5,022 results match your criteria originally derived


Using historical data to facilitate clinical prevention trials in Alzheimer disease? An analysis of longitudinal MCI (mild cognitive impairment) data sets.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2021 May 7;13(1):97. Epub 2021 May 7.

University Department of Geriatric Medicine FELIX PLATTER, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The Placebo Group Simulation Approach (PGSA) aims at partially replacing randomized placebo-controlled trials (RPCTs), making use of data from historical control groups in order to decrease the needed number of study participants exposed to lengthy placebo treatment. PGSA algorithms to create virtual control groups were originally derived from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) data of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. To produce more generalizable algorithms, we aimed to compile five different MCI databases in a heuristic manner to create a "standard control algorithm" for use in future clinical trials. Read More

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Aldoximes are precursors of auxins in Arabidopsis and maize.

New Phytol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611.

Two natural auxins, phenylacetic acid (PAA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), play crucial roles in plant growth and development. One route of IAA biosynthesis uses the glucosinolate intermediate indole-3-acetaldoxime (IAOx) as a precursor, which is thought to occur only in glucosinolate-producing plants in Brassicales. A recent study showed that overproducing phenylacetaldoxime (PAOx) in Arabidopsis increases PAA production. Read More

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A new fossil mantis shrimp and the convergent evolution of a lobster-like morphotype.

PeerJ 2021 16;9:e11124. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Biology II, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Planegg-Martinsried, Germany.

Eumalacostracan crustaceans all have a more or less stereotypic body organisation in the sense of tagmosis. Originally, this included a head with six segments (ocular segment plus five appendage-bearing segments), a thorax region with eight segments, and a pleon with six segments. Interestingly, despite these restrictions in variability in terms of tagmosis, the morphological diversity within Eumalacostraca is rather high. Read More

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Internalization and membrane activity of the antimicrobial peptide CGA-N12.

Biochem J 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou, China.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are conventional antibiotic alternatives due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and special mechanisms of action against pathogens. The antifungal peptide CGA-N12 was originally derived from human chromogranin A (CGA) and consists of the 65th to 76th amino acids of the CGA N-terminal region. In the present study, we found that CGA-N12 had fungicidal activity and exhibited time-dependent inhibition activity against Candida tropicalis. Read More

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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array-based signature of low hypodiploidy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Leukaemia Research Cytogenetics Group, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Level 6, Herschel Building, Brewery Lane, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Low hypodiploidy (30-39 chromosomes) is one of the most prevalent genetic subtypes among adults with ALL and is associated with a very poor outcome. Low hypodiploid clones can often undergo a chromosomal doubling generating a near-triploid clone (60-78 chromosomes). When cytogenetic techniques detect a near triploid clone, a diagnostic challenge may ensue in differentiating presumed duplicated low hypodiploidy from good risk high hyperdiploid ALL (51-67 chromosomes). Read More

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First report of eggplant mottled crinkle virus infecting eggplant in Greece.

Plant Dis 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Benaki Phytopathologiocal Institute, Plant Pathology, S. Delta 8, kifissia, Greece, 14561;

During winter 2020-2021, a severe virus-like disease outbreak was observed in eggplant ( L.) hybrids 'Monarca' (F1) and 'Angela' (F1) growing under protected conditions in Heraklion, Crete, Greece. In three greenhouses, the percentage of infected plants reached 100% leading to crop abandonment. Read More

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Synthesis and Structural Revision of Glyphaeaside C.

Org Lett 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

School of Chemistry and Molecular Bioscience, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522, Australia.

The iminosugar core of natural glyphaeaside C, originally assigned as a derivative of the piperidine natural product 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), has been revised as a derivative of 2,5-dideoxy-2,5-imino-l-mannitol (l-DMDP) by the total synthesis of its enantiomer. This revised l-DMDP-derived configuration is the first of its kind to be observed in nature. The prepared iminosugars displayed the nanomolar inhibition of bovine liver β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase. Read More

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The Multifaceted Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor Member X2 in Allergic Diseases and Beyond.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 23;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, 31008 Pamplona, Spain.

Recent research on mast cell biology has turned its focus on MRGPRX2, a new member of the Mas-related G protein-coupled subfamily of receptors (Mrgprs), originally described in nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia. MRGPRX2, a member of this group, is present not only in neurons but also in mast cells (MCs), specifically, and potentially in other cells of the immune system, such as basophils and eosinophils. As emerging new functions for this receptor are studied, a variety of both natural and pharmacologic ligands are being uncovered, linked to the ability to induce receptor-mediated MC activation and degranulation. Read More

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Hydrogen Bonding in Natural and Unnatural Base Pairs-A Local Vibrational Mode Study.

Molecules 2021 Apr 14;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Computational and Theoretical Chemistry Group (CATCO), Department of Chemistry, Southern Methodist University, 3215 Daniel Ave, Dallas, TX 75275-0314, USA.

In this work hydrogen bonding in a diverse set of 36 unnatural and the three natural Watson Crick base pairs adenine (A)-thymine (T), adenine (A)-uracil (U) and guanine (G)-cytosine (C) was assessed utilizing local vibrational force constants derived from the local mode analysis, originally introduced by Konkoli and Cremer as a unique bond strength measure based on vibrational spectroscopy. The local mode analysis was complemented by the topological analysis of the electronic density and the natural bond orbital analysis. The most interesting findings of our study are that (i) hydrogen bonding in Watson Crick base pairs is not exceptionally strong and (ii) the N-H⋯N is the most favorable hydrogen bond in both unnatural and natural base pairs while O-H⋯N/O bonds are the less favorable in unnatural base pairs and not found at all in natural base pairs. Read More

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The Role of Formyl Peptide Receptors in Permanent and Low-Grade Inflammation: Infection as a Model.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 2;22(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, University of Geneva Medical School, 1211 Genèva, Switzerland.

Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are cell surface pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), belonging to the chemoattractant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) family. They play a key role in the innate immune system, regulating both the initiation and the resolution of the inflammatory response. FPRs were originally identified as receptors with high binding affinity for bacteria or mitochondria N-formylated peptides. Read More

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RhoA: a dubious molecule in cardiac pathophysiology.

J Biomed Sci 2021 Apr 28;28(1):33. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Internal Medicine III (Cardiology, Angiology, Intensive Care), University Medical Center Kiel, Rosalind-Franklin Str. 12, 24105, Kiel, Germany.

The Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA) is the founding member of Rho GTPase superfamily originally studied in cancer cells where it was found to stimulate cell cycle progression and migration. RhoA acts as a master switch control of actin dynamics essential for maintaining cytoarchitecture of a cell. In the last two decades, however, RhoA has been coined and increasingly investigated as an essential molecule involved in signal transduction and regulation of gene transcription thereby affecting physiological functions such as cell division, survival, proliferation and migration. Read More

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Osteology of Unenlagia comahuensis (Theropoda, Paraves, Unenlagiidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Laboratorio de Anatomía Comparada y Evolución de los Vertebrados, Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Ángel Gallardo 470, Buenos Aires, C1405DJR, Argentina.

Unenlagia comahuensis was originally described as a phylogenetic link between nonavian dinosaurs and birds. Later it was interpreted by some authors as belonging to the deinonychosaurian clade Dromaeosauridae, and more recently as phylogenetically closer to birds than to dromaeosaurids. The only known specimen is represented by an incomplete skeleton, including vertebrae, incomplete scapular girdle, pelvis, and limbs, coming from Upper Cretaceous beds of Neuquén province, Patagonia, Argentina. Read More

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Identification and characterization of novel QTL conferring internal detoxification of aluminum in soybean.

J Exp Bot 2021 Apr 24. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Division of Plant Sciences and National Center for Soybean Biotechnology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Aluminum (Al) toxicity inhibits soybean root growth, leading to insufficient water and nutrient uptake. In this research, two soybean lines (Magellan and PI 567731) were identified differing in Al tolerance as determined by primary root length ratio (PRL_Ratio), total root length ratio (TRL_Ratio), and root tip number ratio (RTN_Ratio) under Al stress compared to unstressed controlled conditions. Serious root necrosis was observed in PI 567731, but not in Magellan under Al stress. Read More

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Dual RNA Sequencing Meta-analysis in Infection Identifies Host-Parasite Interactions.

mSystems 2021 Apr 20;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Dual RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) is the simultaneous transcriptomic analysis of interacting symbionts, for example, in malaria. Potential cross-species interactions identified by correlated gene expression might highlight interlinked signaling, metabolic, or gene regulatory pathways in addition to physically interacting proteins. Often, malaria studies address one of the interacting organisms-host or parasite-rendering the other "contamination. Read More

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Microsimulation modeling of extended annual CT screening among lung cancer cases in the National Lung Screening Trial.

Lung Cancer 2021 Apr 8;156:5-11. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medical Imaging, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Purpose: To microsimulate the effects of three additional annual CT screening rounds on lung cancer (LC) survival in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST).

Methods: We used multiple imputation to model the effect of additional screening in the full NLST cohort on the time to LC diagnosis and on LC death in those participants who were diagnosed with LC by the end of NLST. Nodule growth models were derived from a Dutch in-vivo study. Read More

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Description of mesoscale pattern formation in shallow convective cloud fields by using time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau and Swift-Hohenberg stochastic equations.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032312

Departamento de Sistemas Complejos, Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 20-364, 01000, Ciudad de México, CDMX, Mexico.

The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (or Allen-Cahn) equation and the Swift-Hohenberg equation, both added with a stochastic term, are proposed to describe cloud pattern formation and cloud regime phase transitions of shallow convective clouds organized in mesoscale systems. The starting point is the Hottovy-Stechmann linear spatiotemporal stochastic model for tropical precipitation, used to describe the dynamics of water vapor and tropical convection. By taking into account that shallow stratiform clouds are close to a self-organized criticality and that water vapor content is the order parameter, it is observed that sources must have nonlinear terms in the equation to include the dynamical feedback due to precipitation and evaporation. Read More

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Coherences and the thermodynamic uncertainty relation: Insights from quantum absorption refrigerators.

Phys Rev E 2021 Mar;103(3-1):032138

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, University of Toronto, 80 Saint George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6, Canada.

The thermodynamic uncertainty relation, originally derived for classical Markov-jump processes, provides a tradeoff relation between precision and dissipation, deepening our understanding of the performance of quantum thermal machines. Here, we examine the interplay of quantum system coherences and heat current fluctuations on the validity of the thermodynamics uncertainty relation in the quantum regime. To achieve the current statistics, we perform a full counting statistics simulation of the Redfield quantum master equation. Read More

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A large observational data study supporting the PROsPeR score classification in poor ovarian responders according to live birth outcome.

Hum Reprod 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Global Medical Affairs Fertility, R&D Biopharma, Merck Healthcare KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.

Study Question: Can the Poor Responder Outcome Prediction (PROsPeR) score identify live birth outcomes in subpopulations of patients with poor ovarian response (POR) defined according to the ESHRE Bologna criteria (female age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), number of oocytes retrieved during the previous cycle (PNO) after treatment with originator recombinant human follitropin alfa?

Summary Answer: The PROsPeR score discriminated the probability of live birth in patients with POR using observational data with fair discrimination (AUC ≅ 70%) and calibration, and the AUC losing less than 5% precision compared with a model developed using the observational data.

What Is Known Already: Although scoring systems for the likelihood of live birth after ART have been developed, their accuracy may be insufficient, as they have generally been developed in the general population with infertility and were not validated for patients with POR. The PROsPeR score was developed using data from the follitropin alfa (GONAL-f; Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany) arm of the Efficacy and Safety of Pergoveris in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ESPART) randomized controlled trial (RCT) and classifies women with POR as mild, moderate or severe, based upon three variables: female age, serum AMH level and number of oocytes retrieved during the previous cycle (PNO). Read More

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Potentiality of ghrelin as antioxidant and protective agent.

Redox Rep 2021 Dec;26(1):71-79

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Abdelmalek Essaadi University, Tetouan, Morocco.

Background: Oxidative stress is the result of cellular troubles related to aerobic metabolism. Furthermore, this stress is always associated with biological responses evoked by physical, chemical, environmental, and psychological factors. Several studies have developed many approaches of antioxidant defense to diminish the severity of many diseases. Read More

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December 2021

THE EFFICACY OF MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS AGAINST PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.

J Parasitol 2021 Mar;107(2):284-288

National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Nishi 2-13 Inada-cho, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555, Japan.

Malaria remains one of the most important infectious diseases in the world. In 2017 alone, approximately 219 million people were infected with malaria, and 435,000 people died of this disease. Plasmodium falciparum, which causes falciparum malaria, is becoming resistant to artemisinin (ART) in Southeast Asia; therefore, new antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. Read More

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Single Magnetic Particle Motion in Magnetomotive Ultrasound: An Analytical Model and Experimental Validation.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Apr 12;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Magnetomotive Ultrasound (MMUS) is an emerging imaging modality in which magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used as contrast agents. MNPs are driven by a time-varying magnetic force, and the resulting movement of the surrounding tissue is detected with a signal processing algorithm. However, there is currently no analytical model to quantitatively predict this magnetically-induced displacement. Read More

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Proinsulin-Reactive CD4 T Cells in the Islets of Type 1 Diabetes Organ Donors.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:622647. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, United States.

Proinsulin is an abundant protein that is selectively expressed by pancreatic beta cells and has been a focus for development of antigen-specific immunotherapies for type 1 diabetes (T1D). In this study, we sought to comprehensively evaluate reactivity to preproinsulin by CD4 T cells originally isolated from pancreatic islets of organ donors having T1D. We analyzed 187 T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes expressed by CD4 T cells obtained from six T1D donors and determined their response to 99 truncated preproinsulin peptide pools, in the presence of autologous B cells. Read More

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Function and evolution of allelic variation of Sr13 conferring resistance to stem rust in tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

Plant J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

USDA-ARS, Cereal Crops Research Unit, Edward T. Schafer Agricultural Research Center, Fargo, ND, 58102, United States.

Resistance gene Sr13 is one of the most important genes in durum wheat for controlling stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Read More

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[Application of CGRP-Related Monoclonal Antibodies in Migraine Management].

Authors:
Mamoru Shibata

Brain Nerve 2021 Apr;73(4):327-337

Department of Neurology, Tokyo Dental College Ichikawa General Hospital.

Migraine is a common and debilitating neurological disorder characterized by recurrent headaches of moderate-to-severe intensity. Because of its high prevalence, migraine causes a considerable financial burden on society. There is ample evidence showing that migraine is a complex neurological disorder that involves not only the trigeminovascular and autonomic systems, but also the hypothalamus and cerebral cortex. Read More

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The Interpretation of E-Motions in Faces and Bodies Derived from Static Artworks by Individuals with High Functioning Autistic Spectrum.

Vision (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;5(2). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Psychology, Università di Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy.

E-motions are defined as those affective states the expressions of which-conveyed either by static faces or body posture-embody a dynamic component and, consequently, convey a higher sense of dynamicity than other emotional expressions. An experiment is presented, aimed at testing whether e-motions are perceived as such also by individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), which have been associated with impairments in emotion recognition and in motion perception. To this aim we replicate with ASD individuals a study, originally conducted with typically developed individuals (TDs), in which we showed to both ASD and TD participants 14 bodiless heads and 14 headless bodies taken from eleven static artworks and four drawings. Read More

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On the Analysis of PM/FM Noise Radar Waveforms Considering Modulating Signals with Varied Stochastic Properties.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Brazilian Army Technological Center, 23020-470 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Noise Radar technology is the general term used to describe radar systems that employ realizations of a given stochastic process as transmit waveforms. Originally, carriers modulated in amplitude by a Gaussian random signal, derived from a hardware noise source, were taken into consideration, justifying the adopted nomenclature. With the advances made in hardware as well as the rise of the software defined noise radar concept, waveform design emerges as an important research area related to such systems. Read More

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Interstitial lung abnormality (ILA) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).

Eur J Radiol Open 2021 16;8:100336. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Center for Pulmonary Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

This review article aims to address mysteries existing between Interstitial Lung Abnormality (ILA) and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP). The concept and definition of ILA are based upon CT scans from multiple large-scale cohort studies, whereas the concept and definition of NSIP originally derived from pathology with evolution to multi-disciplinary diagnosis. NSIP is the diagnosis as Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) with clinical significance, whereas only a part of subjects with ILA have clinically significant ILD. Read More

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Draft Genome Sequence of Mobilitalea sibirica Strain P3M-3, the Sole Representative of the Genus .

Microbiol Resour Announc 2021 Apr 1;10(13). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Chair of Microbiology, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany

strain P3M-3 is a strictly anaerobic, halotolerant, organotrophic bacterium of the family that can utilize various plant-derived polysaccharides as its carbon source. The strain was originally isolated from a microbial mat in western Siberia (Russia). In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of P3M-3 based on Illumina paired-end sequencing. Read More

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The transportation, transformation and (bio)accumulation of pharmaceuticals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 24;781:146684. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Analytical, Environmental & Forensic Sciences, School of Population Health & Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences & Medicine, King's College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Soil dwelling organisms, plants and many primary consumers in food webs face the challenge of exposure to contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) present in terrestrial systems, including thousands of substances derived from pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The recent increase in the consumption of modern human or veterinary drugs has resulted in a surge of anthropogenic pharmaceuticals, frequently introduced into terrestrial environments via untreated/treated wastewater. Pharmaceuticals display diverse degradation and accumulation behaviours in receiving bodies, however their impact on soils has, at large, been overlooked. Read More

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An independent assessment of an artificial intelligence system for prostate cancer detection shows strong diagnostic accuracy.

Mod Pathol 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Pathology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Prostate cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for adult males in the US. The diagnosis of prostate carcinoma is usually made on prostate core needle biopsies obtained through a transrectal approach. These biopsies may account for a significant portion of the pathologists' workload, yet variability in the experience and expertise, as well as fatigue of the pathologist may adversely affect the reliability of cancer detection. Read More

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