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Prostate Cancer Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Does the Choice of Diffusion-Weighting Level Matter?

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging plays an important role in multiparametric assessment of prostate lesions. The derived apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) could be a useful quantitative biomarker for malignant growth, but lacks acceptance because of low reproducibility.

Purpose: To investigate the impact of the choice of diffusion-weighting levels (b-values) on contrast-to-noise ratio and quantitative measures in prostate diffusion-weighted MRI. Read More

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September 2021

Resting Energy Expenditure Early after Cardiac Surgery and Validity of Predictive Equations: A Prospective Observational Study.

Ann Nutr Metab 2021 Sep 15:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai, China.

Objective: Several predictive equations have been used to estimate patients' energy expenditure. The study aimed to describe the characteristics of resting energy expenditure (REE) in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation during early postoperative stage after cardiac surgery and evaluate the validity of 9 REE predictive equations.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study. Read More

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September 2021

Biomechanics of a laterally placed sacroiliac joint fusion device supplemental to S2 alar-iliac fixation in a long-segment adult spinal deformity construct: a cadaveric study of stability and strain distribution.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Sep 17:1-11. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

1Spinal Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Barrow Neurological Institute, St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, Arizona.

Objective: S2 alar-iliac (S2AI) screw fixation effectively enhances stability in long-segment constructs. Although S2AI fixation provides a single transarticular sacroiliac joint fixation (SIJF) point, additional fixation points may provide greater stability and attenuate screw and rod strain. The objectives of this study were to evaluate changes in stability and pedicle screw and rod strain with extended distal S2AI fixation and with supplemental bilateral integration of two sacroiliac joint fusion devices implanted using a traditional minimally invasive surgical approach. Read More

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September 2021

Effectiveness of the Nasal Creator Device after Cheiloplasty in Patients with Cleft Lip and Palate as Measured by 3D Stereophotogrammetry.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2021 Oct;45(4):284-290

Objective: To evaluate nostril morphology post-cheiloplasty after patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) use of the nasal creator device.

Study Design: This is a prospective study. Sixteen patients with nonsyndromic UCLP treated at Khon Kaen University underwent cheiloplasty and then wear the nasal creator device for 6 months. Read More

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October 2021

Impact of RBE variations on risk estimates of temporal lobe necrosis in patients treated with intensity-modulated proton therapy for head and neck cancer.

Acta Oncol 2021 Sep 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Temporal lobe necrosis (TLN) is a potential late effect after radiotherapy for skull base head and neck cancer (HNC). Several photon-derived dose constraints and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models have been proposed, however variation in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) may challenge the applicability of these dose constraints and models in proton therapy. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the influence of RBE variations on risk estimates of TLN after Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy for HNC. Read More

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September 2021

Passive elastography of the esophagus: from model to preliminaryexperiments using diameter measurements.

Biomed Phys Eng Express 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

LabTAU, 151 cours albert thomas, Lyon, 69424 cedex03, FRANCE.

Numerous diseases alter the esophagus elasticity, such as eosinophilic esophagitis and esophageal motility disorders like achalasia. The possibility to measure these modifications using minimally invasive techniques is a key issue for the diagnosis of such pathologies. The commercially available EndoflipTM (endoluminal functional lumen imaging probe) can be used to measure the luminal cross-sectional diameter of the esophagus at different points and over time, and is used in clinical routine to assess esophageal distensibility. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of the menstrual cycle on commercial prognostic gene signatures in oestrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Ralph Lauren Centre for Breast Cancer Research, Royal Marsden Hospital, Fulham Road, London, SW3 6JJ, UK.

Purpose: Changes occur in the expression of oestrogen-regulated and proliferation-associated genes in oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumours during the menstrual cycle. We investigated if Oncotype® DX recurrence score (RS), Prosigna® (ROR) and EndoPredict® (EP/EPclin) prognostic tests, which include some of these genes, vary according to the time in the menstrual cycle when they are measured.

Methods: Pairs of test scores were derived from 30 ER-positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative tumours sampled at two different points of the menstrual cycle. Read More

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September 2021

Influence of subcutaneous adipose thickness and dominance on reliability of quadriceps muscle quality in healthy young individuals.

J Ultrasound 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Health Sciences, Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Campus Jardim das Avenidas, Rod. Governador Jorge Lacerda, 3201, Araranguá, SC, 88906-072, Brazil.

Background: Echo intensity (EI) can be useful to check muscle quality and has been widely used to identify tissue damage. In the clinical and sports context, it has been used to identify metabolic disorders and training muscle performance.

Objective: To determine whether subcutaneous adipose thickness (SAT) influences the inter-session EI reliability of the quadriceps femoris and whether EI is influenced by dominance in young healthy subjects. Read More

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September 2021

Microbial Communities in a Serpentinizing Aquifer Are Assembled through Strong Concurrent Dispersal Limitation and Selection.

mSystems 2021 Sep 14:e0030021. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Michigan State Universitygrid.17088.36, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

In recent years, our appreciation of the extent of habitable environments in Earth's subsurface has greatly expanded, as has our understanding of the biodiversity contained within. Most studies have relied on single sampling points, rather than considering the long-term dynamics of subsurface environments and their microbial populations. One such habitat are aquifers associated with the aqueous alteration of ultramafic rocks through a process known as serpentinization. Read More

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September 2021

Serotonin activates paraventricular thalamic neurons through direct depolarization and indirect disinhibition from Zona Incerta.

J Physiol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, 32306, USA.

Key Points: Serotonin (5-HT) depolarizes and excites paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) neurons. 5-HT receptors are responsible for 5-HT excitation of PVT neurons and the coupling of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels to 5-HT receptors in part mediates the excitatory effect of 5-HT. 5-HT depresses the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory but not excitatory postsynaptic currents in PVT neurons. Read More

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September 2021

Estimates of persistent inward currents are reduced in upper limb motor units of older adults.

J Physiol 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Department of Physical Therapy and Human Movement Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States.

Key Points: Persistent inward currents play an important role in the neural control of human movement and are influenced by neuromodulation via monoamines originating in the brainstem. During aging, motor unit firing rates are reduced, and there is deterioration of brainstem nuclei, which may reduce persistent inward currents in alpha motoneurons. Here we show that estimates of persistent inward currents (ΔF) of both elbow flexor and extensor motor units are reduced in older adults. Read More

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September 2021

Changes in Cortical Excitability and Parkinson Tremor After Botulinum Toxin Therapy.

Neurology 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

London Health Sciences Centre - Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, London, ON, Canada.

Objectives: This study investigated the relationship between botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) administration, tremor amplitude, and modulation of intracortical excitability and sensorimotor processing using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (pp-TMS) in early, tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease (PD) patients.

Methods: Twelve "De-novo" (naïve to anti-PD medications) and seven "L-dopa" (optimized on levodopa) PD participants with tremor affecting one arm were recruited. All participants received 4 serial BoNT-A treatments for tremor every 12-weeks and peak effect was assessed 6-weeks post-treatment, totaling 8 visits over 42-weeks. Read More

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September 2021

Medical cannabis or cannabinoids for chronic non-cancer and cancer related pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.

BMJ 2021 09 8;374:n1034. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Objective: To determine the benefits and harms of medical cannabis and cannabinoids for chronic pain.

Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, PsycInfo, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PubMed, Web of Science, Cannabis-Med, Epistemonikos, and trial registries up to January 2021. Read More

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September 2021

Hip Joint Kinematic Covariation During Gait Before and 1-Year After Hip Arthroscopic Surgery for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

Front Surg 2021 17;8:614329. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Program in Exercise Science, Department of Physical Therapy, Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

The primary aim of this study was to determine if the three-dimensional (3D) hip joint motion coordination during gait changes after arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Three-dimensional hip joint kinematic data were collected with a 12-camera motion capture system. Five trials of level walking were collected preoperatively (PRE) and at 1-year postoperatively (POST) in 8 patients diagnosed with FAIS and at a single time point in 8 healthy controls. Read More

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Determining Michael Acceptor Reactivity from Kinetic, Mechanistic, and Computational Analysis for the Base-catalyzed Thiol-Michael Reaction.

Polym Chem 2021 Jul 29;12(25):3619-3628. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder, 596 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0596, United States.

A combined experimental and computational study of the reactivities of seven commonly used Michael acceptors paired with two thiols within the framework of photobase-catalyzed thiol-Michael reactions is reported. The rate coefficients of the propagation (k), reverse propagation (k), chain-transfer (k), and overall reaction (k) were experimentally determined and compared with the well-accepted electrophilicity parameters of Mayr and Parr, and DFT-calculated energetics. Both Mayr's and Parr's electrophilicity parameters predict the reactivities of these structurally varying vinyl functional groups well, covering a range of overall reaction rate coefficients from 0. Read More

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A comparative analysis on groundwater vulnerability models-fuzzy DRASTIC and fuzzy DRASTIC-L.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Sep 5. Epub 2021 Sep 5.

Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

Groundwater vulnerability assessment using the fuzzy logic technique is attempted in this study. A hierarchical fuzzy inference system is created to serve the selected objective. The parameters considered in this study are similar to the seven parameters used in conventional DRASTIC methods; however, the effect of land use and land cover is studied by including it as an additional parameter in a model. Read More

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September 2021

Correlation of visual area with tremor improvement after MRgFUS thalamotomy in Parkinson's disease.

J Neurosurg 2021 Sep 3:1-8. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

1Department of Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy is a novel and minimally invasive alternative for medication-refractory tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the impact of MRgFUS thalamotomy on spontaneous neuronal activity in PD remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of MRgFUS thalamotomy on local fluctuations in neuronal activity as measured by the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in patients with PD. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of Early Response to Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Using Amide Proton Transfer-weighted Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer MRI: A Pilot Study.

Radiol Imaging Cancer 2021 Sep;3(5):e200155

From the Departments of Cancer Systems Imaging (S.Z., A.K., M.D.P.), Abdominal Imaging (G.M.R., R.M.M.M., A.H.A., N.A.E.), Breast Imaging (B.E.A., M.B.), Imaging Physics (J.B.S., B.C.M., K.P.H., J.M., M.D.P.), Biostatistics (J.S., P.W.), and Breast Medical Oncology (J.B.W.), University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1881 East Rd, Houston, TX 77054; Department of Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo, Japan (M.M.); and Department of Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Houston, TX (X.W.).

Purpose To determine if amide proton transfer-weighted chemical exchange saturation transfer (APT CEST) MRI is useful in the early assessment of treatment response in persons with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Materials and Methods In this prospective study, a total of 51 participants (mean age, 51 years [range, 26-79 years]) with TNBC were included who underwent APT CEST MRI with 0.9- and 2. Read More

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September 2021

Hypersensitivity relief of MIH-affected molars using two sealing techniques: a 12-week follow-up.

Clin Oral Investig 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Medical Centre for Dentistry Section for Outcomes Research, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Campus Giessen, Schlangenzahl 14, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy in reducing hypersensitivity in molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH)-affected molars immediately and over 12 weeks after sealing using two different materials (composite and glass ionomer). Furthermore, the retention rates of both materials were analyzed.

Methods: Thirty-nine children with two MIH-affected molars showing hypersensitivity and non-occlusal breakdowns were included. Read More

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September 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Kissing Aneurysms: Technical Feasibility and Clinical Outcomes.

World Neurosurg 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Department of Neurosurgery and Radiology, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Kissing aneurysms are situated on the same artery but have separate points of origin. Open surgical strategies for access from opposing directions may be technically problematic. Recent advances in protective devices and coiling techniques have compelled the present study, aimed at technical aspects and procedural outcomes of coil embolization in this setting. Read More

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Antemortem vs Postmortem Histopathologic and Ultrastructural Findings in Paired Transbronchial Biopsy Specimens and Lung Autopsy Samples From Three Patients With Confirmed SARS-CoV-2.

Am J Clin Pathol 2021 Aug 31. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Institute of Pathology and Molecular Pathology, Ulm, Germany.

Objectives: Respiratory failure is the major cause of death in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Autopsy-based reports describe diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), organizing pneumonia, and fibrotic change, but data on early pathologic changes and during progression of the disease are rare.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled three patients with COVID-19 and performed full clinical evaluation, including high-resolution computed tomography. Read More

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A pilot study of changes in Total Worker Health® policies and programs and associated changes in safety and health climates in small business.

Am J Ind Med 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Center for Health, Work & Environment, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: There is little longitudinal research on whether changes to Total Worker Health® (TWH) policies and programs are associated with changes in health climate and safety climate. We hypothesize that as TWH policies and programs change, employees will report changes in safety climate and health climate from baseline to 1 year.

Methods: Twenty-five diverse small businesses and their employees participated in assessments completed approximately 1 year apart. Read More

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Effect of Channel Interaction on Vocal Cue Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

Trends Hear 2021 Jan-Dec;25:23312165211030166

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Speech intelligibility in multitalker settings is challenging for most cochlear implant (CI) users. One possibility for this limitation is the suboptimal representation of vocal cues in implant processing, such as the fundamental frequency (F0), and the vocal tract length (VTL). Previous studies suggested that while F0 perception depends on spectrotemporal cues, VTL perception relies largely on spectral cues. Read More

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Suggested methodology for longitudinal evaluation of nevi based on clinical images.

Skin Res Technol 2021 Aug 29. Epub 2021 Aug 29.

Dermatology Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, USA.

Background: Melanoma screening includes the assessment of changes in melanocytic lesions using images. However, previous studies of normal nevus temporal changes showed variable results and the optimal method for evaluating these changes remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate the reproducibility of (a) nevus count done at a single time point (method I) versus two time points (method II); and (b) manual and automated nevus diameter measurements. Read More

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Reliability of Modified Hertels Exophthalmometer as an Intraoperative Tool for Assessment of Relative Globe Position in Orbital/Zygomatic Fracture.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2021 Jun 5;13(Suppl 1):S716-S720. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Introduction: Axial globe position assessment is commonly carried out with Hertels Exophthalmometer. Hertels requires an intact lateral orbital rim for its placement, which is often fractured in zygomatic fractures. Hence, to overcome this problem, we have modified the instrument for its application in zygomatic/orbital fractures. Read More

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Rapid Transient Transcriptional Adaptation to Hypergravity in Jurkat T Cells Revealed by Comparative Analysis of Microarray and RNA-Seq Data.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 6;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Anatomy, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Cellular responses to micro- and hypergravity are rapid and complex and appear within the first few seconds of exposure. Transcriptomic analyses are a valuable tool to analyze these genome-wide cellular alterations. For a better understanding of the cellular dynamics upon altered gravity exposure, it is important to compare different time points. Read More

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Mouth Washing Impaired SARS-CoV-2 Detection in Saliva.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Aug 22;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Unité de Parasitologie et Entomologie, Département de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, 13005 Marseille, France.

Background: A previous study demonstrated the performance of the Salivette (SARSTEDT, Numbrecht, Germany) as a homogeneous saliva collection system to diagnose COVID-19 by RT-qPCR, notably for symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. However, for convalescent patients, the corroboration of molecular detection of SARS-CoV-2 in paired nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and saliva samples was unsatisfactory.

Objectives: The aim of the present work was to assess the concordance level of SARS-CoV-2 detection between paired sampling of NPSs and saliva collected with Salivette at two time points, with ten days of interval. Read More

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Microbiomes of Various Maternal Body Systems Are Predictive of Calf Digestive Bacterial Ecology.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 26;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Dairy Science, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

Body systems once thought sterile at birth instead have complex and sometimes abundant microbial ecosystems. However, relationships between dam and calf microbial ecosystems are still unclear. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the various maternal and calf microbiomes during peri-partum and post-partum periods and (2) examine the influence of the maternal microbiome on calf fecal microbiome composition during the pre-weaning phase. Read More

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Relief of Low Back Pain After Posterior Decompression for Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Sep;46(18):E966-E975

Department of Public Health, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Study Design: A retrospective study.

Objective: The aim of this study was to confirm that decompression for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) relieves low back pain (LBP) as adequately as it relieves leg pain and to identify predictors for inadequate LBP relief.

Summary Of Background Data: Although decompression for LSS is generally thought to yield worse results for LBP than for leg pain, some studies have reported similar improvements in pain scores between LBP and leg pain. Read More

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September 2021

A bioengineering method for modeling alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma and assessing chemotherapy responses.

MethodsX 2021 27;8:101473. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Human Anatomy and Cell Science, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common pediatric soft-tissue malignant tumor. Treatment of RMS usually includes primary tumor resection along with systemic chemotherapy. Two-dimensional (2D) cell culture systems and animal models have been extensively used for investigating the potential efficacy of new RMS treatments. Read More

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