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A comparison of children's diet and movement behaviour patterns derived from three unsupervised multivariate methods.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(7):e0255203. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Behavioural patterns are typically derived using unsupervised multivariate methods such as principal component analysis (PCA), latent profile analysis (LPA) and cluster analysis (CA). Comparability and congruence between the patterns derived from these methods has not been previously investigated, thus it's unclear whether patterns from studies using different methods are directly comparable. This study aimed to compare behavioural patterns derived across diet, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep domains, using PCA, LPA and CA in a single dataset. Read More

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Calcitic-based stones protection by a low-fluorine modified methacrylic coating.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Golgi 19, 20133, Milano, Italy.

Atmospheric pollutants, such as NO, SO, and particulate matter, together with water percolation inside the stone pores, represent the main causes of cultural heritage decay. In order to avoid these undesired phenomena, the application of protective coatings represents a reliable solution. In this context, the present study focused on the synthesis of low-fluorine content methacrylic-based (MMA) polymeric resins characterized by seven F atoms (namely F7 monomer) in the lateral chains. Read More

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Exposure to long-range transported particulate matter and modeling age-related particle deposition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 61 Daehak-ro (yangho-dong), Gumi, Gyeongbuk, Korea.

Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is known to cause cardiovascular disease and increase mortality and morbidity. Asian dust (AD) is a meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia year-round but especially during the spring months. Here, we have characterized concentrations of PM and classified synoptic air flow trajectories using HYSPLIT model for Asian dust events (from March to April) in Jeju island, Korea. Read More

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"CoVidentary": An online exercise training program to reduce sedentary behaviours in children with type 1 diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Clin Transl Endocrinol 2021 Sep 10;25:100261. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Laboratory of Adapted Motor Activity (LAMA) - Department of Public Health, Experimental Medicine and Forensic Science, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

Aim: We explored the physical activity (PA) level and the variation in glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and during the lockdown. Then, we proposed an online training program supported by sport-science specialists.

Methods: Parents of children with T1D (<18 years) filled out an online survey. Read More

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September 2021

Association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and clinical outcomes among patients with heart failure: Findings from the China PEACE Prospective Heart Failure Study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 22;222:112517. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

National Clinical Research Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037, China. Electronic address:

Background: The health effects of air pollution on heart failure (HF) patients have not been adequately studied.

Objectives: We assessed the associations between long-term air pollution exposure and prognosis in HF patients.

Methods: HF patients were prospectively recruited from 52 hospitals throughout China between August 2016 and May 2018. Read More

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25-Hydroxyvitamin D reference percentiles and the role of their determinants among European children and adolescents.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology-BIPS, Bremen, Germany.

Background/objectives: To provide age- and sex-specific percentile curves of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by determinants from 3-<15 year-old European children, and to analyse how modifiable determinants influence 25(OH)D.

Subjects/methods: Serum samples were collected from children of eight European countries participating in the multicenter IDEFICS/I.Family cohort studies. Read More

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Design of the UWB Positioning System Simulator for LOS/NLOS Environments.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 12;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Faculty of Information Technology, University of Applied Science and Arts, Sonnenstr. 96, 44139 Dortmund, Germany.

UWB is a rapidly developing technology characterised by high positioning accuracy, additional data transferability, and communication security. Low costs and energy demand makes it a system that meets the requirements of smart cities (e.g. Read More

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Exposure to Air Pollution in Rural Malawi: Impact of Cooking Methods on Blood Pressure and Peak Expiratory Flow.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 20;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Strathclyde, James Weir Building, 75 Montrose Street, Glasgow G1 1XJ, UK.

We made static and personal PM measurements with a miniature monitor (RTI MicroPEM) to characterise the exposure of women cooking with wood and charcoal in indoor and outdoor locations in rural Malawi, together with measurements of blood pressure and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR). Mean PM concentrations of 1338 and 31 µg/m were observed 1 m from cookstove locations during cooking with wood and charcoal, respectively. Similarly, mean personal PM exposures of 706 and 94 µg/m were observed during cooking with wood and charcoal, respectively. Read More

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Impact of the Childcare Physical Activity (PLAY) Policy on Young Children's Physical Activity and Sedentary Time: A Pilot Clustered Randomized Controlled Trial.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 13;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7, Canada.

: The importance of daily physical activity is crucial for healthy development during the early years. Currently, a formal written physical activity policy is lacking in Canadian childcare centers, but holds promise for offering consistent physical activity opportunities. With eight recommendations, the Childcare PLAY policy is an evidence-informed, institutional-level document, targeting children's physical activity, outdoor play, and sedentary time. Read More

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Get Outside! Promoting Adolescent Health through Outdoor After-School Activity.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 6;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Health & Human Performance, Eastern Oregon University, La Grande, OR 97850, USA.

Background: The Get Outside: After School Activity Program (GO-ASAP) exemplifies how a rural community can utilize its natural resources and community partnerships to promote adolescent health.

Methods: A qualitative descriptive inquiry was conducted using convenience sampling. Data were collected from students ( = 13/2018; = 13/2019) via focus group and art-based method (2018 only) and parent ( = 6/2018) focus group. Read More

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Urban warming and artificial light alter dormancy in the flesh fly.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Jul 14;8(7):210866. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Biology and Geosciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka, Japan.

Seasonal changes in temperature and day length are distinct between rural and urban areas due to urban warming and the presence of artificial light at night. Many studies have focused on the impacts of these ubiquitous signatures on daily biological events, but empirical studies on their impacts on insect seasonality are limited. In the present study, we used the flesh fly as a model insect to determine the impacts of urbanization on the incidence and timing of diapause (dormancy), not only in the laboratory but also in rural and urban conditions. Read More

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Biohybrid generators based on living plants and artificial leaves: Influence of leaf motion and real wind outdoor energy harvesting.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Center for Micro-Biorobotics, Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, Pontedera, 56025, ITALY.

Plants translate wind energy into leaf fluttering and branch motion by reversible tissue deformation. Simultaneously, the plant's outermost structure, i.e. Read More

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Associations of near work time, watching TV, outdoors time, and parents' myopia with myopia among school children based on 38-year-old historical data.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Gerontology Research Center and Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyvaskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Purpose: To study the prevalence and risk factors of myopia with data from a questionnaire study conducted in 1983 among Finnish school children.

Methods: School children (n = 4 961) from the 1st, 5th and 8th grades of school (7-, 11- and 15-year-olds) in Central Finland were screened for vision followed by a questionnaire, which was returned by 4 352 (87.7%) participants. Read More

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Continued use of Warfarin in lower dose has safe maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with Prosthetic Heart Valves.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jul-Aug;37(4):933-938

Anjum Jalal, FRCS-CTh. Professor of Cardiac Surgery, Executive Director, Faisalabad Institute of Cardiology, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background And Objective: There has been concerns regarding the safety of Warfarin in pregnant females due to its teratogenic potential. At the same time warfarin provides best anticoagulation in patients with prosthetic valves. Various dosage regimes have been tried to strike a balance between safety of mother and the avoidance of congenital anomalies in the newborn. Read More

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November 2020

Creativity and Leisure During COVID-19: Examining the Relationship Between Leisure Activities, Motivations, and Psychological Well-Being.

Front Psychol 2021 5;12:609967. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

School of Psychology and Wellbeing, University of Buckingham, Buckingham, United Kingdom.

Social distancing policies have been implemented around the world to reduce the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These measures have included temporary restrictions on mass gatherings and the closure of public facilities, limiting the pursuit of leisure activities such as travel while allowing more time for at-home pursuits, including creative activities such as gardening and painting. Previous research has demonstrated the benefits of physical activity for psychological well-being during COVID-19, but less attention has been given to the potential benefits of creative pursuits, such as arts and music. Read More

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The Playing Brain. The Impact of Video Games on Cognition and Behavior in Pediatric Age at the Time of Lockdown: A Systematic Review.

Pediatr Rep 2021 Jul 14;13(3):401-415. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Psychology, Educational Science and Human Movement, University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy.

A growing number of children and adolescents play video games (VGs) for long amounts of time. The current outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic has significantly reduced outdoor activities and direct interpersonal relationships. Therefore, a higher use of VGs can become the response to stress and fear of illness. Read More

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Characterizing the modern light environment and its influence on circadian rhythms.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 Jul 21;288(1955):20210721. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Humans have largely supplanted natural light cycles with a variety of electric light sources and schedules misaligned with day-night cycles. Circadian disruption has been linked to a number of disease processes, but the extent of circadian disruption among the population is unknown. In this study, we measured light exposure and wrist temperature among residents of an urban area during each of the four seasons, as well as light illuminance in nearby outdoor locations. Read More

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Maneuverable gait selection for a novel fish-inspired robot using a CMAES-assisted workflow.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Polytechnic School, Arizona State University, Technology Center, 6075 Innovation Way West, Room 152, Mesa, Arizona, 85212, UNITED STATES.

Among underwater vehicles, fish-inspired designs are often selected for their efficient gaits; these designs, however, remain limited in their maneuverability, especially in confined spaces. This paper presents a new design for a fish-inspired robot with two degree-of-freedom pectoral fins and a single degree-of-freedom caudal fin. This robot has been designed to operate in open-channel canals in the presence of external disturbances. Read More

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Erythemal ultraviolet radiation exposure of high school rowers in Aotearoa/New Zealand.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jul 6;222:112254. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Social & Behavioural Research Unit, Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, University of Otago, P O Box 56, Dunedin, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Athletes who compete in outdoor sports can receive potentially harmful levels of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Rowing is a popular outdoor sport that takes place during the peak UVR season. Using electronic dosimeters attached to the shoulder strap of the rower's uniform, this study aimed to quantify the real-time solar UVR exposure experienced by high school rowers during competition. Read More

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Development and Validation of Prediction Equation of "Athens Authentic Marathon" Men's Race Speed.

Front Physiol 2021 1;12:682359. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aim: Despite the increasing popularity of outdoor endurance running races of different distances, little information exists about the role of training and physiological characteristics of recreational runners. The aim of the present study was (a) to examine the role of training and physiological characteristics on the performance of recreational marathon runners and (b) to develop a prediction equation of men's race time in the "Athens Authentic Marathon."

Methods: Recreational male marathon runners ( = 130, age 44. Read More

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Effect of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and private places on children's tobacco smoke exposure and respiratory health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Public Health 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Erasmus MC Sophia Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Department of Public Health, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands; Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Usher Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Smoke-free policies in outdoor areas and semi-private and private places (eg, cars) might reduce the health harms caused by tobacco smoke exposure (TSE). We aimed to investigate the effect of smoke-free policies covering outdoor areas or semi-private and private places on TSE and respiratory health in children, to inform policy.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched 13 electronic databases from date of inception to Jan 29, 2021, for published studies that assessed the effects of smoke-free policies in outdoor areas or semi-private or private places on TSE, respiratory health outcomes, or both, in children. Read More

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The associations of high academic performance with childhood ametropia prevalence and myopia development in China.

Ann Transl Med 2021 May;9(9):745

State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Centre, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Background: To assess associations of high academic performance with ametropia prevalence and myopia development in Chinese schoolchildren.

Methods: This multicohort observational study was performed in Guangdong, China. We first performed a cross-sectional cohort analysis of students in grades 1 to 9 from Yangjiang to evaluate the relationship between academic performance and refractive status on a yearly basis. Read More

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No Need for Landmarks: An Embodied Neural Controller for Robust Insect-Like Navigation Behaviors.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2021 Jul 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Bayesian filters have been considered to help refine and develop theoretical views on spatial cell functions for self-localization. However, extending a Bayesian filter to reproduce insect-like navigation behaviors (e.g. Read More

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The interplay between heated environment and active standing test on cardiovascular autonomic control in healthy individuals.

Physiol Meas 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Physiology and Pharmacology, Federal Fluminense University, Niteroi, 24220-900, BRAZIL.

Objective: To investigate the interplay between active standing and heat stress on cardiovascular autonomic modulation in healthy individuals.

Approach: Blood pressure (BP) and ECG were continuously recorded during 30 min in supine (SUP) and 6 min in orthostatic position (ORT) under thermal reference (TC; ~24°C) or heated environment (HOT; ~36°C) conditions, in a randomized order. All data collection was performed during the winter and spring seasons when typical outdoor temperatures are ~23Cº. Read More

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Contributions of internal emissions to peaks and incremental indoor PM in rural coal use households.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jul 9;288:117753. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Key Lab for Earth Surface Process, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. Electronic address:

Indoor air quality is critically important to the human as people spend most time indoors. Indoor PM is related to the outdoor levels, but more directly influenced by internal sources. Severe household air pollution from solid fuel use has been recognized as one major risk for human health especailly in rural area, however, the issue is significantly overlooked in most national air quality controls and intervention policies. Read More

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Superhydrophobic Artificial Compound Eye with High Transparency.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China.

Natural compound eyes have inspired the development of self-cleaning, waterproof, and antifog optical devices. However, the traditional methods generally sacrifice the transparency of optical units to introduce hydrophobicity, which significantly limits the practical applications of state-of-the-art hydrophobic technologies. This work aims to fabricate a microimaging system by combining photolithography, inkjet printing, and chemical growth. Read More

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Measuring Early Childhood Educators' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior-Related Self-Efficacy: A Systematic Review of Tools.

Health Educ Behav 2021 Aug;48(4):455-467

University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.

Early childhood educators' (ECEs) self-efficacy is often predictive of their ability and likelihood of promoting healthy activity behaviors in childcare settings. To date, ECEs' physical activity and sedentary behavior-related self-efficacy has been measured in a variety of ways in childcare-based research, creating difficulty when comparing across studies. To identify the different approaches ECEs' self-efficacy is assessed, the current study aimed to compare all existing tools that quantitatively measure physical activity and sedentary behavior-related self-efficacy of pre- and in-service ECEs. Read More

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Field observations and survey evidence to assess predictors of mask wearing across different outdoor activities in an Argentine city during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Appl Psychol Health Well Being 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Departamento de Psicología, Universidad Salesiana (UNISAL), Bahía Blanca, Argentina.

We here studied some potential factors underlying variation in compliance with preventive behaviors against COVID-19 by studying mask wearing during outdoor recreational activities in a midsize city of Argentina in 2020. The originality of present research relies on the complementation of observational (N = 15,507) and survey (N = 578) data and in assessing the determinants of and disposition to the same preventive behavior across activities. In Study 1, we did 8 weeks of unobtrusive systematic observation of mask wearing in outdoor recreational sites as a function of activity (walking, running, and cycling). Read More

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Estimating long-term time-resolved indoor PM of outdoor and indoor origin using easily obtainable inputs.

Indoor Air 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China.

To evaluate the separate impacts on human health and establish effective control strategies, it is crucial to estimate the contribution of outdoor infiltration and indoor emission to indoor PM in buildings. This study used an algorithm to automatically estimate the long-term time-resolved indoor PM of outdoor and indoor origin in real apartments with natural ventilation. The inputs for the algorithm were only the time-resolved indoor/outdoor PM concentrations and occupants' window actions, which were easily obtained from the low-cost sensors. Read More

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Later sleep timing predicts accelerated summer weight gain among elementary school children: a prospective observational study.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Jul 12;18(1):94. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pediatrics, USDA/ARS Children's Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, 1100 Bates Street, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.

Objectives And Background: Social demands of the school-year and summer environment may affect children's sleep patterns and circadian rhythms during these periods. The current study examined differences in children's sleep and circadian-related behaviors during the school-year and summer and explored the association between sleep and circadian parameters and change in body mass index (BMI) during these time periods.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study with 119 children ages 5 to 8 years with three sequential BMI assessments: early school-year (fall), late school-year (spring), and beginning of the following school-year in Houston, Texas, USA. Read More

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