular level of biosynthesis considers the interaction of cell wall components. Read More

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Understanding Barriers to the Realization of Human Rights Among Older Women With Mental Health Conditions.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

World Psychiatric Association Section of Old Age Psychiatry (CML), Centre Médical du Jorat, Mézières, Switzerland.

There is increasing emphasis in research and at the level of international human rights bodies such as the United Nations on the gendered contours of age-based disadvantage and discrimination, and the cumulative effects of gender inequalities over the life-course on outcomes in later life. However, to date, the role of mental health in shaping the age/gender nexus in the realization of human rights has received little attention. In response, this paper aims to 1) elucidate the economic, social and cultural disadvantages and discrimination faced by older women living with mental health conditions; and 2) identify opportunities to protect their human rights. Read More

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Four-direction global matching with cost volume update for stereovision.

Appl Opt 2021 Jul;60(19):5471-5479

The accuracy and speed of semi-global matching (SGM) make it widely used in many computer vision problems. However, SGM often struggles in dealing with pixels in the homogeneous regions and also suffers from streak artefacts for weak smoothness constraints. Meanwhile, we observe that the global method usually fails in occluded areas. Read More

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Engagement without entanglement: a framework for non-sexual patient-physician boundaries.

Jacob M Appel

J Med Ethics 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Psychiatry, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA

The integrity of the patient-physician relationship depends on maintaining professional boundaries. While ethicists and professional organisations have devoted significant consideration to the subject of sexual boundary transgressions, the subject of non-sexual boundaries, especially outside the mental health setting, has been largely neglected. While professional organisations may offer guidance on specific subjects, such as accepting gifts or treating relatives, as well as general guidance on transparency and conflict of interest, what is missing is a principle-based method that providers can use to assess non-sexual interactions with patients that transcend norms of practice. Read More

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Formative research to design an implementation strategy for a postpartum hemorrhage initial response treatment bundle (E-MOTIVE): study protocol.

Reprod Health 2021 Jul 14;18(1):149. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, School of Medicine, Bixby Center, Safe Motherhood Program, University of California, San Francisco, 550 16th Street, San Francisco, CA, 94158, USA.

Background: Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death worldwide. When PPH occurs, early identification of bleeding and prompt management using evidence-based guidelines, can avert most PPH-related severe morbidities and deaths. However, adherence to the World Health Organization recommended practices remains a critical challenge. Read More

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Bioelimination of low methane concentrations emitted from wastewater treatment plants: a review.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2021 Jul 14:1-18. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnological Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Canada.

Sewage from residents and industries is collected and transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with sewer networks. The operation of WWTPs results in emissions of greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH), mostly due to sludge anaerobic digestion. Amounts of emissions depend on the source of influent, i. Read More

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Review of eating disorders and oxytocin receptor polymorphisms.

J Eat Disord 2021 Jul 13;9(1):85. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO) - Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL). L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Aims: Oxytocin, a nine amino acid peptide synthesised in the hypothalamus, has been widely recognised for its role in anxiolysis, bonding, sociality, and appetite. It binds to the oxytocin receptor (OXTR)-a G-protein coupled receptor-that is stimulated by the actions of oestrogen both peripherally and centrally. Studies have implicated OXTR genotypes in conferring either a risk or protective effect in autism, schizophrenia, and eating disorders (ED). Read More

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Hyperspectral image spectral-spatial classification via weighted Laplacian smoothing constraint-based sparse representation.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(7):e0254362. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

School of Intelligent Engineering, Sichuan Changjiang Vocational College, Chengdu, China.

As a powerful tool in hyperspectral image (HSI) classification, sparse representation has gained much attention in recent years owing to its detailed representation of features. In particular, the results of the joint use of spatial and spectral information has been widely applied to HSI classification. However, dealing with the spatial relationship between pixels is a nontrivial task. Read More

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Pandemic disruptions: The subversion of neoliberalism.

Nancy Ross

Qual Soc Work 2021 Mar;20(1-2):350-355

School of Social Work, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

The implications of the COVID 19 pandemic signal both tragedy and possibility. This reflective paper considers the amplification of the concurrent pandemics of violence against women and children and anti-black racism during the responses to COVID 19 and renewed calls to action. The enforced 'pause' as a result of social isolation or distancing measures in response to COVID-19, has led many people to re-imagine a different world and ignited social movements across the globe. Read More

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Bayesian Generalized Linear Model for Simulating Bacterial Inactivation/Growth Considering Variability and Uncertainty.

Front Microbiol 2021 24;12:674364. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan.

Conventional regression analysis using the least-squares method has been applied to describe bacterial behavior logarithmically. However, only the normal distribution is used as the error distribution in the least-squares method, and the variability and uncertainty related to bacterial behavior are not considered. In this paper, we propose Bayesian statistical modeling based on a generalized linear model (GLM) that considers variability and uncertainty while fitting the model to colony count data. Read More

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Foodborne Parasitic Diseases in the Neotropics - A Review.

Helminthologia 2021 Jun 8;58(2):119-133. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León (UANL) Nuevo Leon Mexico.

Within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, it is stated that everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living, which ensures, as well as their family, health and well-being, and food, thereby ensuring adequate nutrition. One of the major threats to overcome this is to ensure food security, which becomes particularly challenging in developing countries due to the high incidence of parasitic diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO), considers it one of the main causes of morbidity, closely linked to poverty and related to inadequate personal hygiene, consumption of raw food, lack of sanitary services, limited access to drinking water and fecal contamination in the environment. Read More

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A stacked ensemble for the detection of COVID-19 with high recall and accuracy.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 30;135:104608. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM), Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Electronic address:

The main challenges for the automatic detection of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) from computed tomography (CT) scans of an individual are: a lack of large datasets, ambiguity in the characteristics of COVID-19 and the detection techniques having low sensitivity (or recall). Hence, developing diagnostic techniques with high recall and automatic feature extraction using the available data are crucial for controlling the spread of COVID-19. This paper proposes a novel stacked ensemble capable of detecting COVID-19 from a patient's chest CT scans with high recall and accuracy. Read More

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Low ambient temperature shortened life expectancy in Hong Kong: A time-series analysis of 1.4 million years of life lost from cardiorespiratory diseases.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 9;201:111652. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Queensland, 288 Herston Road, Herston, Brisbane, Queensland, 4006, Australia. Electronic address:

Ambient temperature is an important contributor to mortality burden worldwide, most of which is from cold exposure. However, little is known about the cold impact on life expectancy loss. This paper aimed to estimate cold-related life expectancy loss from cause-, age-, and gender-specific cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Read More

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Differential network analysis by simultaneously considering changes in gene interactions and gene expression.

Bioinformatics 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

School of Mathematics and Statistics & Hubei Key Laboratory of Mathematical Sciences, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079, China.

Motivation: Differential network analysis is an important tool to investigate the rewiring of gene interactions under different conditions. Several computational methods have been developed to estimate differential networks from gene expression data, but most of them do not consider that gene network rewiring may be driven by the differential expression of individual genes. New differential network analysis methods that simultaneously take account of the changes in gene interactions and changes in expression levels are needed. Read More

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Influence of interference among parallel absorbers on acoustic characteristics of an absorbing panel.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jun;92(6):064901

State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical Structures, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Yudao Street 29, Nanjing 210016, China.

This paper proposes a modified theory for synthesizing the acoustic impedance of an absorbing panel by considering the interference among parallel absorbers. The absorbing panel comprises periodically distributed absorbers with different acoustic characteristics, and the periodic distribution allows the impedance of the panel to be characterized by that of a unit cell. However, at frequencies between the resonances of the absorbers in the unit cell, the unit-cell impedance given by traditional theory deviates significantly from that given by a finite-element model. Read More

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Presentation of a new method based on modern multivariate approaches for big data replication in distributed environments.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(7):e0254210. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Computer Engineering, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sanandaj, Iran.

As the amounts of data and use of distributed systems for data storage and processing have increased, reducing the number of replications has turned into a crucial requirement in these systems, which has been addressed by plenty of research. In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed to reduce the number of replications in big data transfer and, eventually to lower the traffic load over the grid by classifying data efficiently and optimally based on the sent data types and using VIKOR as a method of multivariate decision-making for ranking replication sites. Considering different variables, the VIKOR method makes it possible to take all the parameters effective in the assessment of site ranks into account. Read More

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Simulation of mallet percussion instruments by a coupled modal vibroacoustic finite element model.

J Acoust Soc Am 2021 May;149(5):3200

Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Department of Acoustics, Stuttgart, 70569, Germany.

A three-dimensional coupled vibroacoustic finite element model for physics-based simulations of the sound generation by mallet percussion instruments in the time domain is discussed in the present paper. The mechanical model takes the orthotropic material properties of the wooden sound bars and the nonlinear nature of the interaction force between the mallet head and the sound bar into account while the acoustical model considers radiation into an unbounded domain. A direct coupling of the sound bars, acoustical cavity resonators, and the excitation by a mallet is considered with exploiting the modal basis to reduce the number of degrees of freedom of the system. Read More

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The Street Walkability and Thermal Comfort Index (SWTCI): A new assessment tool combining street design measurements and thermal comfort.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 25;795:148663. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Local Environment & Management Analysis (LEMA), University of Liège, Allée de la Découverte, Quartier Polytech, 4000 Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:

In recent years, walkability is increasingly integrated into sustainability strategies, considering its many health and environmental benefits. Besides, thermal comfort also has been progressively promoted as a critical measure for pedestrian comfort and wellbeing. Despite the relevance of the two concepts, few studies combined them in a comprehensive model. Read More

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A generalized kernel machine approach to identify higher-order composite effects in multi-view datasets, with application to adolescent brain development and osteoporosis.

J Biomed Inform 2021 Jul 6;120:103854. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Tulane Center for Biomedical Informatics and Genomics, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA; Division of Biomedical Informatics and Genomics, Deming Department of Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

In recent years, a comprehensive study of complex disease with multi-view datasets (e.g., multi-omics and imaging scans) has been a focus and forefront in biomedical research. Read More

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Interpretable Classification of Bacterial Raman Spectra with Knockoff Wavelets.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Jul 7;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Deep neural networks and other machine learning models are widely applied to biomedical signal data because they can detect complex patterns and compute accurate predictions. However, the difficulty of interpreting such models is a limitation, especially for applications involving high-stakes decision, including the identification of bacterial infections. This paper considers fast Raman spectroscopy data and demonstrates that a logistic regression model with carefully selected features achieves accuracy comparable to that of neural networks, while being much simpler and more transparent. Read More

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Similarity and Dissimilarity Regularized Nonnegative Matrix Factorization for Single-Cell RNA-seq Analysis.

Interdiscip Sci 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

School of Computer Science, Qufu Normal University, Rizhao, China.

In traditional sequencing techniques, the different functions of cells and the different roles they play in differentiation are often ignored. With the advancement of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) techniques, scientists can measure the gene expression value at the single-cell level, and it is helping to understand the heterogeneity hidden in cells. One of the most powerful ways to find heterogeneity is using the unsupervised clustering method to get separate subpopulations. Read More

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