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Spatial-Temporal Functional Mapping Combined With Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials in Predicting Cortical Stimulation Results.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 14;15:661976. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States.

Functional human brain mapping is commonly performed during invasive monitoring with intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) electrodes prior to resective surgery for drug- resistant epilepsy. The current gold standard, electrocortical stimulation mapping (ESM), is time -consuming, sometimes elicits pain, and often induces after discharges or seizures. Moreover, there is a risk of overestimating eloquent areas due to propagation of the effects of stimulation to a broader network of language cortex. Read More

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Heart rate detection properties of dry-electrode ECG compared to conventional 3-lead gel-electrode ECG in newborns.

BMC Res Notes 2021 May 1;14(1):166. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Paediatrics, Stavanger University Hospital, Post Box 8100, 4068, Stavanger, Norway.

Objective: To compare the accuracy of heart rate detection properties of a novel, wireless, dry-electrode electrocardiogram (ECG) device, NeoBeat®, to that of a conventional 3-lead gel-electrode ECG monitor (PropaqM®) in newborns.

Results: The study population had a mean gestational age of 39 weeks and 2 days (1.5 weeks) and birth weight 3528 g (668 g). Read More

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A label-free ratiometric immunoassay using bioinspired nanochannels and a smart modified electrode.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Jun 6;1162:338476. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecular Chemistry, Shanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710127, China.

Labeling with redox reporter is often required in developing electrochemical bioassay for most proteins or nucleic acid biomarkers. Herein, a label-free ratiometric immunosensing platform is firstly developed by integrating the antibody-conjugated nanochannels with a smart modified electrode. The electrode modifier is the composite of C, tetraoctylammonium bromide (TOA) and Prussian blue (PB). Read More

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Brain Connect 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

University of Florida, 3463, Neurology, Gainesville, Florida, United States;

Motivation: Mechanisms underlying the variation in the appearance of electroencephalogram (EEG) over human head are not well characterized. We hypothesized that spatial variation of the EEG, being ultimately linked to variations in cortical neurobiology, was dependent on cortical connectivity patterns. Specifically, we explored the relationship of resting state functional connectivity derived from intracranial EEG data (iEEG) in seven (N=7) human epilepsy patients to the intrinsic dynamic variability of the local iEEG. Read More

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Optimizing Impedance Change Measurement During Radiofrequency Ablation Enables More Accurate Characterization of Lesion Formation.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol 2021 Apr 25;7(4):471-481. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: This study sought to determine whether a novel impedance thermal imaging system (ITIS) provides an impedance measurement that is better correlated with lesion dimensions than circuit impedance during radiofrequency (RF) ablation.

Background: A 5- to 10-Ω impedance drop is clinically used to corroborate an effective RF ablation lesion. However, the contribution of local tissue heating to circuit impedance change is small and dependent on the local environment of the catheter and placement of the grounding patch. Read More

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A Graph-Based Method for Optimal Active Electrode Selection in Cochlear Implants.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2020 Oct 29;12263:34-43. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA.

The cochlear implant (CI) is a neural prosthetic that is the standard-of-care treatment for severe-to-profound hearing loss. CIs consist of an electrode array inserted into the cochlea that electrically stimulates auditory nerve fibers to induce the sensation of hearing. Competing stimuli occur when multiple electrodes stimulate the same neural pathways. Read More

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October 2020

Biophysical characterization of local field potential recordings from directional deep brain stimulation electrodes.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Two major advances in clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology have been the introduction of local field potential (LFP) recording capabilities, and the deployment of directional DBS electrodes. However, these two technologies are not operationally integrated within current clinical DBS devices. Therefore, we evaluated the theoretical advantages of using directional DBS electrodes for LFP recordings, with a focus on measuring beta-band activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). Read More

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Effects of a stable concentration of propofol on interictal high-frequency oscillations in drug-resistant epilepsy.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, 54, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan.

The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a stable concentration of propofol on interictal high-frequency oscillations (HFOs), which may contribute to identifying the epileptogenic zone intraoperatively for resection surgery. Nine patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent invasive pre-surgical evaluation with chronic subdural electrodes were recruited. Five-minute electrocorticograms during wakefulness, slow-wave sleep, and under a stable brain concentration of propofol were recorded with the same electrodes. Read More

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High-Frequency Alternating Current Block Using Macro-Sieve Electrodes: A Pilot Study.

Cureus 2021 Mar 6;13(3):e13728. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Neurological Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.

Background and objective High-frequency alternating current (HFAC) can yield a rapid-acting and reversible nerve conduction block. The present study aimed to demonstrate the successful implementation of HFAC block delivery via regenerative macro-sieve electrodes (MSEs). Methods Dual-electrode assemblies in two configurations [dual macro-sieve electrode-1 (DMSE-I), DMSE-II] were fabricated from pairs of MSEs and implanted in the transected and subsequently repaired sciatic nerves of two male Lewis rats. Read More

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Scaling-up up-flow microbial electrolysis cells with a compact electrode configuration for continuous hydrogen production.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 27;331:125030. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97333, USA. Electronic address:

Maintaining high current densities is a key challenge in scaling-up microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) reactors. In this study, a novel 10 L MEC reactor with a total electrode surface area greater than 1 m was designed and evaluated to maximize the current density and H recovery. Performances of the reactor suggest that the longitudinal structure with parallel vertical orientation of the electrodes encouraged high fluid mixing and the sheet metal electrode frames provided distributed electrical connection. Read More

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Development of Electrochemical DNA Biosensor for Equine Hindgut Acidosis Detection.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;21(7). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

School of Natural Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales LL57 2UW, UK.

The pH drop in the hindgut of the horse is caused by lactic acid-producing bacteria which are abundant when a horse's feeding regime is excessively carbohydrate rich. This drop in pH below six causes hindgut acidosis and may lead to laminitis. Lactic acid-producing bacteria and have been found to produce high amounts of L-lactate and D-lactate, respectively. Read More

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Preparation of Cobalt Oxide-Reduced Graphitic Oxide Supercapacitor Electrode by Photothermal Processing.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.

We report a photonic technique to instantaneously synthesize cobalt oxide reduced graphitic oxide (CoO-rGO) supercapacitor electrodes. The electrode processing is achieved through rapidly heating the precursor material by irradiation of high-energy pulsed mostly visible light from a xenon lamp. Due to the short duration of the light pulse, we prepared the electrodes at room temperature instantaneously (ms), thus eliminating the several hours of processing times of the conventional techniques. Read More

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Channel-hopping during surface electrical neurostimulation elicits selective, comfortable, distally referred sensations.

J Neural Eng 2021 Apr 9;18(5). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL, United States of America.

Lack of sensation from a hand or prosthesis can result in substantial functional deficits. Surface electrical stimulation of the peripheral nerves is a promising non-invasive approach to restore lost sensory function. However, the utility of standard surface stimulation methods has been hampered by localized discomfort caused by unintended activation of afferents near the electrodes and limited ability to specifically target underlying neural tissue. Read More

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Cortico-cortical evoked potential by single-pulse electrical stimulation is a generally safe procedure.

Clin Neurophysiol 2021 May 3;132(5):1033-1040. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Epilepsy, Movement Disorders and Physiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) by single-pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) is useful to investigate effective connectivity and cortical excitability. We aimed to clarify the safety of CCEPs.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 29 consecutive patients with intractable partial epilepsy undergoing chronic subdural grid implantation and CCEP recording. Read More

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Resistance-induced brain activity changes during cycle ergometer exercises.

BMC Sports Sci Med Rehabil 2021 Mar 19;13(1):27. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Background: EEGs are frequently employed to measure cerebral activations during physical exercise or in response to specific physical tasks. However, few studies have attempted to understand how exercise-state brain activity is modulated by exercise intensity.

Methods: Ten healthy subjects were recruited for sustained cycle ergometer exercises at low and high resistance, performed on two separate days a week apart. Read More

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Use of Medical Supplies at the Roskilde Festival 2016: A Prospective Observational Study.

Prehosp Disaster Med 2021 Jun 19;36(3):306-312. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Herlev Anaesthesia, Critical and Emergency Care Science Unit, Herlev Hospital, Denmark.

Introduction: Music festivals are popular events often including camping at the festival site. A mix of music, alcohol, drugs, and limited hygiene increases health risks. This study aimed to assess the use of medical supplies at a major music festival, thereby aiding planning at similar events in the future. Read More

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Functional Connectivity Derived From Electroencephalogram in Pharmacoresistant Epileptic Encephalopathy Using Cannabidiol as Adjunctive Antiepileptic Therapy.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 23;15:604207. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Clinical Neurophysiology/Video EEG Unit, International Center for Neurological Restoration, Havana, Cuba.

To explore brain function using functional connectivity and network topology derived from electroencephalogram (EEG) in patients with pharmacoresistant epileptic encephalopathy with cannabidiol as adjunctive antiepileptic treatment. Sixteen epileptic patients participated in the study, six of whom had epileptic encephalopathy with a stable dose of cannabidiol Epidiolex (CBD) as adjunctive therapy. Functional connectivity derived from EEG was analyzed based on the synchronization likelihood (SL). Read More

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February 2021

Rapid and highly sensitive pathogen detection by real-time DNA monitoring using a nanogap impedimetric sensor with recombinase polymerase amplification.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 May 29;179:113042. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

BioNano Health Guard Research Center (H-GUARD), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea; BioNanotechnology Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Fast detection of pathogens is important for protecting our health and society. Herein, we present a high-performance nanogap impedimetric sensor for monitoring nucleic acid amplification in real time using isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for rapid pathogen detection. The nanogap electrode chip has two pairs of opposing gold electrodes with a 100 nm gap and was fixed to a PCB. Read More

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A Novel Capacitive Cochlear Implant Electrode Array Sensing System to Discriminate Failure Patterns.

Otol Neurotol 2021 Jun;42(5):713-720

University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Australia.

Objectives: The research is to propose a sensing system to ensure the electrode array being correctly placed inside the cochlea. Instead of applying extra sensors to the array, the capacitive information from multiple points of the array is gathered and analyzed to determine the state and behavior of the electrode array.

Methods: The sensing system measures electrode bipolar capacitances between multiple pairs of electrodes during the insertion. Read More

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Biomimetic Salinity Power Generation Based on Silk Fibroin Ion-Exchange Membranes.

ACS Nano 2021 03 4;15(3):5649-5660. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore, 117542, Republic of Singapore.

Powering implanted medical devices (IMDs) is a long-term challenge since their use in biological environments requires a long-term and stable supply of power and a biocompatible and biodegradable battery system. Here, silk fibroin-based ion-exchange membranes are developed using bionics principles for reverse electrodialysis devices (REDs). Silk fibroin nanofibril (SNF) membranes are negatively and positively modified, resulting in strong cation and anion selectivity that regulates ion diffusion to generate electric power. Read More

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Low-cost smartphone-controlled potentiostat based on Arduino for teaching electrochemistry fundamentals and applications.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 13;7(2):e06259. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Applied Electrochemistry Laboratory, Science Department, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Av. Túpac Amaru 210, Rímac, Lima, Peru.

Accessibility to potentiostats is crucial for research development in electrochemistry, but their cost is the principal drawback for their massive use. With the aim to provide an affordable alternative for resource-constrained communities, we present a low-cost, portable electrochemical workstation that integrates an open-source potentiostat based on Arduino and a smartphone application. This graphical user interface allows easy control of electrochemical parameters and real-time visualization of the results. Read More

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February 2021

Origin of the Electron Transport Properties of Aromatic and Antiaromatic Single Molecule Circuits.

Chemphyschem 2021 May 7;22(9):864-869. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Physics Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnická 10, 16200, Prague, Czech Republic.

Antiaromatic molecules have been predicted to exhibit increased electron transport properties when placed between two nanoelectrodes compared to their aromatic analogues. While some studies have demonstrated this relationship, others have found no substantial increase. We use atomistic simulations to establish a general relationship between the electronic spectra of aromatic, antiaromatic, and quinoidal molecules and illustrate its implications for electron transport. Read More

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Bipolar radiofrequency ablation treatment of liver cancer employing monopolar needles: A comprehensive investigation on the efficacy of time-based switching.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Apr 16;131:104273. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Engineering and Information Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Federation University, VIC, 3350, Australia.

Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a thermal ablative treatment method that is commonly used to treat liver cancer. However, the thermal coagulation zone generated using the conventional RFA system can only successfully treat tumours up to 3 cm in diameter. Switching bipolar RFA has been proposed as a way to increase the thermal coagulation zone. Read More

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Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots for Solar Cell Applications: A Review.

Chem Asian J 2021 Apr 18;16(8):902-921. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy (CoRERE), King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are significant energy-producing devices due to their remarkable capability to growing sunshine and produce many electrons/holes pairs, easy manufacturing, and low cost. However, their power conversion efficiency (4%) is usually worse than that of dye-sensitized solar cells (≤12%); this is mainly due to their narrow absorption areas and the charge recombination happening at the quantum dot/electrolyte and Ti /electrolyte interfaces. Thus, to raise the power conversion efficiency of QDSSC, new counter electrodes, working electrodes, sensitizers, and electrolytes are required. Read More

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Label-Free Multivariate Biophysical Phenotyping-Activated Acoustic Sorting at the Single-Cell Level.

Peixian Li Ye Ai

Anal Chem 2021 03 18;93(8):4108-4117. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Pillar of Engineering Product Development, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 487372, Singapore.

Biophysical markers of cells such as cellular electrical and mechanical properties have been proven as promising label-free biomarkers for studying, characterizing, and classifying different cell types and even their subpopulations. Further analysis or manipulation of specific cell types or subtypes requires accurate isolation of them from the original heterogeneous samples. However, there is currently a lack of cell sorting ability that could actively separate a large number of individual cells at the single-cell level based on their multivariate biophysical makers or phenotypes. Read More

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A Replacement Reaction Enabled Interdigitated Metal/Solid Electrolyte Architecture for Battery Cycling at 20 mA cm and 20 mAh cm.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Mar 17;143(8):3143-3152. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, China.

Metal anodes represent as a prime choice for the coming generation rechargeable batteries with high energy density. However, daunting challenges including electrode volume variation and inevitable side reactions preclude them from becoming a viable technology. Here, a facile replacement reaction was employed to fabricate a three-dimensional (3D) interdigitated metal/solid electrolyte composite electrode, which not only provides a stable host structure for buffering the volume change within the composite but also prevents side reactions by avoiding the direct contact between active metal and liquid electrolyte. Read More

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Multichannel Cell Detection in Microcompartments by Means of True Parallel Measurements using the Solartron S-1260.

J Electr Bioimpedance 2020 Jan 24;11(1):49-56. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Institut für Bioprozess- und Analysenmeßtechnik, Heilbad Heiligenstadt, Germany.

Designing proper frontend electronics is critical in the development of highly sophisticated electrode systems. Multielectrode arrays for measuring electrical signals or impedance require multichannel readout systems. Even more challenging is the differential or ratiometric configuration with simultaneous assessment of measurement and reference channels. Read More

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January 2020

Engineering Cationic Sulfur-Doped CoO Architectures with Exposing High-Reactive (112) Facets for Photoelectrocatalytic Water Purification.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 10;13(7):8405-8416. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

School of Light Industry and Chemical Engineering, Dalian Polytechnic University, Ganjingzi District, Dalian 116034, P.R. China.

Promoting the generation of intermediate active species (superoxide radical (O)) is an important and challenging task for water purification by photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxidation. Herein, we have constructed hierarchical cationic sulfur-doped CoO architectures with controllable morphology and highly exposed reactive facets by introducing l-cysteine as a capping reagent and sulfur resource via a one-step hydrothermal reaction. The as-obtained cationic sulfur (1. Read More

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February 2021

Comparing Methods for Pairing Electrodes Across Ears With Cochlear Implants.

Ear Hear 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Speech and Hearing Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois, USA.

Objectives: Currently, bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) are independently programmed in clinics using frequency allocations based on the relative location of a given electrode from the end of each electrode array. By pairing electrodes based on this method, bilateral CI recipients may have decreased sensitivity to interaural time differences (ITD) and/or interaural level differences (ILD), two cues critical for binaural tasks. There are multiple different binaural measures that can potentially be used to determine the optimal way to pair electrodes across the ears. Read More

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February 2021

HumTouch: Localization of Touch on Semi-Conductive Surfaces by Sensing Human Body Antenna Signal.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jan 28;21(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan.

HumTouch is a touch sensing technology utilizing the environmental electromagnetic wave. The method can be realized using conductive and semi-conductive materials by simply attaching electrodes to the object's surface. In this study, we compared three methods for localizing a touch on 20×16cm2 and 40×36cm2 papers, on which four or eight electrodes were attached to record the voltages leaked from the human fingertip. Read More

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January 2021