1,340 results match your criteria pah emissions


Comprehensive characterization of PAHs profile in Serbian soils for conventional and organic production: potential sources and risk assessment.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Faculty of Science and Informatics, Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

This study presents a comprehensive characterization of occurrence and levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in arable soils used for conventional and organic production in northern and central part of Serbia as well as cross-border region with Hungary. Furthermore, this study includes a characterization of PAH sources and carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic human health risk for PAHs accumulated in analysed arable soils. The total concentration of 16 PAHs varied between 55 and 4584 µg kg in agricultural soil used for conventional production and between 90 and 523 µg kg in agricultural soil used for organic production. Read More

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Exposure to Particulate PAHs on Potential Genotoxicity and Cancer Risk among School Children Living Near the Petrochemical Industry.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Mar 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Selangor, Malaysia.

This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. Read More

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination along roads based on levels on vehicle window films.

Environ Pollut 2021 Mar 13;279:116921. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 200135, PR China; International Joint Research Center for Persistent Toxic Substances (IJRC-PTS), Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai, 200135, PR China.

Vehicular emissions are known to be major contributors of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in cities. In order to assess the long-term contamination of PAHs along roads, we collected organic films from vehicle windows (26 private cars and 4 buses, in Shanghai, China) and used mathematical models to convert the film-bound PAH concentrations to the airborne PAH concentrations. The field measurements of airborne PAHs revealed that the partitioning and Level III fugacity model was suitable to estimate the airborne concentrations of high and low volatile PAHs (expect for naphthalene), respectively. Read More

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Material recovery from electronic waste using pyrolysis: Emissions measurements and risk assessment.

J Environ Chem Eng 2021 Feb;9(1)

US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA.

Electronic waste (e-waste) generation has been growing in volume worldwide, and the diversity of its material composition is increasing. Sustainable management of this material is critical to achieving a circular-economy and minimizing environmental and public health risks. This study's objective was to investigate the use of pyrolysis as a possible technique to recover valuable materials and energy from different components of e-waste as an alternative approach for limiting their disposal to landfills. Read More

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February 2021

On-line fast analysis of light hydrocarbons, PAH and radicals by molecular-beam time of flight mass spectrometry.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 10;276:130174. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie per L'Energia e La Mobilità Sostenibili, STEMS-CNR, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125, Napoli, Italy.

Volatile organic compounds (VOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), emitted in the environment from a wide range of combustion sources, are hazardous to human health and considered important precursors of both primary and secondary particulate pollutants. In the present work, light hydrocarbons up to C, as main components of combustion-derived VOC, and PAH produced in fuel-rich conditions of premixed ethylene flames were analyzed by implementing a molecular-beam time of flight mass spectrometer (MB-TOFMS), purposely built for on-line fast monitoring of the environmental impact of combustion systems. The reliability of the MB-TOFMS was preliminarily verified on a slightly-sooting flame, comparing the results with those obtained by batch sampling and gas chromatographic techniques. Read More

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Characteristics of chemical profile, sources and PAH toxicity of PM in beijing in autumn-winter transit season with regard to domestic heating, pollution control measures and meteorology.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 1;276:130143. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Joint Mass Spectrometry Center, Cooperation Group Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.

Several air pollution episodes occurred in Beijing before and after the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit, during which air-pollution control measures were implemented. Within this autumn-winter transit season, domestic heating started. Such interesting period merits comprehensive chemical characterization, particularly the organic species, to look into the influence of additional heating sources and the control measures on air pollution. Read More

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[Characterization, Sources, and Health Risks of PM-bound PAHs During Autumn and Winter in Luoyang City].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Feb;42(2):595-603

College of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China.

In this study, PM samples were collected synchronously at Gaoxin and Linxiao in Luoyang City during autumn and winter (4 October 2018 to 30 January 2019). Sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with fine particulate matter were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentrations and composition characteristics of the PAHs on clean and polluted days were studied. Read More

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February 2021

Detection of two interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via spectral matched filtering.

Science 2021 03;371(6535):1265-1269

Center for Astrophysics, Harvard & Smithsonian, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Unidentified infrared emission bands are ubiquitous in many astronomical sources. These bands are widely, if not unanimously, attributed to collective emissions from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, yet no single species of this class has been identified in space. Using spectral matched filtering of radio data from the Green Bank Telescope, we detected two nitrile-group-functionalized PAHs, 1- and 2-cyanonaphthalene, in the interstellar medium. Read More

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Air pollution increases human health risks of PM-bound PAHs and nitro-PAHs in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 27;770:145402. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Center for Excellence in Regional Atmospheric Environment, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China; Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the nature and extent of atmospheric PM-bound toxic organic pollutants is beneficial to evaluate human health risks of air pollution. Seasonal observations of PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) were investigated, along with criteria air pollutants and meteorological parameters. With the elevated PM level, the percentage of 4-ring PAHs and typical NPAH including 3-Nitrobiphenyl (3-NBP) and 2-Nitrofluoranthene (2-NFLT) increased by 19-40%. Read More

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Recording and response of persistent toxic substances (PTSs) in urban lake sediments to anthropogenic activities.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 27;777:145977. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

State Key Laboratory of Lake Science and Environment, Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, PR China.

Owing to the intensification of human activities, urban lakes serving as important freshwater resources are becoming seriously deteriorated, especially due to persistent toxic substance (PTS) pollution. Therefore, the spatial distribution and sediment record of PTS in urban lake sediments in the middle Yangtze River Basin were investigated to indicate its response to anthropogenic emission and pollution reduction actions. Spatial distribution of typical PTSs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) included) showed that pollutants were concentrated in the southeast and center of the urban lake due to riverine inputs suffering from both petrochemical and municipal wastewaters. Read More

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February 2021

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban stream sediments of Suzhou Industrial Park, an emerging eco-industrial park in China: Occurrence, sources and potential risk.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 2;214:112095. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Anhui Provincial Engineering Laboratory of Water and Soil Pollution Control and Remediation, School of Ecology and Environment, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241002, PR China.

In this study, urban stream sediment samples were collected in the Suzhou Industrial Park (SIP), one of the earliest national demonstration eco-industrial parks of China. PAHs were analyzed in these sediments, and concentrations of total PAHs were 180-81,000 ng g (5700 ± 14,000 ng g). Medium molecular weight (4- ring) PAHs were predominant (42 ± 12%), followed by high molecular weight (5- and 6- ring) PAHs (31 ± 10%). Read More

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Human health risk associated to particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels and their relation with preponderant sources in Gran La Plata, Argentina.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

CIM, Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, CONICET CCT La Plata, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Bv. 120 n°, 1489, La Plata, Argentina.

Levels of suspended particulate matter (PM) of both fractions PM and PM in ambient air were monitored in three areas of Gran La Plata: industrial, urban, and residential (2017-2019). Associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) to PM were also determined and possible emission sources were identified. Assessment of health risk to PM exposure and associated compounds was realized. Read More

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Consumption- and Income-Based Sectoral Emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China from 2002 to 2017.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Mar 1;55(6):3582-3592. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Institute of Urban and Industrial Water Management, Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden, Germany.

China is the largest emitter of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the world. Because of their negative influences on human health, the characteristics and potential driving forces of PAH emissions should be evaluated to establish effective mitigation strategies for different economic sectors. This study is the first to quantify the embodied and enabled PAH emissions of 108 sectors in China in 2002, 2007, 2012, and 2017. Read More

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Biochar produced from wood waste for soil remediation in Sweden: Carbon sequestration and other environmental impacts.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 18;776:145953. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Sustainable Development, Environmental Science and Engineering (SEED), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 10B, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.

The use of biochar to stabilize soil contaminants is emerging as a technique for remediation of contaminated soils. In this study, an environmental assessment of systems where biochar produced from wood waste with energy recovery is used for remediation of soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and metal(loid)s was performed. Two soil remediation options with biochar (on- and off-site) are considered and compared to landfilling. Read More

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February 2021

Traffic-related microplastic particles, metals, and organic pollutants in an urban area under reconstruction.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 7;774:145503. Epub 2021 Feb 7.

VTI, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden; Geology and Geotechnics, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.

In urban environments, particularly areas under reconstruction, metals, organic pollutants (OP), and microplastics (MP), are released in large amounts due to heavy traffic. Road runoff, a major transport route for urban pollutants, contributes significantly to a deteriorated water quality in receiving waters. This study was conducted in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is unique because it simultaneously investigates the occurrence of OP, metals, and MP on roads and in stormwater from an urban area under reconstruction. Read More

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February 2021

Mutagenic and Cancer Risk Estimation of Particulate Bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from the Emission of Different Biomass Fuels.

Chem Res Toxicol 2021 Mar 16;34(3):743-753. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Chemistry, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282005, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Smoke samples from combustion of different biomass fuels were analyzed for the particulate bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic nature. Out of 16 priority PAHs, 11 PAHs were detected in the emission of fuels, while the remaining 5 PAHs (chrysene, benzo[]fluoranthene, benzo[]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, and benzo[,,]perylene) were below the detection limit. The highest emission factor for the sum of all the PAHs was found for coal (353. Read More

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Cooking activities in a domestic kitchen: Chemical and toxicological profiling of emissions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 2;772:145412. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Centre for Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Egyetem str. 10, 8200 Veszprém, Hungary.

To obtain emission factors and cooking-related chemical signatures, a monitoring campaign was carried out in a modern kitchen where different dishes of the Latin cuisine were prepared. Particulate matter (PM, PM and PM) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were continuously measured. Passive tubes for carbonyls and a high volume PM sampler were simultaneously used. Read More

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Fuel Aromaticity Promotes Low-Temperature Nucleation Processes of Elemental Carbon from Biomass and Coal Combustion.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Feb 2;55(4):2532-2540. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Particle Pollution and Prevention (LAP3), Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, P.R. China.

Significant elemental carbon (EC) emissions from low-temperature solid fuel combustion cannot be explained by classical mechanisms ascribing EC to higher-temperature condensation (> 850 °C). The importance of fuel composition in promoting EC nucleation was investigated by studying EC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation at multiple-ignition temperatures (300-900 °C) using fuels with different aromatic contents (i.e. Read More

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February 2021

Emissions of particulate PAHs from solid fuel combustion in indoor cookstoves.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 26;771:145411. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Residential solid fuel combustion is a major emission source of PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in most developing countries, including China; however, accurate estimates of PAH emissions are often challenged by limited real-world emission factors (EFs) under field conditions, which can hardly be repeated in laboratory-controlled tests. In this study, a series of field measurements was conducted to determine the emissions of 28 PAHs from different fuel-stove combinations. A total of 14 fuel-stove combinations were studied. Read More

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Nitrated- and oxygenated-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in urban soil from Nepal: Source assessment, air-soil exchange, and soil-air partitioning.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 26;211:111951. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Environmental Science, Central University of South Bihar, SH-7 Gaya-Panchanpur Road, Gaya 824236, Bihar, INDIA.

In contrast to more frequently investigated priority pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), only little is known about the fate and distribution of nitrated- and oxygenated-PAHs (NPAHs and OPAHs) in urban soils, particularly in Indian sub-continent. Moreover, experimental data on air-soil exchange and soil-air partitioning are also lacking, which is critical in assessing the partitioning, fugacity coefficient, and secondary emission of PAH-derivatives. Hence, this article provides an insight into the fate, sources, air-soil exchange, and soil-air partitioning of PAH-derivatives on a molecular basis. Read More

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Multi-year Analyses Reveal Different Trends, Sources, and Implications for Source-Related Human Health Risks of Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Feb 29;55(4):2254-2264. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Air Quality Processes Research Section, Environment and Climate Change Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, Ontario M3H 5T4, Canada.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of high concern to public health due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. Here, we present the first comprehensive and quantitative analysis of sources, potential source regions according to source sectors and source-related human health risks of multi-year atmospheric measurements of PAHs in the Canadian Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The highest PAH concentrations were observed at a rural residential site (Egbert), followed by two regionally representative remote sites [Point Petre (PPT) and Burnt Island]. Read More

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February 2021

Characteristics and unique sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 at a highland background site in northwestern China.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 18;274:116527. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan; Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitro-PAHs (NPAHs) in PM were first observed at a background site (Yuzhong site: YZ site) in the northwestern highlands of China in five seasonal campaigns. Compared with major northwestern cities, PAHs and NPAHs at the YZ site were at a lower level but showed consistent seasonal differences. The PAH and NPAH concentrations peaked in the winter campaigns, which were 36. Read More

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[C]meta-hydroxyephedrine PET evaluation in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension: Effects of carvedilol of right ventricular sympathetic function.

J Nucl Cardiol 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Molecular Function and Imaging Program, The National Cardiac PET Centre, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine and the Cardiac Research Methods Centre, University of Ottawa Heart Institute and University of Ottawa, 40 Ruskin Street, Ottawa, ON, K1Y 4W7, Canada.

Background: Little is known about the sequelae of chronic sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and right heart failure (RHF). We aimed to, (1) validate the use of [11C]-meta-hydroxyephedrine (HED) for assessing right ventricular (RV) SNS integrity, and (2) determine the effects of β-receptor blockade on ventricular function and myocardial SNS activity in a PAH rat model.

Methods: PAH was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 36) using the Sugen+chronic hypoxia model. Read More

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January 2021

Accurate and ultrasensitive determination of 72 parent and halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a variety of environmental samples via gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

Chemosphere 2021 May 2;271:129535. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Graduate Division of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8526, Japan. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their halogenated derivatives (XPAHs) are ubiquitous in various environmental media. Analytical problems, however, make it difficult to accurately determine their concentrations. To develop a satisfactory analytical method suitable for a diversity of PAHs and XPAHs in multiple environmental samples, we evaluated three commercial analytical columns (DB-5MS, Select PAH, and Rxi-PAH) for better chromatographic separation and optimized the analytical conditions for gas chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Read More

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Chemical Characteristics of Atmospheric PM and PM at a Rural Site of Lijiang City, China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 20;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 20.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China.

Emissions from biomass burning are very serious in Southeast Asia and South Asia in April. In order to explore the effect of long-range transport of biomass emissions from the Indochina Peninsula in Southwest China during the period of the southeast monsoon season and to find out the main pollution sources in local atmospheric PM, a field campaign was conducted from 6-26 April 2011 in Lijiang, China. Twenty-four-hour PM and PM filter samples were collected, and inorganic ions, elements, and carbonaceous components (including organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrated PAHs (NPAHs)) were measured. Read More

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December 2020

[Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Apportionment of Soil PAHs in Shizuishan City Based on GIS and PMF Model].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2020 Dec;41(12):5656-5667

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021, China.

With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the content and pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban soils have been sources of widespread concern. Taking Shizuishan City as an example, the spatial distribution characteristics of PAHs in 156 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) from eight urban functional areas were analyzed. Single factor and Nemero composite indices, as well as a lifetime cancer risk increment model were used to evaluate PAHs pollution in soils. Read More

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December 2020

Association of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals with thyroid hormones in general adult population and potential mechanisms.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 13;762:144227. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Soonchunhyang University, Asan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Air pollution and fuel emissions are the common sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. Several studies have suggested potential associations between PAHs/heavy metals and thyroid hormones, however, reports have been inconsistent. In this study, we employed a subpopulation of the adults (n = 1254) who participated in the Korean National Environmental Health Survey 2015-2017, and investigated the association of PAHs and major heavy metals with thyroid hormones, and explored the underlying mechanisms of thyroid disruption. Read More

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Phase distribution and risk assessment of PAHs in ambient air of Hamadan, Iran.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Feb 22;209:111807. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Faculty of Chemistry, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran. Electronic address:

In the present study, both gaseous and particulate (PM with dae <2.5 µm) phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in the ambient air of Hamadan city, Iran. For this reason, two low-volume samplers equipped with glass fiber filters were used for sampling of particulate phase (N = 30) and XAD-2 sorbent tubes were applied for sampling gaseous phase of PAHs (N = 30). Read More

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February 2021

Nitric oxide-dependent biodegradation of phenanthrene and fluoranthene: The co-occurrence of anaerobic and intra-aerobic pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 8;760:144032. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, People's Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science, College of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution as well as the emissions of nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (NO) in denitrification processes are currently two environmental issues of great concern. Although bioremediation of PAHs under denitrification is considered a promising approach, denitrification was an important contributor to NO and NO emissions. This long-term study confirmed for the first time that microorganisms could utilize NO to efficiently degrade phenanthrene and fluoranthene. Read More

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Urinary carboxylic acid metabolites as possible novel biomarkers of exposures to alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Environ Int 2021 Feb 16;147:106325. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Jonathan and Karin Fielding School of Public Health, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, United States. Electronic address:

Previous studies have found that alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) were more abundant in petrogenic sources (e.g., crude oil and its refined products) than pyrogenic sources of incomplete combustion. Read More

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February 2021