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Manipulation of precession modes in all-permalloy nanostripe-nanopillar structured spin torque nano-oscillator driven by direct current.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China, Wuhan, Hubei, 272100, CHINA.

We investigated the dynamical behaviors of an all-permalloy structured spin-torque nano-oscillator (STNO) composed of a nanostripe with in-plane magneto-anisotropy (IMA) and a free magnetized nanopillar in the absence of a non-magnetic spacer via a micro-magnetic simulation. It is found the newly-devised STNO exhibits two stable precession modes of magnetization in the nanopillar: out-of-plane precession mode (OPP mode) and in-plane precession mode (IPP mode) under varying applied DC current densities. The switching between the two modes is generated in a certain current density, depending on geometries of the nanopillar as well as the nanostripe. Read More

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Case Study: Comparison of Swimsuits and Wetsuits Through Biomechanics and Energetics in Elite Female Open Water Swimmers.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Aug 3:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Aim: The authors investigated how the Arena Powerskin R-EVO Closed Back swimsuit and Arena Carbon Triwetsuit (full-sleeve wetsuit), both approved by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) regulations, affect biomechanics and energetics of 3 elite female open water (OW) swimmers at maximal and 4 submaximal swimming intensities.

Methods: Three elite female OW swimmers (OW1 = 24 y, 1.64 m, 60 kg; OW2 = 23 y, 1. Read More

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Physical Demands and Performance Indicators in Male Professional Cyclists During a Grand Tour: WorldTour Versus ProTeam Category.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2021 Aug 3:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Purpose: To compare the physical demands and performance indicators of male professional cyclists of 2 different categories (Union Cycliste Internationale WorldTour [WT] and ProTeam [PT]) during a cycling grand tour.

Methods: A WT team (n = 8, 31.4 [5. Read More

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Vasopressors independently associated with mortality in acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Cardiology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA.

Background: Increasing vasopressor dose is associated with increasing mortality in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock (AMICS). It is unknown whether the use of vasopressors is independently harmful or if their use is secondary to decreasing intrinsic cardiac power output (CPO). Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices enhance CPO. Read More

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Factors affecting the placement of agricultural best management practices in the agricultural conservation planning framework (ACPF) toolbox in the mid-atlantic region.

J Environ Qual 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Dep. Ecosystem Science and Management, Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA, 16802.

There has been a recent push to conduct spatially explicit landscape planning at finer hydrologic unit scales to mitigate diffuse pollution. The Agricultural Conservation and Planning Framework (ACPF) helps identify potential locations for agricultural conservation practices by using high-resolution soils and elevation data. This spatially explicit approach attempts to identify runoff and nutrient pathways, but output may be influenced by user-specified parameters and the properties of the digital elevation model (DEM) being used. Read More

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Time-resolved ion energy measurements using a retarding potential analyzer.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Jul;92(7):073306

Electric Propulsion Systems, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135, USA.

A retarding potential energy analyzer was used to obtain temporally resolved ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of a flowing laboratory plasma. The plasma of time varying ion energy was generated at 1 and 20 kHz using a commercial gridded ion source and modulated using a wideband power amplifier. Three plasma energy modulation setpoints were tested, and their IEDFs were reconstructed. Read More

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Carbon Nanotube Based Radio Frequency Transistors for K-Band Amplifiers.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Center for Carbon-Based Electronics, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

Owing to the combination of high carrier mobility and saturation velocity, low intrinsic capacitance, and excellent stability, the carbon nanotube (CNT) has been considered as a perfect semiconductor to construct radio frequency (RF) field-effect transistors (FETs) and circuits with an ultrahigh frequency band. However, the reported CNT RF FETs usually exhibited poor real performance indicated by the as-measured maximum oscillation frequency (), and then the amplifiers, which are the most important and fundamental RF circuits, suffered from a low power gain and a low frequency band. In this work, we build RF transistors on solution-derived randomly orientated CNT films with improved quality and uniformity. Read More

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Integration of ZnO nanorods with MOS capacitor for self-powered force sensors and nanogenerators.

Nanotechnology 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Engineering, University of Edinburgh, The University of Edinburgh Institute for Integrated Micro and Nano Systems, Scottish Microelectronics Centre, King's Buildings, Alexander Crum Brown Road, Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FF, UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND.

In this work, we present a novel force sensing device with zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) integrated with a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitor and encapsulated with Kapton tape. The details of the fabrication process and working principle of the integrated ZnO NRs-MOS capacitor as a force sensor and nanogenerator have been discussed. The fabricated ZnO-MOS device is tested for both the open-circuit and resistor-connected mode. Read More

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Characterization of PI/PVDF-TrFE Composite Nanofiber-Based Triboelectric Nanogenerators Depending on the Type of the Electrospinning System.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and BK21 FOUR ERICA-ACE Center, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdaehak-ro, Sangrok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 15588, Korea.

An electrospun nanofiber membrane significantly improves the electrical performances of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) due to its high surface area. In recent years, composite nanofibers were applied to a TENG using various electrospinning system types to further enhance the performance of TENGs; however, the effects of the systems on the energy harvesting capability of TENGs have not been investigated thoroughly. This study aims to fabricate polyimide/poly(vinylidene fluoride--trifluoroethylene) composite nanofiber-based TENGs with three different nozzle systems: single nozzle, conjugated nozzle, and multinozzles, and two different collectors: plate collector and drum collector. Read More

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Similar fat and carbohydrate oxidation in response to arm cycling exercise in persons with spinal cord injury versus able-bodied.

J Spinal Cord Med 2021 Aug 2:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, USA.

Context: Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) present with low fat oxidation that is associated with poor cardiometabolic health. This study compared changes in fat and carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation during moderate intensity continuous exercise in persons with SCI and able-bodied adults (AB).

Design: Repeated measures, within-subjects study. Read More

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Efficient Design Optimization of a Miniaturized Thermoelectric Generator for Electrically Active Implants Based on Parametric Model Order Reduction.

Int J Numer Method Biomed Eng 2021 Aug 1:e3517. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Department of Engineering, Jade University of Applied Sciences, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.

This research focuses on the design of a miniaturized thermoelectric generator (TEG) for electrically active implants. Its design optimization is performed using the finite element method. A simplified TEG model is obtained by replacing the thermocouple array with a single representative thermopile, which considers the number and fill factor of the thermocouples as parameters. Read More

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Impact of cold plasma on the biomolecules and organoleptic properties of foods: A review.

J Food Sci 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

Division of Food Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Loughborough, UK.

Cold plasma is formed by the nonthermal ionization of gas into free electrons, ions, reactive atomic and molecular species, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This cold plasma can be used to alter the surface of solid and liquid foods, and it offers multiple advantages over traditional thermal treatments, such as no thermal damage and increased output variation (due to the various input parameters gas, power, plasma type, etc.). Read More

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Improving the Electrochemical Properties of Carbon Paper as Cathodes for Microfluidic Fuel Cells by the Electrochemical Activation in Different Solutions.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 15;6(29):19153-19161. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, California 95064, United States.

Membraneless microfluidic fuel cells (MFCs) have garnered tremendous interest as micropower devices, which exploit the colaminar nature of two aqueous electrolytes to separate the anode and cathode and avoid the membrane usually used in a fuel cell. Our previous research shows that the performance of FeCl-based MFCs with catalyst-free cathodes is mainly limited by the cathode. To improve the power output of these MFCs, we activated the carbon paper cathode by an electrochemical method in the three solutions (NaSO, NaOH, and HSO) to improve the electrochemical characteristics of the carbon paper cathode. Read More

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Exogenous Ketone Salt Supplementation and Whole-Body Cooling Do Not Improve Short-Term Physical Performance.

Front Nutr 2021 15;8:663206. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Laboratory of Environmental Exercise Physiology, School of Kinesiology and Health Sciences, Laurentian University, Sudbury, ON, Canada.

Exogenous ketone supplementation and whole-body cooling (WBC) have shown to independently influence exercise metabolism. Whether readily available ketone salts, with and without WBC, would provide similar metabolic benefits during steady-state aerobic and time-trial performances was investigated. Nine active males (VO: 56. Read More

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Development and Characterization of a Biomimetic Totally Implantable Artificial Basilar Membrane System.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 16;9:693849. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sensory Organ Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Cochlear implants (CIs) have become the standard treatment for severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. Conventional CIs have some challenges, such as the use of extracorporeal devices, and high power consumption for frequency analysis. To overcome these, artificial basilar membranes (ABMs) made of piezoelectric materials have been studied. Read More

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Biventricular Impella (Bi-Pella) in Refractory Cardiogenic Shock: The First Case from the Middle East.

Case Rep Med 2021 22;2021:6676339. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Chest Disease Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kuwait, Kuwait.

Cardiogenic shock (CS) associated with biventricular failure (BiVF) carries significant in-hospital morbidity and mortality. We describe here the successful use of percutaneous biventricular Impella (Bi-Pella) for cardiogenic shock secondary to acute biventricular myocardial infarctions (AMI-CS), as guided by parameters such as mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi), central venous pressure (CVP), and cardiac power output (CPO). We aim to highlight the promising outcomes of timely implanted biventricular Impella in (AMI-CS). Read More

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Impact of the Stress Status of Employees on the Enterprise Technology Management Cost Through Matter-Element Analysis Under Psychological Health Education.

Front Psychol 2021 16;12:593813. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Law, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China.

In this study, in order to analyze the stress sources and stress-coping strategies of employees in construction enterprises, to explore the influencing factors of enterprise technical management cost, and to offer suggestions for mental health education of employees, 372 employees of Shandong Construction Engineering Group Co., Ltd. were selected for a questionnaire survey. Read More

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Hardware Implementation of Differential Oscillatory Neural Networks Using VO -Based Oscillators and Memristor-Bridge Circuits.

Front Neurosci 2021 16;15:674567. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla (CSIC), Universidad of Sevilla, Seville, Spain.

Oscillatory Neural Networks (ONNs) are currently arousing interest in the research community for their potential to implement very fast, ultra-low-power computing tasks by exploiting specific emerging technologies. From the architectural point of view, ONNs are based on the synchronization of oscillatory neurons in cognitive processing, as occurs in the human brain. As emerging technologies, VO and memristive devices show promising potential for the efficient implementation of ONNs. Read More

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Superior On-Ice Performance After Short-Interval vs. Long-Interval Training in Well-Trained Adolescent Ice Hockey Players.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Lillehammer, Norway; and Faculty of Kinesiology, Sport, and Recreation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Abstract: Rønnestad, BR, Haugen, OC, and Dæhlin, TE. Superior on-ice performance after short-interval vs long-interval training in well-trained adolescent ice hockey players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 9 weeks with 3 weekly sessions of short intervals (SIs) against long intervals (LIs) on endurance performance in well-trained adolescent ice hockey players. Read More

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Fractionated low-level laser irradiation on breast cancer (MCF 7 cells) treatment.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800, Penang, Malaysia.

Breast cancer is responsible for one of the top leading causes of cancer deaths among women. Radiotherapy (RT) uses high energy radiation to kill cancer cells, but this method has been reportedly linked to risks of toxicity. Post-therapeutic relapse from RT believed to be caused by its toxicity is one of the challenges encountered during tumour therapy. Read More

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Effectiveness of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with indocyanine green against the standard and fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans.

Lasers Med Sci 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Oral and Dental Disease Research Center, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an alternative approach. The current study aimed to investigate the efficacy of aPDT with indocyanine green (ICG) against two Candida albicans (C. albicans) strains. Read More

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Experimental demonstration of spatial rogue waves in the passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3773-3776

The generation of spatial rogue waves, or "hot spots," is demonstrated experimentally in the passively -switched Nd:YAG laser system operating in a low-power regime well below the self-focusing limit. Here, we report the dependence of rogue wave statistics on the number of transverse modes that interact in the laser cavity. Our observations show that spatial rogue waves are most likely to occur when the laser exhibits complex output beam configurations that are formed by a large number of interacting high-order transverse modes. Read More

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Low-threshold 1150  nm single-polarization single-frequency Yb-doped DFB fiber laser.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3705-3708

We demonstrate a stable single-polarization single-frequency distributed feedback Bragg (DFB) fiber laser at 1150 nm based on a 5 cm long Yb-doped fiber which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first demonstration of a Yb-doped fiber-based single-frequency laser with a wavelength longer than 1120 nm. The threshold is as low as 10 mW. The measured maximum output power is 10. Read More

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Distributed feedback lasers using surface gratings in Bragg waveguides.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3689-3692

This Letter presents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of a narrow-linewidth ∼790-800 edge-emitting semiconductor distributed feedback Bragg reflection waveguide diode laser (). The were fabricated using a ridge waveguide structure with 5th order, surface-etched grating forming the wavelength selective element. Unbonded devices with a 500 µm cavity length exhibited continuous wave threshold currents in the region of 25 mA with an output power of 2. Read More

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Yb:GdScO crystal for efficient ultrashort pulse lasers.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3641-3644

We present, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of thermal, optical, and laser properties of : for potentially efficient ultrashort pulse lasers. The stimulated emission cross section at 1025 nm (E//c) is 0.46×10 with the emission band width of 85 nm, even broader than the well-known :. Read More

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2.5  GHz harmonic mode locking from a femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser with high fundamental repetition rate.

Opt Lett 2021 Aug;46(15):3621-3624

We experimentally demonstrated a high repetition rate harmonic mode-locked fiber laser with a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and super mode suppression ratio. A novel approach using a laser with a high fundamental repetition rate and low harmonic order was presented. 2. Read More

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Structural and Chemical Modifications Towards High-Performance of Triboelectric Nanogenerators.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Jul 30;16(1):122. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, School of Engineering and Digital Sciences, Nazarbayev University, Kabanbay Batyr Ave. 53, Nur-Sultan, 010000, Kazakhstan.

Harvesting abundant mechanical energy has been considered one of the promising technologies for developing autonomous self-powered active sensors, power units, and Internet-of-Things devices. Among various energy harvesting technologies, the triboelectric harvesters based on contact electrification have recently attracted much attention because of their advantages such as high performance, light weight, and simple design. Since the first triboelectric energy-harvesting device was reported, the continuous investigations for improving the output power have been carried out. Read More

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Near-Infrared Light and Upconversion Nanoparticle Defined Nitric Oxide-Based Osteoporosis Targeting Therapy.

ACS Nano 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

The National Engineering Research Center for Bioengineering Drugs and the Technologies, Institute of Translational Medicine, Nanchang University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330088, P. R. China.

Osteoporosis is one of the most common diseases affecting bone metabolism. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous gas molecule involved in osteogenesis, can effectively promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. Although exogenous NO can reverse osteoporosis to a certain extent, the transitory half-life and short diffusion radius of NO severely limit its application. Read More

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Assessing the capacity of renewable power production for green energy system: a way forward towards zero carbon electrification.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

School of Finance and Economics, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, China.

Ghana suffers from inadequate power supply due to increasing demand though it is amongst the African nations with the highest access to electricity. This research aims to assess the techno-economic potential of wind and solar energy potential for Ghana's northern part. We employ the Weibull distribution function, levelized cost of energy, and net present cost metrics for the economic study. Read More

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Liquid medium annealing for fabricating durable perovskite solar cells with improved reproducibility.

Science 2021 07;373(6554):561-567

Beijing Key Laboratory for Theory and Technology of Advanced Battery Materials, Key Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Physics of Ministry of Education, BIC-ESAT, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871, P. R. China.

Solution processing of semiconductors is highly promising for the high-throughput production of cost-effective electronics and optoelectronics. Although hybrid perovskites have potential in various device applications, challenges remain in the development of high-quality materials with simultaneously improved processing reproducibility and scalability. Here, we report a liquid medium annealing (LMA) technology that creates a robust chemical environment and constant heating field to modulate crystal growth over the entire film. Read More

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