21,611 results match your criteria overview mechanisms


Mechanisms of viral persistence in the brain and therapeutic approaches.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Section of Infections of the Nervous System, National Institute of Neurological, Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

There is growing recognition of the diversity of viruses that can infect the cells of the central nervous system (CNS). While the majority of CNS infections are successfully cleared by the immune response, some viral infections persist in the CNS. As opposed to resolved infections, persistent viruses can contribute to ongoing tissue damage and neuroinflammatory processes. Read More

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Emerging Roles of Long Non-coding RNAs in Uterine Leiomyoma Pathogenesis: a Review.

Reprod Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medical Genetics, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Koodakyar St., Velenjak Ave, Chamran Highway, Tehran, Iran.

Uterine leiomyoma (UL), as the most prevalent type of women's health disorders, is a benign tumor that originates from the smooth muscle cell layer of the uterus. A great number of associated complications are observed including infertility, miscarriage, bleeding, pain, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, and dyspareunia. Although the etiology of UL is largely undefined, environmental and genetic factors are witnessed to engage in the UL development. Read More

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Pathogenicity and Virulence of : Intracellular replication and host response.

Virulence 2021 Dec;12(1):1122-1144

Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.

Bacteria of the genus are natural pathogens of amoebae that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans called Legionnaires' Disease. Human disease results from inhalation of -contaminated aerosols and subsequent bacterial replication within alveolar macrophages. pathogenicity in humans has resulted from extensive co-evolution with diverse genera of amoebae. Read More

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December 2021

Biodegradable Materials for Sustainable Health Monitoring Devices.

ACS Appl Bio Mater 2021 Jan 23;4(1):163-194. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Bendable Electronics and Sensing Technologies (BEST) Group, James Watt School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, G12 8QQ Glasgow, U.K.

The recent advent of biodegradable materials has offered huge opportunity to transform healthcare technologies by enabling sensors that degrade naturally after use. The implantable electronic systems made from such materials eliminate the need for extraction or reoperation, minimize chronic inflammatory responses, and hence offer attractive propositions for future biomedical technology. The eco-friendly sensor systems developed from degradable materials could also help mitigate some of the major environmental issues by reducing the volume of electronic or medical waste produced and, in turn, the carbon footprint. Read More

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January 2021

Fabrication and Materials Integration of Flexible Humidity Sensors for Emerging Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 25;6(13):8744-8753. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul 34956, Turkey.

In the past decade, humidity measurements have ubiquitously gained consideration in the wide range of application paradigms such as industrial predictive maintenance, instrumentation, automation, agriculture, climate monitoring, healthcare, and semiconductor industries. Accurate humidity measurements and cost-effective fabrication processes for large-volume and high-performance sensors with flexible form factors are essential to meet the stringent performance requirements of the emerging application areas. To address this need, recent efforts focus on development of innovative sensing modalities, process technologies, and exploration and integration of new materials to enable low-cost, robust, and flexible humidity sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity and linearity, large dynamic range, low hysteresis, and fast response time. Read More

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Mechanisms of Oocyte Maturation and Related Epigenetic Regulation.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 19;9:654028. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

State Key Laboratory of Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Meiosis is the basis of sexual reproduction. In female mammals, meiosis of oocytes starts before birth and sustains at the dictyate stage of meiotic prophase I before gonadotropins-induced ovulation happens. Once meiosis gets started, the oocytes undergo the leptotene, zygotene, and pachytene stages, and then arrest at the dictyate stage. Read More

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Control Strategies for Carcinogenic-Associated Helminthiases: An Integrated Overview.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 24;11:626672. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Experimental Pathology and Therapeutics Group, Research Center of Instituto Português de Oncologia, Porto, Portugal.

Helminthiases are extremely prevalent in the developing world. In addition, the chronic infection with some parasitic worms are classified as carcinogenic. Therefore, it is utmost importance to understand the parasite-host interactions, the mechanisms underlay carcinogenesis and how they could be counteracted. Read More

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IGFBP-1 in cancer: expression, molecular mechanisms, and potential clinical implications.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):813-832. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, The Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College Shantou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) belongs to the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, which plays an indispensable role in normal growth and development, and in the pathophysiology of various tumors. IGFBP-1 has been shown to be associated with the risk of various tumors, and has a vital function in regulating tumor behaviors such as proliferation, migration, invasion and adhesion through different molecular mechanisms. The biological actions of IGFBP-1 in cancer are found to be related to its phosphorylation state, and the IGF-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Read More

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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplantation in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Application and Challenges.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 24;15:653367. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is one of the leading causes of death and long-term disability worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapies have demonstrated improved outcomes for treating ICH-induced neuronal defects, and the neural network reconstruction and neurological function recovery were enhanced in rodent ICH models through the mechanisms of neurogenesis, angiogenesis, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis. However, many key issues associated with the survival, differentiation, and safety of grafted MSCs after ICH remain to be resolved, which hinder the clinical translation of MSC therapy. Read More

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Microfluidics for the study of mechanotransduction.

J Phys D Appl Phys 2020 May 2;53(22). Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Joint Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC and North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Mechanical forces regulate a diverse set of biological processes at cellular, tissue, and organismal length scales. Investigating the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie the conversion of mechanical forces to biological responses is challenged by limitations of traditional animal models and cell culture, including poor control over applied force and highly artificial cell culture environments. Recent advances in fabrication methods and material processing have enabled the development of microfluidic platforms that provide precise control over the mechanical microenvironment of cultured cells. Read More

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Elucidating molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors in melanoma using a microfluidic device and deep sequencing.

Genomics Inform 2021 Mar 15;19(1):e2. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Bio-information Science, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Korea.

BRAF inhibitors (e.g., vemurafenib) are widely used to treat metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation. Read More

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Mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes from 1 to 10: a comprehensive review.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq.

At the present time, the polymyxin antibiotic colistin is considered a last-line treatment option for severe human infections caused by multi-drug and carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Lately, the vast spread of colistin resistance among bacteria has got great attention worldwide due to its significant role as the last refuge in treating diseases caused by the resistant infectious agents. Therefore, the discovery of plasmid-mediated mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes raised global public health concerns as they can spread by horizontal transfer and have chances of global dissemination. Read More

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Fatigue in hypokinetic, hyperkinetic, and functional movement disorders.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

The emerging science of fatigue has soundly endorsed the need for its unified definition, shared terminology and increased recognition in neurological illnesses. Nevertheless, the real impact of fatigue remains under-recognized. Fatigue describes a sense of tiredness, lack of energy or need for increased effort often perceived as overwhelming, pervasive, and disabling. Read More

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Pathophysiological Roles of Cell Surface and Extracellular Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Their Molecular Mechanisms.

Br J Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medicine, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology; and the Key Laboratory for Drug Target Researches and Pharmacodynamic Evaluation of Hubei Province, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China.

Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the prototypic member of the thiol isomerase family that catalyzes disulfide bond rearrangement. Initially identified in the endoplasmic reticulum as folding catalysts, PDI and other members in its family have also been widely reported to reside on the cell surface and in the extracellular matrix. Although how PDI is exported and retained on the cell surface remains a subject of debate, this unique pool of PDI is emerging to be an important mechanism underlying the redox regulation of protein sulfhydryls that are critical for the cellular activities under various disease conditions. Read More

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Innovations and paradigm shifts in atrial fibrillation ablation.

Europace 2021 Apr;23(Supplement_2):ii23-ii27

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation has seen important changes in the past decades. Advancements have especially been made in the field of non-pharmacological treatment of this disease. Patients in whom a rhythm control strategy is chosen the place of catheter ablation has become more frontline therapy in the past years. Read More

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Astrocytes in cocaine addiction and beyond.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Drug addiction remains a key biomedical challenge facing current neuroscience research. In addition to neural mechanisms, the focus of the vast majority of studies to date, astrocytes have been increasingly recognized as an "accomplice." According to the tripartite synapse model, astrocytes critically regulate nearby pre- and postsynaptic neuronal substrates to craft experience-dependent synaptic plasticity, including synapse formation and elimination. Read More

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Psychedelic Medicines in Major Depression: Progress and Future Challenges.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:515-533

ICEERS (International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research & Service), Barcelona, Spain.

The volume of research on the therapeutic use of psychedelic drugs has been increasing during the last decades. Partly because of the need of innovative treatments in psychiatry, several studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of drugs like psilocybin or ayahuasca for a wide range of mental disorders, including major depression. The first section of this chapter will offer an introduction to psychedelic research, including a brief historical overview and discussions about appropriate terminology. Read More

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Neurogenesis and Neuroplasticity in Major Depression: Its Therapeutic Implication.

Authors:
Michel Bourin

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1305:157-173

Neurobiology of Mood Disorders, University of Nantes, Nantes, France.

The neurochemical model of depression, based on monoaminergic theories, does not allow on its own to understand the mechanism of action of antidepressants. This approach does not explain the gap between the immediate biochemical modulations induced by antidepressants and the time required for their clinical action. Several hypotheses have been developed to try to explain more precisely the action of these molecules, each of them involving mechanisms of receptor regulation. Read More

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Interleukin-17 Receptor D in Physiology, Inflammation and Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 23;11:656004. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Interleukin-17 receptor D (IL-17RD) is an evolutionarily conserved member of the IL-17 receptor family. Originally identified as a negative regulator of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling under the name of Sef (Similar expression to FGF genes), IL-17RD was subsequently reported to regulate other receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways. In addition, recent studies have shown that IL-17RD also modulates IL-17 and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Read More

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Color vision.

Handb Clin Neurol 2021 ;178:131-153

Laboratory of Sensorimotor Research, National Eye Institute, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Color is a fundamental aspect of normal visual experience. This chapter provides an overview of the role of color in human behavior, a survey of current knowledge regarding the genetic, retinal, and neural mechanisms that enable color vision, and a review of inherited and acquired defects of color vision including a discussion of diagnostic tests. Read More

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January 2021

Long non-coding RNA-regulated pathways in pancreatic β cells: Their role in diabetes.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2021 2;359:325-355. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular biology, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Spain; Biocruces Bizkaia Health Research Institute, Barakaldo, Spain; CIBER (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red) de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas (CIBERDEM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides that have not coding potential, but act as gene expression regulators through several molecular mechanisms. Several studies have identified tons of lncRNAs that are expressed in pancreatic β cells and many of them have been shown to have β cell-specific expression, suggesting a potential role in the regulation of basal β cell functions. Indeed, accumulating evidence based on numerous studies, has highlighted the implication of lncRNAs in the regulation of pancreatic β cell differentiation and proliferation, insulin synthesis and secretion, and apoptosis. Read More

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An overview of the literature on emerging pollutants: Chlorinated derivatives of Bisphenol A (ClBPA).

Environ Int 2021 Apr 5;153:106547. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

INSERM CIC1402, CHU Poitiers, Université de Poitiers, HEDEX Research Group, 86021 Poitiers Cedex, France; Biology-Pharmacy-Public Health Department, CHU de Poitiers, 2 rue de la Milétrie, 86201 Poitiers Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Context: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous contaminant with endocrine-disrupting effects in mammals. During chlorination treatment of drinking water, aqueous BPA can react with chlorine to form chlorinated derivatives of BPA (mono, di, tri and tetra-chlorinated derivatives) or ClBPA.

Objective: The aim of this study is to summarize and present the state of knowledge on human toxicological risk assessment of ClBPA. Read More

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Integrating single-molecule spectroscopy and simulations for the study of intrinsically disordered proteins.

Methods 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis 63110, MO, USA; Center for Science and Engineering of Living Systems (CSELS), Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Over the last two decades, intrinsically disordered proteins and protein regions (IDRs) have emerged from a niche corner of biophysics to be recognized as essential drivers of cellular function. Various techniques have provided fundamental insight into the function and dysfunction of IDRs. Among these techniques, single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular simulations have played a major role in shaping our modern understanding of the sequence-encoded conformational behavior of disordered proteins. Read More

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Polymeric Drug Delivery Systems by Additive Manufacturing.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University, Espoo 02150, Finland. Electronic address:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is gaining interests in drug delivery applications, offering innovative opportunities for the design and development of systems with complex geometry and programmed controlled release profile. In addition, polymer-based drug delivery systems can improve drug safety and efficacy and patient compliance and are the key materials in AM. Therefore, combining AM and polymers can be beneficial to overcome the existing limitations in the development of controlled release drug delivery systems. Read More

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Epithelial proliferation and cell cycle dysregulation in kidney injury and disease.

Kidney Int 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY; Renal Program, James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center at Bronx, NY. Electronic address:

Various cellular insult and injury to renal epithelial cells stimulate repair mechanisms to adapt and restore the organ homeostasis. Renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs) are endowed with regenerative capacity, which allows for a restoration of nephron function after acute kidney injury (AKI). However, recent evidence indicates that the repair is often incomplete, leading to maladaptive responses that promote the progression to CKD. Read More

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Exercise under heat stress: thermoregulation, hydration, performance implications and mitigation strategies.

Physiol Rev 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Human Movement Sciences, VU Amsterdam, Netherlands.

A rise in body core temperature and loss of body water via sweating are natural consequences of prolonged exercise in the heat. This review provides a comprehensive and integrative overview of how the human body responds to exercise under heat stress and the countermeasures that can be adopted to enhance aerobic performance under such environmental conditions. The fundamental concepts and physiological processes associated with thermoregulation and fluid balance are initially described, followed by a summary of methods to determine thermal strain and hydration status. Read More

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Role of the IGF-1 Axis in Overcoming Resistance in Breast Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 22;9:641449. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Medical, Surgery and Health Sciences, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Giuliano Isontina, Trieste, Italy.

Over the last two decades, many studies have demonstrated that the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is involved in a number of patho-physiological processes, as well as in the development of different types of solid tumors, including breast cancer (BC). Preclinical and clinical data showed that IGF-1 receptor (R) is overexpressed and hyper-phosphorylated in several subtypes of BCs. The central implications of this pathway in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis make it an important therapeutic target. Read More

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A Need for Consistency in Behavioral Phenotyping for ASD: Analysis of the Valproic Acid Model.

Autism Res Treat 2021 19;2021:8863256. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Neurosciences, Furman University, Greenville, SC, USA.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly prevalent and impairing neurodevelopmental disorder that affects 1 : 54 persons. Over the last several decades, the reported incidence of ASD in the US has increased potentially due to increased awareness and improved diagnostic measurement. Although ASD prevalence is increasing, the etiology of ASD remains relatively unknown. Read More

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Epigenetic Lens to Visualize the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) Infection in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Front Genet 2021 22;12:581726. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Herpes Neuropathogenesis Research Group, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In <20 years, we have witnessed three different epidemics with coronaviruses, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 in human populations, causing widespread mortality. SARS-CoV-2, through its rapid global spread, has led to the pandemic that we call COVID-19. As of February 1, 2021, the global infections linked to SARS-CoV-2 stand at 103,503,340, with 2,236,960 deaths, and 75,108,099 recoveries. Read More

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Signaling Pathways Involved in Nutrient Sensing Control in Cancer Stem Cells: An Overview.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:627745. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City, Mexico.

Cancer cells characteristically have a high proliferation rate. Because tumor growth depends on energy-consuming anabolic processes, including biosynthesis of protein, lipid, and nucleotides, many tumor-associated conditions, including intermittent oxygen deficiency due to insufficient vascularization, oxidative stress, and nutrient deprivation, results from fast growth. To cope with these environmental stressors, cancer cells, including cancer stem cells, must adapt their metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Read More

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