6,174 results match your criteria overview evolution

Controllable synthesis and self-template phase transition of hydrous TiO colloidal spheres for photo/electrochemical applications.

Adv Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 21;295:102493. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

MOE Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Systems Optimization, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206, China. Electronic address:

Hydrous TiO colloidal spheres (HTCS) derived from the direct precipitation of titanium alkoxides have attracted continuous interests since 1982. Entering the 21st century, rapid progress in the development of structure-directing agents (SDAs) have enabled reproducible and size-controllable synthesis of highly uniform HTCS with diameters in the nano- to micro-meter range. The availability of various HTCS provides versatile self-templating platforms for the targeted synthesis of nanoporous TiO and titanate spheres with tunable composition, crystallographic phases, and internal structures for a variety of advanced photo/electrochemical applications. Read More

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Preimplantation genetic testing in assisted reproduction.

Minerva Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Clínica EUGIN, Bogotá, Colombia.

In the last years technologies, have been developed that allow obtaining genetic information in less time and at lower cost, revolutionizing the genetic diagnosis in reproductive medicine, with availability of genetic tests from conception. High throughput sequencing analyzes have increased the ability to detect embryos with genetic diseases, which has contributed to the better selection of embryos for in vitro fertilization and, therefore, better reproductive outcomes. The preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) includes three sub-categories of PGT for aneuploidies (PGTA), PGT for single gene / monogenic disorders (PGT-M), and PGT for chromosome structural rearrangements (PGT-SR). Read More

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The X-ray fluorescence screening of multiple elements in herbarium specimens from the Neotropical region reveals new records of metal accumulation in plants.

Metallomics 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Institute for Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), 91198, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Plants have developed a diversity of strategies to take up and store essential metals in order to colonize various types of soils including mineralized soils. Yet, our knowledge of the capacity of plant species to accumulate metals is still fragmentary across the plant kingdom. In this study, we have used the X-Ray Fluorescence technology to analyze metal concentration in a wide diversity of species of the Neotropical flora that was not extensively investigated so far. Read More

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Prion Dissemination through the Environment and Medical Practices: Facts and Risks for Human Health.

Clin Microbiol Rev 2021 Jul 28:e0005919. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Brain Disorders, Department of Neurology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Prion diseases are a group of fatal, infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting various species of mammals, including humans. The infectious agent in these diseases, termed prion, is composed exclusively of a misfolded protein that can spread and multiply in the absence of genetic materials. In this article, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of prion replication, interindividual transmission, and dissemination in communities. Read More

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Oxygenation, Life, and the Planetary System during Earth's Middle History: An Overview.

Astrobiology 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Biogeology and Environmental Geology, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, China.

The long history of life on Earth has unfolded as a cause-and-effect relationship with the evolving amount of oxygen (O) in the oceans and atmosphere. Oxygen deficiency characterized our planet's first 2 billion years, yet evidence for biological O production and local enrichments in the surface ocean appear long before the first accumulations of O in the atmosphere roughly 2.4 to 2. Read More

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Smoldering multiple myeloma - Past, present, and future.

Blood Rev 2021 Jul 22:100869. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA; The John Conant Davis Myeloma and Amyloid Program, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) routinely precedes the development of multiple myeloma. While some patients experience aggressive disease, others have more indolent courses akin to those with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Much effort has been made to understand the pathobiological basis of this heterogeneity. Read More

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Myocardial Revascularization Surgery: JACC Historical Breakthroughs in Perspective.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Jul;78(4):365-383

Leipzig Heart Center, Leipzig Germany.

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was introduced in the 1960s as the first procedure for direct coronary artery revascularization and rapidly became one of the most common surgical procedures worldwide, with an overall total of more than 20 million operations performed. CABG continues to be the most common cardiac surgical procedure performed and has been one of the most carefully studied therapies. Best CABG techniques, optimal bypass conduits, and appropriate patient selection have been rigorously tested in landmark clinical trials, some of which have resolved controversy and most of which have stoked further debate and trials. Read More

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Posthumanism: Creation of 'New Men' Through Technological Innovation.

New Bioeth 2021 Jul 26:1-22. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

BioEdge Newsletter, https://www.bioedge.org/, New Media Foundation, Botany, Australia.

The posthumanist project proposes directing the evolution of human beings by promoting their improvement through technological means to create a variety of entities that will have few or no common characteristics with current humans. Its agenda is extremely broad and this study mostly addresses enhancement of the human organism through genetic modification techniques. An overview of posthumanist values and a brief discussion of its philosophical background provide a framework to understand its ideals. Read More

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Doping regulation in transition metal compounds for electrocatalysis.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, Key Laboratory of Strongly-Coupled Quantum Matter Physics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Surface and Interface Chemistry and Energy Catalysis of Anhui Higher Education Institutes, Department of Chemical Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, P. R. China.

In electrocatalysis, doping regulation has been considered as an effective method to modulate the active sites of catalysts, providing a powerful means for creating a large variety of highly efficient catalysts for various reactions. Of particular interest, there has been growing research concerning the doping of two-dimensional transition-metal compounds (TMCs) to optimize their electrocatalytic performance. Despite the previous achievements, mechanistic insights of doping regulation in TMCs for electrocatalysis are still lacking. Read More

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Regulatory, Legal, and Market Aspects of Smart Wearables for Cardiac Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 20;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Health Innovation Hub, Torstr. 223, 10785 Berlin, Germany.

In the area of cardiac monitoring, the use of digitally driven technologies is on the rise. While the development of medical products is advancing rapidly, allowing for new use-cases in cardiac monitoring and other areas, regulatory and legal requirements that govern market access are often evolving slowly, sometimes creating market barriers. This article gives a brief overview of the existing clinical studies regarding the use of smart wearables in cardiac monitoring and provides insight into the main regulatory and legal aspects that need to be considered when such products are intended to be used in a health care setting. Read More

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Condition Monitoring of Rail Transport Systems: A Bibliometric Performance Analysis and Systematic Literature Review.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Faculty of Computer Science and Food Science, Lomza State University of Applied Sciences, 18-400 Łomża, Poland.

Condition monitoring of rail transport systems has become a phenomenon of global interest over the past half a century. The approaches to condition monitoring of various rail transport systems-especially in the context of rail vehicle subsystem and track subsystem monitoring-have been evolving, and have become equally significant and challenging. The evolution of the approaches applied to rail systems' condition monitoring has followed manual maintenance, through methods connected to the application of sensors, up to the currently discussed methods and techniques focused on the mutual use of automation, data processing, and exchange. Read More

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Diagnostic evaluation and ablation treatments assessment in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 Jul 19;16(1):53. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Division of Radiology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori IRCCS Fondazione Pascale - IRCCS di Napoli, Naples, Italy.

This article provides an overview of diagnostic evaluation and ablation treatment assessment in Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). Only studies, in the English language from January 2010 to January 202, evaluating the diagnostic tools and assessment of ablative therapies in HCC patients were included. We found 173 clinical studies that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Read More

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Van der Waals Heterostructures-Recent Progress in Electrode Materials for Clean Energy Applications.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Jul 5;14(13). Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Chemistry, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada.

The unique layered morphology of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures give rise to a blended set of electrochemical properties from the 2D sheet components. Herein an overview of their potential in energy storage systems in place of precious metals is conducted. The most recent progress on vdW electrocatalysis covering the last three years of research is evaluated, with an emphasis on their catalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), oxygen evolution reaction (OER), and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Read More

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Solar-Powered Sustainable Water Production: State-of-the-Art Technologies for Sunlight-Energy-Water Nexus.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

School of Chemical Engineering and Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (AIBN), The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Alternative water resources (seawater, brackish water, atmospheric water, sewage, ) can be converted into clean freshwater high-efficiency, energy-saving, and cost-effective methods to cope with the global water crisis. Herein, we provide a comprehensive and systematic overview of various solar-powered technologies for alternative water utilization (.. Read More

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Potential Therapeutic Targets and Vaccine Development for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Pandemic Management: A Review on the Recent Update.

Front Immunol 2021 30;12:658519. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología (IPNA), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones científicas (CSIS), Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic novel virus that has caused a massive pandemic called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide. Wuhan, a city in China became the epicenter of the outbreak of COVID-19 in December 2019. The disease was declared a pandemic globally by the World Health Organization (WHO) on 11 March 2020. Read More

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The hoverfly and the wasp: A critique of the hallmarks of aging as a paradigm.

Ageing Res Rev 2021 Jul 13;70:101407. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Integrative Genomics of Ageing Group, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L7 8TX, United Kingdom.

With the goal of representing common denominators of aging in different organisms López-Otín et al. in 2013 described nine hallmarks of aging. Since then, this representation has become a major reference point for the biogerontology field. Read More

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Strategies for Recovering an Embolized Percutaneous Device.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Jul 16;23(9):123. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Cardiology, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, 2775 Laurel Street, 9th Floor, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 1M9, Canada.

Purpose Of Review: Device embolization is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication of transcatheter structural heart interventions and may require prompt intervention. The present work aims to provide an overview of strategies for device retrievals in order to better guide the evaluation and management of device embolization.

Recent Findings: Although the evolution of transcatheter device therapies has had a tremendous impact on the management in structural heart disease, availability of various retrieval devices, knowledge in how to use them, and multidisciplinary collaboration are key for successful device retrieval. Read More

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Artificial intelligence in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging: a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):820

Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has been widely applied to medical imaging. The use of AI for emission computed tomography, particularly single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) emerged nearly 30 years ago but has been accelerated in recent years due to the development of AI technology. In this review, we will describe and discuss the progress of AI technology in SPECT imaging. Read More

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Occurrence data for the two cryptic species of (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

Biodivers Data J 2021 1;9:e68860. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

ANSES-Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux, Montpellier, France ANSES-Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux Montpellier France.

Background: is a psyllid that has been known since 1998 as the vector of the bacterium ' Phytoplasma prunorum', responsible for the European stone fruit yellows (ESFY), a disease that affects species of . This disease is one of the major limiting factors for the production of stone fruits, most notably apricot () and Japanese plum (), in all EU stone fruit-growing areas. The psyllid vector is widespread in the Western Palearctic and evidence for the presence of the phytoplasma that it transmits to species of has been found in 15 of the 27 EU countries. Read More

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Evolution of knowledge on meniscal biomechanics: a 40 year perspective.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jul 15;22(1):625. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Musculoskeletal Translational Innovation Initiative, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, RN123, Boston, MA, 02215, USA.

Background: Knowledge regarding the biomechanics of the meniscus has grown exponentially throughout the last four decades. Numerous studies have helped develop this knowledge, but these studies have varied widely in their approach to analyzing the meniscus. As one of the subcategories of mechanical phenomena Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms, mechanical stress was introduced in 1973. Read More

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Taphonomy of marine vertebrates of the Pisco Formation (Miocene, Peru): Insights into the origin of an outstanding Fossil-Lagerstätte.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(7):e0254395. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

The Miocene Pisco Formation, broadly exposed in the Ica Desert of southern Peru, is among the most outstanding Cenozoic marine Fossil-Lagerstätten worldwide. It is renowned for its exceptional preservation and abundance of vertebrate fossils, including a rich assemblage of whales and dolphins (Cetacea). Here, we integrate taphonomic data on 890 marine vertebrate fossils, gathered through 16 different localities. Read More

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[The "vulnerable person" and the role of the treating physician].

Rev Med Suisse 2021 Jul;17(745):1326-1329

Avocat·e, PMA Pedrazzini Martin-Achard Avocats, 11 rue De-Candolle, 1205 Genève.

One major concern in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic has been to ensure the protection of certain categories of population considered to be at especially high risk in the event of an infection. This article gives an overview of the legal status of the «vulnerable» person in Switzerland and explores the role of the treating physician in this context, particularly with regard to labour law. The physician will have to assess the status of «vulnerable person» and, where applicable, issue a vulnerability certificate that can be presented to the employer. Read More

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Nucleotide Composition and Codon Usage Across Viruses and Their Respective Hosts.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:646300. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Laboratorio de Genómica Evolutiva, Departamento de Biología Celular y Molecular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay.

The genetic material of the three domains of life (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryota) is always double-stranded DNA, and their GC content (molar content of guanine plus cytosine) varies between ≈ 13% and ≈ 75%. Nucleotide composition is the simplest way of characterizing genomes. Despite this simplicity, it has several implications. Read More

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The gut microbiome: what the oncologist ought to know.

Br J Cancer 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology, King's College London, London, UK.

The gut microbiome (GM) has been implicated in a vast number of human pathologies and has become a focus of oncology research over the past 5 years. The normal gut microbiota imparts specific function in host nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic and drug metabolism, maintenance of structural integrity of the gut mucosal barrier, immunomodulation and protection against pathogens. Strong evidence is emerging to support the effects of the GM on the development of some malignancies but also on responses to cancer therapies, most notably, immune checkpoint inhibition. Read More

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Health disparities of African Americans in reproductive medicine.

Samantha F Butts

Fertil Steril 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Pennsylvania State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

The first paper describing an association between African American race, infertility prevalence, and outcomes of fertility treatments was published more than 20 years ago, calling initial attention to differences in how infertility is experienced, diagnosed, and managed in African Americans. Since that initial publication, multiple other studies have explored African American race and its association with elements of the fertility spectrum-disparities that have been durable over time. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the evolution of aspects of this research focusing on the outcomes of infertility treatments and barriers to access. Read More

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Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactions Mediated by Covalent Organic Frameworks and Related Extended Organic Materials.

Front Chem 2021 24;9:708312. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute for Advanced Research in Chemical Sciences (IAdChem), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

Covalent Organic Frameworks (COFs) and related extended organic materials have been widely used as photocatalysts in the last few years. Such interest arises from the wide range of covalent linkages employed in their construction, which offer many possibilities to design extended frameworks and to link photoactive building blocks. Thus, the potential utility of predesigned organic photoactive fragments can be synergistically added to the inherent advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, such as recyclability and easy separation of catalyst. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Melatonin in Plants: An Example of Evolution of Literature.

Front Plant Sci 2021 18;12:683047. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Kelowna, BC, Canada.

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine) is a mammalian neurohormone, antioxidant and signaling molecule that was first discovered in plants in 1995. The first studies investigated plant melatonin from a human perspective quantifying melatonin in foods and medicinal plants and questioning whether its presence could explain the activity of some plants as medicines. Starting with these first handful of studies in the late 1990s, plant melatonin research has blossomed into a vibrant and active area of investigation and melatonin has been found to play critical roles in mediating plant responses and development at every stage of the plant life cycle from pollen and embryo development through seed germination, vegetative growth and stress response. Read More

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Credentialing, Certification, and Peer Review Essentials for the Neurosurgeon.

World Neurosurg 2021 Jul;151:364-369

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Rochester Regional Health, Rochester, New York, USA.

Credentialing and certification are essential processes during hiring to ensure that the physician is competent and possesses the qualifications and skill sets claimed. Peer review ensures the continuing evolution of these skills to meet a standard of care. We have provided an overview and discussion of these processes in the United States. Read More

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History of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Trip Down Memory Lane.

Neuroscience 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, PSL Research University, EPHE, INSERM, U1077, GIP Cyceron, CHU de Caen, Neuropsychologie et Imagerie de la Mémoire Humaine, 14000 Caen, France.

The history of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is closely linked to our improved understanding of memory systems, be it in normal functioning or altered due to pathologies. Over the years, brain imaging using MRI has moved from simple volumetric imaging to complex analysis using multiple sequences, allowing the measurement of microstructural integrity and brain activation through a dedicated task or at rest. This review aims at showing how the advent and evolution of magnetic resonance imaging has shaped a better understanding of memory and brain function in humans. Read More

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The past, present, and future of remote patient monitoring in spine care: an overview.

Eur Spine J 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis Street, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Purpose: Remote patient monitoring (RPM) has revolutionized the landscape of healthcare. From humble beginnings rooted in landline home telephone calls to present-day devices with near instantaneous wireless connectivity, the evolution of technology has ushered in an era of digital medicine and remote care. Presently, a vast array of healthcare data points can be automatically generated, analyzed, and forwarded to providers to supplement clinical decision-making. Read More

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