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Treatment with edaravone improves the structure and functional changes in the hippocampus after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rat.

Brain Res Bull 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Histomorphometry and Stereology Research Centre, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

This study aimed to find out cellular and electrophysiological effects of the edaravone (EDR) administration following induction of vascular dementia (VaD) via bilateral-carotid vessel occlusion (2VO). The rats were randomly divided into control, sham, 2VO + V (vehicle), and 2VO + EDR groups. EDR was administered once a day from day 0-28 after surgery. Read More

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Longitudinal cohorts for harnessing the electronic health record for disease prediction in a US population.

BMJ Open 2021 Jun 8;11(6):e044353. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA

Purpose: The depth and breadth of clinical data within electronic health record (EHR) systems paired with innovative machine learning methods can be leveraged to identify novel risk factors for complex diseases. However, analysing the EHR is challenging due to complexity and quality of the data. Therefore, we developed large electronic population-based cohorts with comprehensive harmonised and processed EHR data. Read More

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Ultralow-power flexible transparent carbon nanotube synaptic transistors for emotional memory.

Nanoscale 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Emulating the biological behavior of the human brain with artificial neuromorphic devices is essential for the future development of human-machine interactive systems, bionic sensing systems and intelligent robotic systems. In this paper, artificial flexible transparent carbon nanotube synaptic transistors (F-CNT-STs) with signal transmission and emotional learning functions are realized by adopting the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/SiO2 proton-conducting electrolyte. Synaptic functions of biological synapses including excitatory and inhibitory behaviors are successfully emulated in the F-CNT-STs. Read More

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The Cardiovascular Conundrum in Ethnic and Sexual Minorities: A Potential Biomarker of Constant Coping With Discrimination.

Front Neurosci 2021 19;15:619171. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

A paradoxical profile of greater elevated sympathetic vasoconstriction (increased total peripheral resistance, TPR) and increased vagally-mediated heart rate variability (HRV) -the so-called Cardiovascular Conundrum- has been reported in African Americans (AAs) both at rest and in response to orthostasis. Whereas some authors have attributed this pattern to genetic factors, others have pointed to the potential role of coping with repeated racial discrimination. To disentangle between these alternative explanations, we have examined the hemodynamic profile of another population that is likely to be exposed to episodes of discrimination, i. Read More

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Feasibility of a school-based physical activity intervention for adolescents with disability.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2021 Jun 4;7(1):120. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Education and Arts, School of Education, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Adolescents with disability are less active and have lower levels of physical fitness than their typically developing peers. Schools are ideal settings to address this; however, few school-based interventions have been designed and evaluated among this group. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a time-efficient school-based physical activity intervention for adolescents with disability. Read More

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In Situ Observation of Low-Power Nano-Synaptic Response in Graphene Oxide Using Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy.

Small 2021 Jun 3:e2101100. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Physical Science and Engineering Division, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal, 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia.

Multiple studies have reported the observation of electro-synaptic response in different metal/insulator/metal devices. However, most of them analyzed large (>1 µm ) devices that do not meet the integration density required by industry (10  devices/mm ). Some studies emploied a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to explore nano-synaptic response in different materials, but in this setup there is a nanogap between the insulator and one of the metallic electrodes (i. Read More

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Clinical and Neurophysiological Effects of Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A in Chronic Migraine.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 May 29;13(6). Epub 2021 May 29.

Clinical Neurology Unit, Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, 33100 Udine, Italy.

Chronic pain syndromes present a subversion of both functional and structural nociceptive networks. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to evaluate changes in cortical excitability and plasticity in patients with chronic migraine (CM) treated with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A). We enrolled 11 patients with episodic migraine (EM) and 11 affected by CM. Read More

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Does Eligibility Classification Matter? Tracking Cardiac Autonomic Function during a Collegiate Soccer Season.

Sports (Basel) 2021 May 25;9(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Exercise Science & Pre-Health Professions, Creighton University, 2500 California Plaza, Omaha, NE 68111, USA.

The current study examined differences in heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) across student-athlete eligibility classifications within a men's soccer team. The study also aimed to identify any differences in HRV while competing at home or away. Data collection covered an entire collegiate season, commencing in the preseason and concluding upon elimination from the NCAA Soccer tournament. Read More

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Serine/Threonine Phosphatases in LTP: Two B or Not to Be the Protein Synthesis Blocker-Induced Impairment of Early Phase.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 4;22(9). Epub 2021 May 4.

Institute of Higher Nervous Activity and Neurophysiology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117485 Moscow, Russia.

Dephosphorylation of target proteins at serine/threonine residues is one of the most crucial mechanisms regulating their activity and, consequently, the cellular functions. The role of phosphatases in synaptic plasticity, especially in long-term depression or depotentiation, has been reported. We studied serine/threonine phosphatase activity during the protein synthesis blocker (PSB)-induced impairment of long-term potentiation (LTP). Read More

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Patient reported physical and mental health changes associated with a comprehensive cardiovascular risk reduction program for women with breast cancer receiving potentially cardiotoxic chemotherapy.

Cardiooncology 2021 May 31;7(1):22. Epub 2021 May 31.

Cardio-Oncology Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa, USA.

Objective: Women with breast cancer (BCA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications when exposed to potentially cardiotoxic cancer therapy. The benefit of aggressive CVD risk factor modification to reduce adverse treatment-related psychologic and biologic effects is not well established.

Methods: Using a single group pre-test, post-test design, 33 women with BCA receiving anthracycline and/or trastuzumab therapy participated in a 6-month comprehensive CVD risk reduction program involving formal cardio-oncology evaluation along with regular motivational counseling for improved nutrition and physical activity. Read More

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Tilidine and dipyrone (metamizole) in cold pressor pain: A pooled analysis of efficacy, tolerability, and safety in healthy volunteers.

Clin Transl Sci 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Clinical Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany.

The cold pressor test (CPT) is widely implemented and offers a simple, experimental acute pain model utilizing cold pain. Previous trials have frequently paired the CPT with opioids in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying pharmacological analgesia, due to their known analgesic efficacy. However, opioid side effects may lead to unblinding and raise concerns about the safety of the experimental setting. Read More

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Evaluation of bronchial wall thickness in asthma using magnetic resonance imaging.

Eur Respir J 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Univ. Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-thoracique de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France

Background: Bronchial thickening is a pathological feature of asthma that has been evaluated using computed tomography (CT), an ionised radiation technique. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) pulse sequences could be an alternative to CT.

Objectives: To measure bronchial dimensions using MRI-UTE in asthmatic patients, by evaluating the accuracy and agreement with CT, by comparing severe and non-severe asthma and by correlating with pulmonary function tests. Read More

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation as a translational biomarker for AMPA receptor modulation.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 May 27;11(1):325. Epub 2021 May 27.

Takeda Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA.

TAK-653 is a novel α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-positive allosteric modulator being developed as a potential therapeutic for major depressive disorder (MDD). Currently, there are no translational biomarkers that evaluate physiological responses to the activation of glutamatergic brain circuits available. Here, we tested whether noninvasive neurostimulation, specifically single-pulse or paired-pulse motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation (spTMS and ppTMS, respectively), coupled with measures of evoked motor response captures the pharmacodynamic effects of TAK-653 in rats and healthy humans. Read More

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Tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B impairs presynaptic NMDA receptor-mediated plasticity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 May 24;156:105402. Epub 2021 May 24.

Neuroscience, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H8M5, Canada; University of Ottawa Brain and Mind Institute, Ottawa, ON K1H8M5, Canada; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada; Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1H 8M5, Canada. Electronic address:

Mutations in the beta-amyloid protein (APP) cause familial Alzheimer's disease. In hAPP-J20 mice expressing mutant APP, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B prevents CA3 hippocampus neuron loss and cognitive decline. However, how targeting PTP1B affects the cellular mechanisms underlying these cognitive deficits remains unknown. Read More

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Impact of Perineuronal Nets on Electrophysiology of Parvalbumin Interneurons, Principal Neurons, and Brain Oscillations: A Review.

Front Synaptic Neurosci 2021 10;13:673210. Epub 2021 May 10.

Program in Neuroscience, Robert S. Dow Neurobiology Laboratories, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, OR, United States.

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are specialized extracellular matrix structures that surround specific neurons in the brain and spinal cord, appear during critical periods of development, and restrict plasticity during adulthood. Removal of PNNs can reinstate juvenile-like plasticity or, in cases of PNN removal during early developmental stages, PNN removal extends the critical plasticity period. PNNs surround mainly parvalbumin (PV)-containing, fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons in several brain regions. Read More

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Enhanced heroin self-administration and distinct dopamine adaptations in female rats.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 May 26. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Increasing evidence suggests that females are more vulnerable to the harmful effects of drugs of abuse, including opioids. Additionally, rates of heroin-related deaths substantially increased in females from 1999 to 2017 [1], underscoring the need to evaluate sex differences in heroin vulnerability. Moreover, the neurobiological substrates underlying sexually dimorphic responding to heroin are not fully defined. Read More

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Characterization of the direct pathway in Dyt1 ΔGAG heterozygous knock-in mice and dopamine receptor 1-expressing-cell-specific Dyt1 conditional knockout mice.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 24;411:113381. Epub 2021 May 24.

Norman Fixel Institute for Neurological Diseases, McKnight Brain Institute, and Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32610-0236, USA. Electronic address:

DYT1 dystonia is a movement disorder mainly caused by a trinucleotide deletion (ΔGAG) in DYT1 (TOR1A), coding for torsinA. DYT1 dystonia patients show trends of decreased striatal ligand-binding activities to dopamine receptors 1 (D1R) and 2 (D2R). Dyt1 ΔGAG knock-in (KI) mice, which have the corresponding ΔGAG deletion, similarly exhibit reduced striatal D1R and D2R-binding activities and their expression levels. Read More

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Cross-platform validation of neurotransmitter release impairments in schizophrenia patient-derived -mutant neurons.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jun;118(22)

Department of Molecular & Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305;

Heterozygous deletions constitute the most prevalent currently known single-gene mutation associated with schizophrenia, and additionally predispose to multiple other neurodevelopmental disorders. Engineered heterozygous deletions impaired neurotransmitter release in human neurons, suggesting a synaptic pathophysiological mechanism. Utilizing this observation for drug discovery, however, requires confidence in its robustness and validity. Read More

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Inactivation of Presenilin in inhibitory neurons results in decreased GABAergic responses and enhanced synaptic plasticity.

Mol Brain 2021 May 25;14(1):85. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Mutations in the Presenilin genes are the major genetic cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Presenilin (PS) is highly expressed in the hippocampus, which is particularly vulnerable in AD. Previous studies of PS function in the hippocampus, however, focused exclusively on excitatory neurons. Read More

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Physiological and self-reported arousal in virtual reality versus face-to-face emotional activation and cognitive restructuring in university students: A crossover experimental study using wearable monitoring.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Jul 11;142:103877. Epub 2021 May 11.

Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Department of Clinical, Neuro- & Developmental Psychology, Section of Clinical Psychology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Faculty of Behavioral and Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Arousal may be important for learning to restructure ones' negative cognitions, a core technique in depression treatment. In virtual reality (VR), situations may be experienced more vividly than, e.g. Read More

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Effects of altered tau expression on dentate granule cell excitability in mice.

Exp Neurol 2021 May 21;343:113766. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Physiology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA; Department of Neuroscience, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536, USA. Electronic address:

Tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease, are characterized by progressive accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and pathologic tau protein in association with onset of cognitive and behavioral impairment. Tau pathology is also associated with increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy, with tau mice showing seizure resistance in some epilepsy models. To better understand how tau pathology is related to neuronal excitability, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in dentate gyrus granule cells of tau and human-tau expressing, htau mice. Read More

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Intelligent Personalized Exercise Prescription Based on an eHealth Promotion System to Improve Health Outcomes of Middle-Aged and Older Adult Community Dwellers: Pretest-Posttest Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 May 24;23(5):e28221. Epub 2021 May 24.

Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Institute of Intelligent Machines, Hefei Institutes of Physical Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China.

Background: A scientific, personalized, and quantitative exercise prescription that has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in the prevention of chronic disease is highly recommended. However, it is often poorly implemented, as clinicians lack the necessary knowledge and skills while participants have low adherence due to design defects (eg, prescriptions fail to take individual willingness, the appeal of exercise, and complex physical conditions into account). Intelligent personalized prescription is thus worth exploring. Read More

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The effect of one bout submaximal endurance exercise on the innate and adaptive immune responses of hypertensive patients.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Physical Education, Omidiyeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Omidiyeh, Iran.

Background: Changes in some of the immune system factors are associated with a risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of one bout submaximal endurance exercise (OBSEE) on the innate and adaptive responses of hypertensive patients.

Methods: From among 70 men with hypertension, 20 men (Mean ± SD, age: 60. Read More

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Impact of inhalation aromatherapy with Damask Rose () on stress, anxiety and hemodynamic parameters of patients undergoing coronary angiography: a single blind randomized clinical trial.

J Complement Integr Med 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Medical Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Coronary arteries angiography is used commonly for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. In spite of the low risk of coronary artery angiography method, it could lead to stress, anxiety and consequently hemodynamic changes in patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of inhalation aromatherapy with on stress, anxiety, and hemodynamic parameters of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Read More

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Effect of head down tilt on heart rate variability.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Jan 30;10(1):439-442. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Physiology, AIIMS, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India.

Context: Sirshasan is supposed to increase blood flow to the brain and considered to be beneficial for intellectual function, however mastering these techniques may be difficult.

Aims: To see the effect of headstand using a tilt table on heart rate variability (HRV).

Settings And Design: A cross-sectional study that was done on 26 healthy volunteers. Read More

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January 2021

A Randomized Controlled Trial of SGS-742, a γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) Receptor Antagonist, for Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

J Child Neurol 2021 May 20:8830738211012804. Epub 2021 May 20.

Clinical Epilepsy Section, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 35053National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

We examined safety, tolerability, and efficacy of SGS-742, a γ-aminobutyric acid B (GABA-B) receptor antagonist, in patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. This was a single-center randomized, double-blind crossover phase II clinical trial of SGS-742 versus placebo in patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency. Procedures included transcranial magnetic stimulation and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale. Read More

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Digital and analog functionality in monolayer AlOx-based memristors with various oxidizer sources.

Nanotechnology 2021 Jun 8;32(35). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Information Science and Engineering (ISE), Shandong University, Qingdao, People's Republic of China.

Memristors with the outstanding advantages are beneficial for neuromorphic computing and next-generation storage. Realizing various resistive switching behaviors in monolayer memristors is essential for understanding the device physics and fabricating fully memristive devices. In this paper, a simple and feasible method was proposed to achieve the digital and analog resistive switching in Cu/AlOx/Ag memristors by using ozone and water precursors in atomic layer deposition. Read More

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Neuromodulation and neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acids in excitatory synapses of mouse hippocampal slices.

Sci Rep 2021 May 18;11(1):10488. Epub 2021 May 18.

CNC-Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

The increased healthspan afforded by coffee intake provides novel opportunities to identify new therapeutic strategies. Caffeine has been proposed to afford benefits through adenosine A receptors, which can control synaptic dysfunction underlying some brain disease. However, decaffeinated coffee and other main components of coffee such as chlorogenic acids, also attenuate brain dysfunction, although it is unknown if they control synaptic function. Read More

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CCL2/CCR2 Contributes to the Altered Excitatory-inhibitory Synaptic Balance in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Following Peripheral Nerve Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain.

Neurosci Bull 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Pain Medicine and Special Environmental Medicine, Nantong University, Nantong, 226019, China.

The medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) integrate excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs and gate motivational and emotional behavior output. Here we report that the relative intensity of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs to MSNs of the NAc shell was decreased in mice with neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). SNL increased the frequency, but not the amplitude of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs), and decreased both the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in the MSNs. Read More

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Modulation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex via delta-opioid receptors in mice.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Jun 14;560:192-198. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510, Japan. Electronic address:

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a vital role in the processing of emotional events. It has been shown that activation of the glutamatergic transmission in prelimbic subregion of the mPFC (PL-PFC) evoked anxiety-like behavior in rodents. We previously reported that local perfusion of a selective agonist to delta-opioid receptor (DOP), KNT-127, attenuated the veratrine-induced elevation of extracellular glutamate in the PL-PFC and anxiety-like behavior in mice. Read More

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